Add experimental support for Windows VSS
[wimlib] / src / win32_capture.c
index 4556ba9..70d7fd7 100644 (file)
@@ -5,22 +5,20 @@
  */
 
 /*
- * Copyright (C) 2013, 2014 Eric Biggers
+ * Copyright (C) 2013, 2014, 2015 Eric Biggers
  *
- * This file is part of wimlib, a library for working with WIM files.
+ * This file is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
+ * the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free
+ * Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any
+ * later version.
  *
- * wimlib is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
- * terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
- * Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your option)
- * any later version.
- *
- * wimlib is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
- * WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR
- * A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more
+ * This file is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
+ * FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more
  * details.
  *
- * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
- * along with wimlib; if not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
+ * along with this file; if not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
  */
 
 #ifdef __WIN32__
 
 #include "wimlib/win32_common.h"
 
+#include "wimlib/assert.h"
+#include "wimlib/blob_table.h"
 #include "wimlib/capture.h"
 #include "wimlib/dentry.h"
 #include "wimlib/encoding.h"
 #include "wimlib/endianness.h"
 #include "wimlib/error.h"
-#include "wimlib/lookup_table.h"
 #include "wimlib/paths.h"
 #include "wimlib/reparse.h"
+#include "wimlib/win32_vss.h"
+#include "wimlib/wof.h"
 
-#include <errno.h>
-
-struct winnt_scan_stats {
+struct winnt_scan_ctx {
+       u32 vol_flags;
        unsigned long num_get_sd_access_denied;
        unsigned long num_get_sacl_priv_notheld;
-       unsigned long num_long_path_warnings;
+
+       /* True if WOF is definitely not attached to the volume being scanned;
+        * false if it may be  */
+       bool wof_not_attached;
+
+       /* A reference to the VSS snapshot being used, or NULL if none  */
+       struct vss_snapshot *snapshot;
 };
 
 static inline const wchar_t *
@@ -55,6 +61,135 @@ printable_path(const wchar_t *full_path)
        return full_path + 4;
 }
 
+/* Description of where data is located on a Windows filesystem  */
+struct windows_file {
+
+       /* Is the data the raw encrypted data of an EFS-encrypted file?  */
+       u64 is_encrypted : 1;
+
+       /* The file's LCN (logical cluster number) for sorting, or 0 if unknown.
+        */
+       u64 sort_key : 63;
+
+       /* A reference to the VSS snapshot containing the file, or NULL if none.
+        */
+       struct vss_snapshot *snapshot;
+
+       /* The path to the file.  If 'is_encrypted=0' this is an NT namespace
+        * path; if 'is_encrypted=1' this is a Win32 namespace path.  */
+       wchar_t path[];
+};
+
+/* Allocate a 'struct windows_file' to describe the location of a data stream.
+ */
+static struct windows_file *
+alloc_windows_file(bool is_encrypted, struct vss_snapshot *snapshot,
+                  const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars,
+                  const wchar_t *stream_name, size_t stream_name_nchars)
+{
+       struct windows_file *file;
+       wchar_t *p;
+
+       file = MALLOC(sizeof(struct windows_file) +
+                     (path_nchars + (stream_name_nchars ? 1 : 0) +
+                      stream_name_nchars + 1) * sizeof(wchar_t));
+       if (!file)
+               return NULL;
+
+       file->is_encrypted = is_encrypted;
+       file->sort_key = 0;
+       file->snapshot = vss_get_snapshot(snapshot);
+       p = wmempcpy(file->path, path, path_nchars);
+       if (stream_name_nchars) {
+               /* Named data stream  */
+               *p++ = L':';
+               p = wmempcpy(p, stream_name, stream_name_nchars);
+       }
+       *p = L'\0';
+       return file;
+}
+
+/* Add a stream, located on a Windows filesystem, to the specified WIM inode.
+ */
+static int
+add_stream(struct wim_inode *inode, bool is_encrypted,
+          struct vss_snapshot *snapshot, u64 size,
+          const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars,
+          int stream_type, const utf16lechar *stream_name, size_t stream_name_nchars,
+          struct list_head *unhashed_blobs)
+{
+       struct blob_descriptor *blob = NULL;
+       struct wim_inode_stream *strm;
+
+       /* If the stream is nonempty, create a blob descriptor for it.  */
+       if (size) {
+               blob = new_blob_descriptor();
+               if (!blob)
+                       goto err_nomem;
+
+               blob->windows_file = alloc_windows_file(is_encrypted, snapshot,
+                                                       path, path_nchars,
+                                                       stream_name,
+                                                       stream_name_nchars);
+               if (!blob->windows_file)
+                       goto err_nomem;
+
+               blob->blob_location = BLOB_IN_WINDOWS_FILE;
+               blob->file_inode = inode;
+               blob->size = size;
+       }
+
+       strm = inode_add_stream(inode, stream_type, stream_name, blob);
+       if (!strm)
+               goto err_nomem;
+
+       prepare_unhashed_blob(blob, inode, strm->stream_id, unhashed_blobs);
+       return 0;
+
+err_nomem:
+       free_blob_descriptor(blob);
+       return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+}
+
+struct windows_file *
+clone_windows_file(const struct windows_file *file)
+{
+       struct windows_file *new;
+
+       new = memdup(file, sizeof(struct windows_file) +
+                          (wcslen(file->path) + 1) * sizeof(wchar_t));
+       if (new)
+               vss_get_snapshot(new->snapshot);
+       return new;
+}
+
+void
+free_windows_file(struct windows_file *file)
+{
+       vss_put_snapshot(file->snapshot);
+       FREE(file);
+}
+
+int
+cmp_windows_files(const struct windows_file *file1,
+                 const struct windows_file *file2)
+{
+       /* Compare by starting LCN (logical cluster number)  */
+       int v = cmp_u64(file1->sort_key, file2->sort_key);
+       if (v)
+               return v;
+
+       /* Compare files by path: just a heuristic that will place files
+        * in the same directory next to each other.  */
+       return wcscmp(file1->path, file2->path);
+}
+
+const wchar_t *
+get_windows_file_path(const struct windows_file *file)
+{
+       return file->path;
+}
+
 /*
  * If cur_dir is not NULL, open an existing file relative to the already-open
  * directory cur_dir.
@@ -106,29 +241,21 @@ retry:
        return status;
 }
 
-/* Read the first @size bytes from the file, or named data stream of a file,
- * from which the stream entry @lte was created.  */
-int
-read_winnt_file_prefix(const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte, u64 size,
-                      consume_data_callback_t cb, void *cb_ctx)
+static int
+read_winnt_stream_prefix(const wchar_t *path, u64 size,
+                        const struct read_blob_callbacks *cbs)
 {
-       const wchar_t *path;
        HANDLE h;
        NTSTATUS status;
        u8 buf[BUFFER_SIZE];
        u64 bytes_remaining;
        int ret;
 
-       /* This is an NT namespace path.  */
-       path = lte->file_on_disk;
-
        status = winnt_openat(NULL, path, wcslen(path),
                              FILE_READ_DATA | SYNCHRONIZE, &h);
        if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
-               set_errno_from_nt_status(status);
-               ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("\"%ls\": Can't open for reading "
-                                "(status=0x%08"PRIx32")",
-                                printable_path(path), (u32)status);
+               winnt_error(status, L"\"%ls\": Can't open for reading",
+                           printable_path(path));
                return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
        }
 
@@ -143,19 +270,23 @@ read_winnt_file_prefix(const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte, u64 size,
 
                status = (*func_NtReadFile)(h, NULL, NULL, NULL,
                                            &iosb, buf, count, NULL, NULL);
-               if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
-                       set_errno_from_nt_status(status);
-                       ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("\"%ls\": Error reading data "
-                                        "(status=0x%08"PRIx32")",
-                                        printable_path(path), (u32)status);
-                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_READ;
+               if (unlikely(!NT_SUCCESS(status))) {
+                       if (status == STATUS_END_OF_FILE) {
+                               ERROR("\"%ls\": File was concurrently truncated",
+                                     printable_path(path));
+                               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_CONCURRENT_MODIFICATION_DETECTED;
+                       } else {
+                               winnt_error(status, L"\"%ls\": Error reading data",
+                                           printable_path(path));
+                               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_READ;
+                       }
                        break;
                }
 
                bytes_read = iosb.Information;
 
                bytes_remaining -= bytes_read;
-               ret = (*cb)(buf, bytes_read, cb_ctx);
+               ret = call_consume_chunk(buf, bytes_read, cbs);
                if (ret)
                        break;
        }
@@ -164,8 +295,7 @@ read_winnt_file_prefix(const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte, u64 size,
 }
 
 struct win32_encrypted_read_ctx {
-       consume_data_callback_t read_prefix_cb;
-       void *read_prefix_ctx;
+       const struct read_blob_callbacks *cbs;
        int wimlib_err_code;
        u64 bytes_remaining;
 };
@@ -180,54 +310,56 @@ win32_encrypted_export_cb(unsigned char *data, void *_ctx, unsigned long len)
        if (bytes_to_consume == 0)
                return ERROR_SUCCESS;
 
-       ret = (*ctx->read_prefix_cb)(data, bytes_to_consume, ctx->read_prefix_ctx);
+       ret = call_consume_chunk(data, bytes_to_consume, ctx->cbs);
        if (ret) {
                ctx->wimlib_err_code = ret;
-               /* Shouldn't matter what error code is returned here, as long as
-                * it isn't ERROR_SUCCESS.  */
+               /* It doesn't matter what error code is returned here, as long
+                * as it isn't ERROR_SUCCESS.  */
                return ERROR_READ_FAULT;
        }
        ctx->bytes_remaining -= bytes_to_consume;
        return ERROR_SUCCESS;
 }
 
-int
-read_win32_encrypted_file_prefix(const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte,
-                                u64 size,
-                                consume_data_callback_t cb, void *cb_ctx)
+static int
+read_win32_encrypted_file_prefix(const wchar_t *path, bool is_dir, u64 size,
+                                const struct read_blob_callbacks *cbs)
 {
        struct win32_encrypted_read_ctx export_ctx;
        DWORD err;
        void *file_ctx;
        int ret;
+       DWORD flags = 0;
+
+       if (is_dir)
+               flags |= CREATE_FOR_DIR;
 
-       export_ctx.read_prefix_cb = cb;
-       export_ctx.read_prefix_ctx = cb_ctx;
+       export_ctx.cbs = cbs;
        export_ctx.wimlib_err_code = 0;
        export_ctx.bytes_remaining = size;
 
-       err = OpenEncryptedFileRaw(lte->file_on_disk, 0, &file_ctx);
+       err = OpenEncryptedFileRaw(path, flags, &file_ctx);
        if (err != ERROR_SUCCESS) {
-               set_errno_from_win32_error(err);
-               ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Failed to open encrypted file \"%ls\" "
-                                "for raw read",
-                                printable_path(lte->file_on_disk));
+               win32_error(err,
+                           L"Failed to open encrypted file \"%ls\" for raw read",
+                           printable_path(path));
                return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
        }
        err = ReadEncryptedFileRaw(win32_encrypted_export_cb,
                                   &export_ctx, file_ctx);
        if (err != ERROR_SUCCESS) {
-               set_errno_from_win32_error(err);
-               ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Failed to read encrypted file \"%ls\"",
-                                printable_path(lte->file_on_disk));
                ret = export_ctx.wimlib_err_code;
-               if (ret == 0)
+               if (ret == 0) {
+                       win32_error(err,
+                                   L"Failed to read encrypted file \"%ls\"",
+                                   printable_path(path));
                        ret = WIMLIB_ERR_READ;
+               }
        } else if (export_ctx.bytes_remaining != 0) {
                ERROR("Only could read %"PRIu64" of %"PRIu64" bytes from "
-                     "encryted file \"%ls\"",
+                     "encrypted file \"%ls\"",
                      size - export_ctx.bytes_remaining, size,
-                     printable_path(lte->file_on_disk));
+                     printable_path(path));
                ret = WIMLIB_ERR_READ;
        } else {
                ret = 0;
@@ -236,10 +368,26 @@ read_win32_encrypted_file_prefix(const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte,
        return ret;
 }
 
+/* Read the first @size bytes from the file, or named data stream of a file,
+ * described by @blob.  */
+int
+read_windows_file_prefix(const struct blob_descriptor *blob, u64 size,
+                        const struct read_blob_callbacks *cbs)
+{
+       const struct windows_file *file = blob->windows_file;
+
+       if (unlikely(file->is_encrypted)) {
+               bool is_dir = (blob->file_inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY);
+               return read_win32_encrypted_file_prefix(file->path, is_dir, size, cbs);
+       }
+
+       return read_winnt_stream_prefix(file->path, size, cbs);
+}
+
 /*
  * Load the short name of a file into a WIM dentry.
  */
-static NTSTATUS
+static noinline_for_stack NTSTATUS
 winnt_get_short_name(HANDLE h, struct wim_dentry *dentry)
 {
        /* It's not any harder to just make the NtQueryInformationFile() system
@@ -254,23 +402,23 @@ winnt_get_short_name(HANDLE h, struct wim_dentry *dentry)
                                                FileAlternateNameInformation);
        info = (const FILE_NAME_INFORMATION *)buf;
        if (NT_SUCCESS(status) && info->FileNameLength != 0) {
-               dentry->short_name = utf16le_dupz(info->FileName,
-                                                 info->FileNameLength);
-               if (!dentry->short_name)
+               dentry->d_short_name = utf16le_dupz(info->FileName,
+                                                   info->FileNameLength);
+               if (!dentry->d_short_name)
                        return STATUS_NO_MEMORY;
-               dentry->short_name_nbytes = info->FileNameLength;
+               dentry->d_short_name_nbytes = info->FileNameLength;
        }
        return status;
 }
 
 /*
- * Load the security descriptor of a file into the corresponding inode, and the
+ * Load the security descriptor of a file into the corresponding inode and the
  * WIM image's security descriptor set.
  */
-static NTSTATUS
+static noinline_for_stack NTSTATUS
 winnt_get_security_descriptor(HANDLE h, struct wim_inode *inode,
                              struct wim_sd_set *sd_set,
-                             struct winnt_scan_stats *stats, int add_flags)
+                             struct winnt_scan_ctx *ctx, int add_flags)
 {
        SECURITY_INFORMATION requestedInformation;
        u8 _buf[4096] _aligned_attribute(8);
@@ -279,10 +427,27 @@ winnt_get_security_descriptor(HANDLE h, struct wim_inode *inode,
        ULONG len_needed;
        NTSTATUS status;
 
-       requestedInformation = DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
+       /*
+        * LABEL_SECURITY_INFORMATION is needed on Windows Vista and 7 because
+        * Microsoft decided to add mandatory integrity labels to the SACL but
+        * not have them returned by SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION.
+        *
+        * BACKUP_SECURITY_INFORMATION is needed on Windows 8 because Microsoft
+        * decided to add even more stuff to the SACL and still not have it
+        * returned by SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION; but they did remember that
+        * backup applications exist and simply want to read the stupid thing
+        * once and for all, so they added a flag to read the entire security
+        * descriptor.
+        *
+        * Older versions of Windows tolerate these new flags being passed in.
+        */
+       requestedInformation = OWNER_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
+                              GROUP_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
+                              DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
                               SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
-                              OWNER_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
-                              GROUP_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
+                              LABEL_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
+                              BACKUP_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
+
        buf = _buf;
        bufsize = sizeof(_buf);
 
@@ -339,13 +504,15 @@ winnt_get_security_descriptor(HANDLE h, struct wim_inode *inode,
                        }
                        if (requestedInformation & SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION) {
                                /* Try again without the SACL.  */
-                               stats->num_get_sacl_priv_notheld++;
-                               requestedInformation &= ~SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
+                               ctx->num_get_sacl_priv_notheld++;
+                               requestedInformation &= ~(SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
+                                                         LABEL_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
+                                                         BACKUP_SECURITY_INFORMATION);
                                break;
                        }
                        /* Fake success (useful when capturing as
                         * non-Administrator).  */
-                       stats->num_get_sd_access_denied++;
+                       ctx->num_get_sd_access_denied++;
                        status = STATUS_SUCCESS;
                        goto out_free_buf;
                }
@@ -369,18 +536,16 @@ winnt_build_dentry_tree_recursive(struct wim_dentry **root_ret,
                                  size_t full_path_nchars,
                                  const wchar_t *filename,
                                  size_t filename_nchars,
-                                 struct add_image_params *params,
-                                 struct winnt_scan_stats *stats,
-                                 u32 vol_flags);
+                                 struct capture_params *params,
+                                 struct winnt_scan_ctx *ctx);
 
 static int
 winnt_recurse_directory(HANDLE h,
                        wchar_t *full_path,
                        size_t full_path_nchars,
                        struct wim_dentry *parent,
-                       struct add_image_params *params,
-                       struct winnt_scan_stats *stats,
-                       u32 vol_flags)
+                       struct capture_params *params,
+                       struct winnt_scan_ctx *ctx)
 {
        void *buf;
        const size_t bufsize = 8192;
@@ -402,16 +567,22 @@ winnt_recurse_directory(HANDLE h,
        {
                const FILE_NAMES_INFORMATION *info = buf;
                for (;;) {
-                       if (!(info->FileNameLength == 2 && info->FileName[0] == L'.') &&
-                           !(info->FileNameLength == 4 && info->FileName[0] == L'.' &&
-                                                          info->FileName[1] == L'.'))
+                       if (!should_ignore_filename(info->FileName,
+                                                   info->FileNameLength / 2))
                        {
                                wchar_t *p;
+                               wchar_t *filename;
                                struct wim_dentry *child;
 
                                p = full_path + full_path_nchars;
-                               *p++ = L'\\';
-                               p = wmempcpy(p, info->FileName,
+                               /* Only add a backslash if we don't already have
+                                * one.  This prevents a duplicate backslash
+                                * from being added when the path to the capture
+                                * dir had a trailing backslash.  */
+                               if (*(p - 1) != L'\\')
+                                       *p++ = L'\\';
+                               filename = p;
+                               p = wmempcpy(filename, info->FileName,
                                             info->FileNameLength / 2);
                                *p = '\0';
 
@@ -420,18 +591,16 @@ winnt_recurse_directory(HANDLE h,
                                                        h,
                                                        full_path,
                                                        p - full_path,
-                                                       full_path + full_path_nchars + 1,
+                                                       filename,
                                                        info->FileNameLength / 2,
                                                        params,
-                                                       stats,
-                                                       vol_flags);
+                                                       ctx);
 
                                full_path[full_path_nchars] = L'\0';
 
                                if (ret)
                                        goto out_free_buf;
-                               if (child)
-                                       dentry_add_child(parent, child);
+                               attach_scanned_tree(parent, child, params->blob_table);
                        }
                        if (info->NextEntryOffset == 0)
                                break;
@@ -441,10 +610,8 @@ winnt_recurse_directory(HANDLE h,
        }
 
        if (unlikely(status != STATUS_NO_MORE_FILES)) {
-               set_errno_from_nt_status(status);
-               ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("\"%ls\": Can't read directory "
-                                "(status=0x%08"PRIx32")",
-                                printable_path(full_path), (u32)status);
+               winnt_error(status, L"\"%ls\": Can't read directory",
+                           printable_path(full_path));
                ret = WIMLIB_ERR_READ;
        }
 out_free_buf:
@@ -453,16 +620,7 @@ out_free_buf:
 }
 
 /* Reparse point fixup status code  */
-enum rp_status {
-       /* Reparse point should be excluded from capture  */
-       RP_EXCLUDED     = -0,
-
-       /* Reparse point will be captured literally (no fixup)  */
-       RP_NOT_FIXED    = -1,
-
-       /* Reparse point will be captured with fixup  */
-       RP_FIXED        = -2,
-};
+#define RP_FIXED       (-1)
 
 static bool
 file_has_ino_and_dev(HANDLE h, u64 ino, u64 dev)
@@ -496,20 +654,15 @@ file_has_ino_and_dev(HANDLE h, u64 ino, u64 dev)
 }
 
 /*
- * Given an (expected) NT namespace symbolic link or junction target @target of
- * length @target_nbytes, determine if a prefix of the target points to a file
- * identified by @capture_root_ino and @capture_root_dev.
- *
- * If yes, return a pointer to the portion of the link following this prefix.
- *
- * If no, return NULL.
- *
- * If the link target does not appear to be a valid NT namespace path, return
- * @target itself.
+ * This is the Windows equivalent of unix_relativize_link_target(); see there
+ * for general details.  This version works with an "absolute" Windows link
+ * target, specified from the root of the Windows kernel object namespace.  Note
+ * that we have to open directories with a trailing slash when present because
+ * \??\E: opens the E: device itself and not the filesystem root directory.
  */
 static const wchar_t *
-winnt_get_root_relative_target(const wchar_t *target, size_t target_nbytes,
-                              u64 capture_root_ino, u64 capture_root_dev)
+winnt_relativize_link_target(const wchar_t *target, size_t target_nbytes,
+                            u64 ino, u64 dev)
 {
        UNICODE_STRING name;
        OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES attr;
@@ -575,32 +728,47 @@ winnt_get_root_relative_target(const wchar_t *target, size_t target_nbytes,
                        name.Buffer = (wchar_t *)p;
                        name.Length = 0;
 
-                       if (file_has_ino_and_dev(h, capture_root_ino,
-                                                capture_root_dev))
+                       if (file_has_ino_and_dev(h, ino, dev))
                                goto out_close_root_dir;
                }
        } while (p != target_end);
 
-       p = NULL;
+       p = target;
 
 out_close_root_dir:
        if (attr.RootDirectory)
                (*func_NtClose)(attr.RootDirectory);
+       while (p > target && *(p - 1) == L'\\')
+               p--;
        return p;
 }
 
-static enum rp_status
-winnt_try_rpfix(u8 *rpbuf, u16 *rpbuflen_p,
-               u64 capture_root_ino, u64 capture_root_dev,
-               const wchar_t *path, struct add_image_params *params)
+static int
+winnt_rpfix_progress(struct capture_params *params, const wchar_t *path,
+                    const struct link_reparse_point *link, int scan_status)
 {
-       struct reparse_data rpdata;
+       size_t print_name_nchars = link->print_name_nbytes / sizeof(wchar_t);
+       wchar_t print_name0[print_name_nchars + 1];
+
+       wmemcpy(print_name0, link->print_name, print_name_nchars);
+       print_name0[print_name_nchars] = L'\0';
+
+       params->progress.scan.cur_path = printable_path(path);
+       params->progress.scan.symlink_target = print_name0;
+       return do_capture_progress(params, scan_status, NULL);
+}
+
+static int
+winnt_try_rpfix(struct reparse_buffer_disk *rpbuf, u16 *rpbuflen_p,
+               const wchar_t *path, struct capture_params *params)
+{
+       struct link_reparse_point link;
        const wchar_t *rel_target;
+       int ret;
 
-       if (parse_reparse_data(rpbuf, *rpbuflen_p, &rpdata)) {
-               /* Couldn't even understand the reparse data.  Don't try the
-                * fixup.  */
-               return RP_NOT_FIXED;
+       if (parse_link_reparse_point(rpbuf, *rpbuflen_p, &link)) {
+               /* Couldn't understand the reparse data; don't do the fixup.  */
+               return 0;
        }
 
        /*
@@ -611,7 +779,7 @@ winnt_try_rpfix(u8 *rpbuf, u16 *rpbuflen_p,
         * SYMBOLIC_LINK_RELATIVE.  We will use this information, although this
         * may not always do what the user expects, since drive-relative
         * symbolic links such as "\Users\Public" have SYMBOLIC_LINK_RELATIVE
-        * set, in addition to truely relative symbolic links such as "Users" or
+        * set, in addition to truly relative symbolic links such as "Users" or
         * "Users\Public".  However, WIMGAPI (as of Windows 8.1) has this same
         * behavior.
         *
@@ -625,127 +793,117 @@ winnt_try_rpfix(u8 *rpbuf, u16 *rpbuflen_p,
         *     - \??\Volume{c47cb07c-946e-4155-b8f7-052e9cec7628}\Users\Public
         *     - \DosDevices\Volume{c47cb07c-946e-4155-b8f7-052e9cec7628}\Users\Public
         */
-       if (rpdata.rptag == WIM_IO_REPARSE_TAG_SYMLINK &&
-           (rpdata.rpflags & SYMBOLIC_LINK_RELATIVE))
-               return RP_NOT_FIXED;
-
-       rel_target = winnt_get_root_relative_target(rpdata.substitute_name,
-                                                   rpdata.substitute_name_nbytes,
-                                                   capture_root_ino,
-                                                   capture_root_dev);
-       if (!rel_target) {
-               /* Target points outside of the tree being captured.  Exclude
-                * this reparse point from the capture (but inform the library
-                * user).  */
-               size_t print_name_nchars = rpdata.print_name_nbytes / sizeof(wchar_t);
-               wchar_t print_name0[print_name_nchars + 1];
-               print_name0[print_name_nchars] = L'\0';
-               wmemcpy(print_name0, rpdata.print_name, print_name_nchars);
-
-               params->progress.scan.cur_path = printable_path(path);
-               params->progress.scan.symlink_target = print_name0;
-               do_capture_progress(params, WIMLIB_SCAN_DENTRY_EXCLUDED_SYMLINK, NULL);
-               return RP_EXCLUDED;
-       }
+       if (link_is_relative_symlink(&link))
+               return 0;
 
-       if (rel_target == rpdata.substitute_name) {
-               /* Weird target --- keep the reparse point and don't mess with
-                * it.  */
-               return RP_NOT_FIXED;
+       rel_target = winnt_relativize_link_target(link.substitute_name,
+                                                 link.substitute_name_nbytes,
+                                                 params->capture_root_ino,
+                                                 params->capture_root_dev);
+
+       if (rel_target == link.substitute_name) {
+               /* Target points outside of the tree being captured or had an
+                * unrecognized path format.  Don't adjust it.  */
+               return winnt_rpfix_progress(params, path, &link,
+                                           WIMLIB_SCAN_DENTRY_NOT_FIXED_SYMLINK);
        }
 
        /* We have an absolute target pointing within the directory being
-        * captured, @rel_target is the suffix of the link target that is the
+        * captured. @rel_target is the suffix of the link target that is the
         * part relative to the directory being captured.
         *
         * We will cut off the prefix before this part (which is the path to the
         * directory being captured) and add a dummy prefix.  Since the process
-        * will need to be reversed when applying the image, it shouldn't matter
+        * will need to be reversed when applying the image, it doesn't matter
         * what exactly the prefix is, as long as it looks like an absolute
-        * path.
-        */
+        * path.  */
 
-       {
-               size_t rel_target_nbytes =
-                       rpdata.substitute_name_nbytes - ((const u8 *)rel_target -
-                                                        (const u8 *)rpdata.substitute_name);
-               size_t rel_target_nchars = rel_target_nbytes / sizeof(wchar_t);
+       static const wchar_t prefix[6] = L"\\??\\X:";
+       static const size_t num_unprintable_chars = 4;
 
-               wchar_t tmp[rel_target_nchars + 7];
+       size_t rel_target_nbytes =
+               link.substitute_name_nbytes - ((const u8 *)rel_target -
+                                              (const u8 *)link.substitute_name);
 
-               wmemcpy(tmp, L"\\??\\X:\\", 7);
-               wmemcpy(tmp + 7, rel_target, rel_target_nchars);
+       wchar_t tmp[(sizeof(prefix) + rel_target_nbytes) / sizeof(wchar_t)];
 
-               rpdata.substitute_name = tmp;
-               rpdata.substitute_name_nbytes = rel_target_nbytes + (7 * sizeof(wchar_t));
-               rpdata.print_name = tmp + 4;
-               rpdata.print_name_nbytes = rel_target_nbytes + (3 * sizeof(wchar_t));
+       memcpy(tmp, prefix, sizeof(prefix));
+       memcpy(tmp + ARRAY_LEN(prefix), rel_target, rel_target_nbytes);
 
-               if (make_reparse_buffer(&rpdata, rpbuf, rpbuflen_p))
-                       return RP_NOT_FIXED;
-       }
+       link.substitute_name = tmp;
+       link.substitute_name_nbytes = sizeof(tmp);
+
+       link.print_name = link.substitute_name + num_unprintable_chars;
+       link.print_name_nbytes = link.substitute_name_nbytes -
+                                (num_unprintable_chars * sizeof(wchar_t));
+
+       if (make_link_reparse_point(&link, rpbuf, rpbuflen_p))
+               return 0;
+
+       ret = winnt_rpfix_progress(params, path, &link,
+                                  WIMLIB_SCAN_DENTRY_FIXED_SYMLINK);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
        return RP_FIXED;
 }
 
-/*
- * Loads the reparse point data from a reparse point into memory, optionally
- * fixing the targets of absolute symbolic links and junction points to be
- * relative to the root of capture.
- *
- * @h:
- *     Open handle to the reparse point file.
- * @path:
- *     Path to the reparse point file.
- * @params:
- *     Capture parameters.  add_flags, capture_root_ino, capture_root_dev,
- *     progress_func, and progress are used.
- * @rpbuf:
- *     Buffer of length at least REPARSE_POINT_MAX_SIZE bytes into which the
- *     reparse point buffer will be loaded.
- * @rpbuflen_ret:
- *     On success, the length of the reparse point buffer in bytes is written
- *     to this location.
- *
- * On success, returns a nonpositive `enum rp_status' value.
- * On failure, returns a positive error code.
- */
-static int
-winnt_get_reparse_data(HANDLE h, const wchar_t *path,
-                      struct add_image_params *params,
-                      u8 *rpbuf, u16 *rpbuflen_ret)
+/* Load the reparse data of a file into the corresponding WIM inode.  If the
+ * reparse point is a symbolic link or junction with an absolute target and
+ * RPFIX mode is enabled, then also rewrite its target to be relative to the
+ * capture root.  */
+static noinline_for_stack int
+winnt_load_reparse_data(HANDLE h, struct wim_inode *inode,
+                       const wchar_t *full_path, struct capture_params *params)
 {
+       struct reparse_buffer_disk rpbuf;
        DWORD bytes_returned;
-       u32 reparse_tag;
-       int ret;
        u16 rpbuflen;
+       int ret;
+
+       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED) {
+               /* See comment above assign_stream_types_encrypted()  */
+               WARNING("Ignoring reparse data of encrypted file \"%ls\"",
+                       printable_path(full_path));
+               return 0;
+       }
 
        if (!DeviceIoControl(h, FSCTL_GET_REPARSE_POINT,
-                            NULL, 0, rpbuf, REPARSE_POINT_MAX_SIZE,
+                            NULL, 0, &rpbuf, REPARSE_POINT_MAX_SIZE,
                             &bytes_returned, NULL))
        {
-               set_errno_from_GetLastError();
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_READ;
+               win32_error(GetLastError(), L"\"%ls\": Can't get reparse point",
+                           printable_path(full_path));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_READLINK;
        }
 
-       if (unlikely(bytes_returned < 8)) {
-               errno = EINVAL;
+       rpbuflen = bytes_returned;
+
+       if (unlikely(rpbuflen < REPARSE_DATA_OFFSET)) {
+               ERROR("\"%ls\": reparse point buffer is too short",
+                     printable_path(full_path));
                return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_REPARSE_DATA;
        }
 
-       rpbuflen = bytes_returned;
-       reparse_tag = le32_to_cpu(*(le32*)rpbuf);
-       ret = RP_NOT_FIXED;
-       if (params->add_flags & WIMLIB_ADD_FLAG_RPFIX &&
-           (reparse_tag == WIM_IO_REPARSE_TAG_SYMLINK ||
-            reparse_tag == WIM_IO_REPARSE_TAG_MOUNT_POINT))
-       {
-               ret = winnt_try_rpfix(rpbuf, &rpbuflen,
-                                     params->capture_root_ino,
-                                     params->capture_root_dev,
-                                     path, params);
+       if (params->add_flags & WIMLIB_ADD_FLAG_RPFIX) {
+               ret = winnt_try_rpfix(&rpbuf, &rpbuflen, full_path, params);
+               if (ret == RP_FIXED)
+                       inode->i_rp_flags &= ~WIM_RP_FLAG_NOT_FIXED;
+               else if (ret)
+                       return ret;
        }
-       *rpbuflen_ret = rpbuflen;
-       return ret;
+
+       inode->i_reparse_tag = le32_to_cpu(rpbuf.rptag);
+       inode->i_rp_reserved = le16_to_cpu(rpbuf.rpreserved);
+
+       if (!inode_add_stream_with_data(inode,
+                                       STREAM_TYPE_REPARSE_POINT,
+                                       NO_STREAM_NAME,
+                                       rpbuf.rpdata,
+                                       rpbuflen - REPARSE_DATA_OFFSET,
+                                       params->blob_table))
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+
+       return 0;
 }
 
 static DWORD WINAPI
@@ -757,26 +915,30 @@ win32_tally_encrypted_size_cb(unsigned char *_data, void *_size_ret,
 }
 
 static int
-win32_get_encrypted_file_size(const wchar_t *path, u64 *size_ret)
+win32_get_encrypted_file_size(const wchar_t *path, bool is_dir, u64 *size_ret)
 {
        DWORD err;
        void *file_ctx;
        int ret;
+       DWORD flags = 0;
+
+       if (is_dir)
+               flags |= CREATE_FOR_DIR;
 
-       err = OpenEncryptedFileRaw(path, 0, &file_ctx);
+       err = OpenEncryptedFileRaw(path, flags, &file_ctx);
        if (err != ERROR_SUCCESS) {
-               set_errno_from_win32_error(err);
-               ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Failed to open encrypted file \"%ls\" "
-                                "for raw read", printable_path(path));
+               win32_error(err,
+                           L"Failed to open encrypted file \"%ls\" for raw read",
+                           printable_path(path));
                return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
        }
        *size_ret = 0;
        err = ReadEncryptedFileRaw(win32_tally_encrypted_size_cb,
                                   size_ret, file_ctx);
        if (err != ERROR_SUCCESS) {
-               set_errno_from_win32_error(err);
-               ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Failed to read raw encrypted data from "
-                                "\"%ls\"", printable_path(path));
+               win32_error(err,
+                           L"Failed to read raw encrypted data from \"%ls\"",
+                           printable_path(path));
                ret = WIMLIB_ERR_READ;
        } else {
                ret = 0;
@@ -785,9 +947,39 @@ win32_get_encrypted_file_size(const wchar_t *path, u64 *size_ret)
        return ret;
 }
 
+static int
+winnt_scan_efsrpc_raw_data(struct wim_inode *inode,
+                          wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars,
+                          struct list_head *unhashed_blobs,
+                          struct vss_snapshot *snapshot)
+{
+       const bool is_dir = (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY);
+       u64 size;
+       int ret;
+
+       /* OpenEncryptedFileRaw() expects a Win32 name.  */
+       wimlib_assert(!wmemcmp(path, L"\\??\\", 4));
+       path[1] = L'\\';
+
+       ret = win32_get_encrypted_file_size(path, is_dir, &size);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       /* Empty EFSRPC data does not make sense  */
+       wimlib_assert(size != 0);
+
+       ret = add_stream(inode, true, snapshot, size,
+                        path, path_nchars,
+                        STREAM_TYPE_EFSRPC_RAW_DATA, NO_STREAM_NAME, 0,
+                        unhashed_blobs);
+out:
+       path[1] = L'?';
+       return ret;
+}
+
 static bool
-get_data_stream_name(const wchar_t *raw_stream_name, size_t raw_stream_name_nchars,
-                    const wchar_t **stream_name_ret, size_t *stream_name_nchars_ret)
+get_data_stream_name(wchar_t *raw_stream_name, size_t raw_stream_name_nchars,
+                    wchar_t **stream_name_ret, size_t *stream_name_nchars_ret)
 {
        const wchar_t *sep, *type, *end;
 
@@ -818,116 +1010,33 @@ get_data_stream_name(const wchar_t *raw_stream_name, size_t raw_stream_name_ncha
        return true;
 }
 
-static wchar_t *
-build_stream_path(const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars,
-                 const wchar_t *stream_name, size_t stream_name_nchars)
-{
-       size_t stream_path_nchars;
-       wchar_t *stream_path;
-       wchar_t *p;
-
-       stream_path_nchars = path_nchars;
-       if (stream_name_nchars)
-               stream_path_nchars += 1 + stream_name_nchars;
-
-       stream_path = MALLOC((stream_path_nchars + 1) * sizeof(wchar_t));
-       if (stream_path) {
-               p = wmempcpy(stream_path, path, path_nchars);
-               if (stream_name_nchars) {
-                       *p++ = L':';
-                       p = wmempcpy(p, stream_name, stream_name_nchars);
-               }
-               *p++ = L'\0';
-       }
-       return stream_path;
-}
-
 static int
-winnt_scan_stream(const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars,
-                 const wchar_t *raw_stream_name, size_t raw_stream_name_nchars,
-                 u64 stream_size,
-                 struct wim_inode *inode, struct list_head *unhashed_streams)
+winnt_scan_data_stream(const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars,
+                      wchar_t *raw_stream_name, size_t raw_stream_name_nchars,
+                      u64 stream_size,
+                      struct wim_inode *inode, struct list_head *unhashed_blobs,
+                      struct vss_snapshot *snapshot)
 {
-       const wchar_t *stream_name;
+       wchar_t *stream_name;
        size_t stream_name_nchars;
-       struct wim_ads_entry *ads_entry;
-       wchar_t *stream_path;
-       struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte;
-       u32 stream_id;
 
        /* Given the raw stream name (which is something like
-        * :streamname:$DATA), extract just the stream name part.
+        * :streamname:$DATA), extract just the stream name part (streamname).
         * Ignore any non-$DATA streams.  */
        if (!get_data_stream_name(raw_stream_name, raw_stream_name_nchars,
                                  &stream_name, &stream_name_nchars))
                return 0;
 
-       /* If this is a named stream, allocate an ADS entry for it.  */
-       if (stream_name_nchars) {
-               ads_entry = inode_add_ads_utf16le(inode, stream_name,
-                                                 stream_name_nchars *
-                                                       sizeof(wchar_t));
-               if (!ads_entry)
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
-       } else {
-               ads_entry = NULL;
-       }
-
-       /* If the stream is empty, no lookup table entry is needed. */
-       if (stream_size == 0)
-               return 0;
-
-       /* Build the path to the stream.  For unnamed streams, this is simply
-        * the path to the file.  For named streams, this is the path to the
-        * file, followed by a colon, followed by the stream name.  */
-       stream_path = build_stream_path(path, path_nchars,
-                                       stream_name, stream_name_nchars);
-       if (!stream_path)
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+       stream_name[stream_name_nchars] = L'\0';
 
-       /* Set up the lookup table entry for the stream.  */
-       lte = new_lookup_table_entry();
-       if (!lte) {
-               FREE(stream_path);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
-       }
-       lte->file_on_disk = stream_path;
-       lte->resource_location = RESOURCE_IN_WINNT_FILE_ON_DISK;
-       lte->size = stream_size;
-       if ((inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED) && !ads_entry) {
-               /* Special case for encrypted file.  */
-
-               /* OpenEncryptedFileRaw() expects Win32 name, not NT name.
-                * Change \??\ into \\?\  */
-               lte->file_on_disk[1] = L'\\';
-               wimlib_assert(!wmemcmp(lte->file_on_disk, L"\\\\?\\", 4));
-
-               u64 encrypted_size;
-               int ret;
-
-               ret = win32_get_encrypted_file_size(lte->file_on_disk,
-                                                   &encrypted_size);
-               if (ret) {
-                       free_lookup_table_entry(lte);
-                       return ret;
-               }
-               lte->size = encrypted_size;
-               lte->resource_location = RESOURCE_WIN32_ENCRYPTED;
-       }
-
-       if (ads_entry) {
-               stream_id = ads_entry->stream_id;
-               ads_entry->lte = lte;
-       } else {
-               stream_id = 0;
-               inode->i_lte = lte;
-       }
-       add_unhashed_stream(lte, inode, stream_id, unhashed_streams);
-       return 0;
+       return add_stream(inode, false, snapshot, stream_size,
+                         path, path_nchars,
+                         STREAM_TYPE_DATA, stream_name, stream_name_nchars,
+                         unhashed_blobs);
 }
 
 /*
- * Load information about the streams of an open file into a WIM inode.
+ * Load information about the data streams of an open file into a WIM inode.
  *
  * We use the NtQueryInformationFile() system call instead of FindFirstStream()
  * and FindNextStream().  This is done for two reasons:
@@ -940,18 +1049,19 @@ winnt_scan_stream(const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars,
  *   and later, whereas the stream support in NtQueryInformationFile() was
  *   already present in Windows XP.
  */
-static int
-winnt_scan_streams(HANDLE *hFile_p, const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars,
-                  struct wim_inode *inode, struct list_head *unhashed_streams,
-                  u64 file_size, u32 vol_flags)
+static noinline_for_stack int
+winnt_scan_data_streams(HANDLE h, const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars,
+                       struct wim_inode *inode, struct list_head *unhashed_blobs,
+                       u64 file_size, u32 vol_flags,
+                       struct vss_snapshot *snapshot)
 {
        int ret;
-       u8 _buf[1024] _aligned_attribute(8);
+       u8 _buf[4096] _aligned_attribute(8);
        u8 *buf;
        size_t bufsize;
        IO_STATUS_BLOCK iosb;
        NTSTATUS status;
-       const FILE_STREAM_INFORMATION *info;
+       FILE_STREAM_INFORMATION *info;
 
        buf = _buf;
        bufsize = sizeof(_buf);
@@ -960,7 +1070,7 @@ winnt_scan_streams(HANDLE *hFile_p, const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars,
                goto unnamed_only;
 
        /* Get a buffer containing the stream information.  */
-       while (!NT_SUCCESS(status = (*func_NtQueryInformationFile)(*hFile_p,
+       while (!NT_SUCCESS(status = (*func_NtQueryInformationFile)(h,
                                                                   &iosb,
                                                                   buf,
                                                                   bufsize,
@@ -989,10 +1099,9 @@ winnt_scan_streams(HANDLE *hFile_p, const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars,
                case STATUS_INVALID_INFO_CLASS:
                        goto unnamed_only;
                default:
-                       set_errno_from_nt_status(status);
-                       ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("\"%ls\": Failed to query stream "
-                                        "information (status=0x%08"PRIx32")",
-                                        printable_path(path), (u32)status);
+                       winnt_error(status,
+                                   L"\"%ls\": Failed to query stream information",
+                                   printable_path(path));
                        ret = WIMLIB_ERR_READ;
                        goto out_free_buf;
                }
@@ -1004,23 +1113,16 @@ winnt_scan_streams(HANDLE *hFile_p, const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars,
                goto out_free_buf;
        }
 
-       if (unlikely(inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED)) {
-               /* OpenEncryptedFileRaw() seems to fail with
-                * ERROR_SHARING_VIOLATION if there are any handles opened to
-                * the file.  */
-               (*func_NtClose)(*hFile_p);
-               *hFile_p = INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE;
-       }
-
        /* Parse one or more stream information structures.  */
-       info = (const FILE_STREAM_INFORMATION *)buf;
+       info = (FILE_STREAM_INFORMATION *)buf;
        for (;;) {
                /* Load the stream information.  */
-               ret = winnt_scan_stream(path, path_nchars,
-                                       info->StreamName,
-                                       info->StreamNameLength / 2,
-                                       info->StreamSize.QuadPart,
-                                       inode, unhashed_streams);
+               ret = winnt_scan_data_stream(path, path_nchars,
+                                            info->StreamName,
+                                            info->StreamNameLength / 2,
+                                            info->StreamSize.QuadPart,
+                                            inode, unhashed_blobs,
+                                            snapshot);
                if (ret)
                        goto out_free_buf;
 
@@ -1029,8 +1131,8 @@ winnt_scan_streams(HANDLE *hFile_p, const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars,
                        break;
                }
                /* Advance to next stream information.  */
-               info = (const FILE_STREAM_INFORMATION *)
-                               ((const u8 *)info + info->NextEntryOffset);
+               info = (FILE_STREAM_INFORMATION *)
+                               ((u8 *)info + info->NextEntryOffset);
        }
        ret = 0;
        goto out_free_buf;
@@ -1045,8 +1147,12 @@ unnamed_only:
                goto out_free_buf;
        }
 
-       ret = winnt_scan_stream(path, path_nchars, L"::$DATA", 7,
-                               file_size, inode, unhashed_streams);
+       {
+               wchar_t stream_name[] = L"::$DATA";
+               ret = winnt_scan_data_stream(path, path_nchars, stream_name, 7,
+                                            file_size, inode, unhashed_blobs,
+                                            snapshot);
+       }
 out_free_buf:
        /* Free buffer if allocated on heap.  */
        if (unlikely(buf != _buf))
@@ -1054,6 +1160,270 @@ out_free_buf:
        return ret;
 }
 
+static noinline_for_stack u64
+get_sort_key(HANDLE h)
+{
+       STARTING_VCN_INPUT_BUFFER in = { .StartingVcn.QuadPart = 0 };
+       RETRIEVAL_POINTERS_BUFFER out;
+       DWORD bytesReturned;
+
+       if (!DeviceIoControl(h, FSCTL_GET_RETRIEVAL_POINTERS,
+                            &in, sizeof(in),
+                            &out, sizeof(out),
+                            &bytesReturned, NULL))
+               return 0;
+
+       if (out.ExtentCount < 1)
+               return 0;
+
+       return out.Extents[0].Lcn.QuadPart;
+}
+
+static void
+set_sort_key(struct wim_inode *inode, u64 sort_key)
+{
+       for (unsigned i = 0; i < inode->i_num_streams; i++) {
+               struct wim_inode_stream *strm = &inode->i_streams[i];
+               struct blob_descriptor *blob = stream_blob_resolved(strm);
+               if (blob && blob->blob_location == BLOB_IN_WINDOWS_FILE)
+                       blob->windows_file->sort_key = sort_key;
+       }
+}
+
+static inline bool
+should_try_to_use_wimboot_hash(const struct wim_inode *inode,
+                              const struct winnt_scan_ctx *ctx,
+                              const struct capture_params *params)
+{
+       /* Directories and encrypted files aren't valid for external backing. */
+       if (inode->i_attributes & (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY |
+                                  FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED))
+               return false;
+
+       /* If the file is a reparse point, then try the hash fixup if it's a WOF
+        * reparse point and we're in WIMBOOT mode.  Otherwise, try the hash
+        * fixup if WOF may be attached. */
+       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT)
+               return (inode->i_reparse_tag == WIM_IO_REPARSE_TAG_WOF) &&
+                       (params->add_flags & WIMLIB_ADD_FLAG_WIMBOOT);
+       return !ctx->wof_not_attached;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function implements an optimization for capturing files from a
+ * filesystem with a backing WIM(s).  If a file is WIM-backed, then we can
+ * retrieve the SHA-1 message digest of its original contents from its reparse
+ * point.  This may eliminate the need to read the file's data and/or allow the
+ * file's data to be immediately deduplicated with existing data in the WIM.
+ *
+ * If WOF is attached, then this function is merely an optimization, but
+ * potentially a very effective one.  If WOF is detached, then this function
+ * really causes WIM-backed files to be, effectively, automatically
+ * "dereferenced" when possible; the unnamed data stream is updated to reference
+ * the original contents and the reparse point is removed.
+ *
+ * This function returns 0 if the fixup succeeded or was intentionally not
+ * executed.  Otherwise it returns an error code.
+ */
+static noinline_for_stack int
+try_to_use_wimboot_hash(HANDLE h, struct wim_inode *inode,
+                       struct blob_table *blob_table,
+                       struct winnt_scan_ctx *ctx, const wchar_t *full_path)
+{
+       struct wim_inode_stream *reparse_strm = NULL;
+       struct wim_inode_stream *strm;
+       struct blob_descriptor *blob;
+       u8 hash[SHA1_HASH_SIZE];
+       int ret;
+
+       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT) {
+               struct reparse_buffer_disk rpbuf;
+               struct {
+                       struct wof_external_info wof_info;
+                       struct wim_provider_rpdata wim_info;
+               } *rpdata = (void *)rpbuf.rpdata;
+               struct blob_descriptor *reparse_blob;
+
+               /* The file has a WOF reparse point, so WOF must be detached.
+                * We can read the reparse point directly.  */
+               ctx->wof_not_attached = true;
+               reparse_strm = inode_get_unnamed_stream(inode, STREAM_TYPE_REPARSE_POINT);
+               reparse_blob = stream_blob_resolved(reparse_strm);
+
+               if (!reparse_blob || reparse_blob->size < sizeof(*rpdata))
+                       return 0;  /* Not a WIM-backed file  */
+
+               ret = read_blob_into_buf(reparse_blob, rpdata);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+
+               if (rpdata->wof_info.version != WOF_CURRENT_VERSION ||
+                   rpdata->wof_info.provider != WOF_PROVIDER_WIM ||
+                   rpdata->wim_info.version != 2)
+                       return 0;  /* Not a WIM-backed file  */
+
+               /* Okay, this is a WIM backed file.  Get its SHA-1 hash.  */
+               copy_hash(hash, rpdata->wim_info.unnamed_data_stream_hash);
+       } else {
+               struct {
+                       struct wof_external_info wof_info;
+                       struct wim_provider_external_info wim_info;
+               } out;
+               IO_STATUS_BLOCK iosb;
+               NTSTATUS status;
+
+               /* WOF may be attached.  Try reading this file's external
+                * backing info.  */
+               status = (*func_NtFsControlFile)(h, NULL, NULL, NULL, &iosb,
+                                                FSCTL_GET_EXTERNAL_BACKING,
+                                                NULL, 0, &out, sizeof(out));
+
+               /* Is WOF not attached?  */
+               if (status == STATUS_INVALID_DEVICE_REQUEST) {
+                       ctx->wof_not_attached = true;
+                       return 0;
+               }
+
+               /* Is this file not externally backed?  */
+               if (status == STATUS_OBJECT_NOT_EXTERNALLY_BACKED)
+                       return 0;
+
+               /* Does this file have an unknown type of external backing that
+                * needed a larger information buffer?  */
+               if (status == STATUS_BUFFER_TOO_SMALL)
+                       return 0;
+
+               /* Was there some other failure?  */
+               if (status != STATUS_SUCCESS) {
+                       winnt_error(status,
+                                   L"\"%ls\": FSCTL_GET_EXTERNAL_BACKING failed",
+                                   full_path);
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_STAT;
+               }
+
+               /* Is this file backed by a WIM?  */
+               if (out.wof_info.version != WOF_CURRENT_VERSION ||
+                   out.wof_info.provider != WOF_PROVIDER_WIM ||
+                   out.wim_info.version != WIM_PROVIDER_CURRENT_VERSION)
+                       return 0;
+
+               /* Okay, this is a WIM backed file.  Get its SHA-1 hash.  */
+               copy_hash(hash, out.wim_info.unnamed_data_stream_hash);
+       }
+
+       /* If the file's unnamed data stream is nonempty, then fill in its hash
+        * and deduplicate it if possible.
+        *
+        * With WOF detached, we require that the blob *must* de-duplicable for
+        * any action can be taken, since without WOF we can't fall back to
+        * getting the "dereferenced" data by reading the stream (the real
+        * stream is sparse and contains all zeroes).  */
+       strm = inode_get_unnamed_data_stream(inode);
+       if (strm && (blob = stream_blob_resolved(strm))) {
+               struct blob_descriptor **back_ptr;
+
+               if (reparse_strm && !lookup_blob(blob_table, hash))
+                       return 0;
+               back_ptr = retrieve_pointer_to_unhashed_blob(blob);
+               copy_hash(blob->hash, hash);
+               if (after_blob_hashed(blob, back_ptr, blob_table) != blob)
+                       free_blob_descriptor(blob);
+       }
+
+       /* Remove the reparse point, if present.  */
+       if (reparse_strm) {
+               inode_remove_stream(inode, reparse_strm, blob_table);
+               inode->i_attributes &= ~(FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT |
+                                        FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE);
+               if (inode->i_attributes == 0)
+                       inode->i_attributes = FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL;
+       }
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+static noinline_for_stack u32
+get_volume_information(HANDLE h, const wchar_t *full_path,
+                      struct capture_params *params)
+{
+       FILE_FS_ATTRIBUTE_INFORMATION attr_info;
+       FILE_FS_VOLUME_INFORMATION vol_info;
+       IO_STATUS_BLOCK iosb;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       u32 vol_flags;
+
+       /* Get volume flags  */
+       status = (*func_NtQueryVolumeInformationFile)(h, &iosb,
+                                                     &attr_info,
+                                                     sizeof(attr_info),
+                                                     FileFsAttributeInformation);
+       if (likely((NT_SUCCESS(status) || status == STATUS_BUFFER_OVERFLOW) &&
+                  (iosb.Information >=
+                       offsetof(FILE_FS_ATTRIBUTE_INFORMATION,
+                                FileSystemAttributes) +
+                       sizeof(attr_info.FileSystemAttributes))))
+       {
+               vol_flags = attr_info.FileSystemAttributes;
+       } else {
+               winnt_warning(status, L"\"%ls\": Can't get volume attributes",
+                             printable_path(full_path));
+               vol_flags = 0;
+       }
+
+       /* Get volume ID.  */
+       status = (*func_NtQueryVolumeInformationFile)(h, &iosb,
+                                                     &vol_info,
+                                                     sizeof(vol_info),
+                                                     FileFsVolumeInformation);
+       if (likely((NT_SUCCESS(status) || status == STATUS_BUFFER_OVERFLOW) &&
+                  (iosb.Information >=
+                       offsetof(FILE_FS_VOLUME_INFORMATION,
+                                VolumeSerialNumber) +
+                       sizeof(vol_info.VolumeSerialNumber))))
+       {
+               params->capture_root_dev = vol_info.VolumeSerialNumber;
+       } else {
+               winnt_warning(status, L"\"%ls\": Can't get volume ID",
+                             printable_path(full_path));
+               params->capture_root_dev = 0;
+       }
+       return vol_flags;
+}
+
+struct file_info {
+       u32 attributes;
+       u32 num_links;
+       u64 creation_time;
+       u64 last_write_time;
+       u64 last_access_time;
+       u64 ino;
+       u64 end_of_file;
+};
+
+static noinline_for_stack NTSTATUS
+get_file_info(HANDLE h, struct file_info *info)
+{
+       IO_STATUS_BLOCK iosb;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       FILE_ALL_INFORMATION all_info;
+
+       status = (*func_NtQueryInformationFile)(h, &iosb, &all_info,
+                                               sizeof(all_info),
+                                               FileAllInformation);
+
+       if (unlikely(!NT_SUCCESS(status) && status != STATUS_BUFFER_OVERFLOW))
+               return status;
+
+       info->attributes = all_info.BasicInformation.FileAttributes;
+       info->num_links = all_info.StandardInformation.NumberOfLinks;
+       info->creation_time = all_info.BasicInformation.CreationTime.QuadPart;
+       info->last_write_time = all_info.BasicInformation.LastWriteTime.QuadPart;
+       info->last_access_time = all_info.BasicInformation.LastAccessTime.QuadPart;
+       info->ino = all_info.InternalInformation.IndexNumber.QuadPart;
+       info->end_of_file = all_info.StandardInformation.EndOfFile.QuadPart;
+       return STATUS_SUCCESS;
+}
+
 static int
 winnt_build_dentry_tree_recursive(struct wim_dentry **root_ret,
                                  HANDLE cur_dir,
@@ -1061,164 +1431,101 @@ winnt_build_dentry_tree_recursive(struct wim_dentry **root_ret,
                                  size_t full_path_nchars,
                                  const wchar_t *filename,
                                  size_t filename_nchars,
-                                 struct add_image_params *params,
-                                 struct winnt_scan_stats *stats,
-                                 u32 vol_flags)
+                                 struct capture_params *params,
+                                 struct winnt_scan_ctx *ctx)
 {
        struct wim_dentry *root = NULL;
        struct wim_inode *inode = NULL;
-       HANDLE h = INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE;
+       HANDLE h = NULL;
        int ret;
        NTSTATUS status;
-       FILE_ALL_INFORMATION file_info;
-       u8 *rpbuf;
-       u16 rpbuflen;
-       u16 not_rpfixed;
+       struct file_info file_info;
+       ACCESS_MASK requestedPerms;
+       u64 sort_key;
 
-       if (should_exclude_path(full_path + params->capture_root_nchars,
-                               full_path_nchars - params->capture_root_nchars,
-                               params->config))
-       {
-               ret = 0;
+       ret = try_exclude(full_path, params);
+       if (unlikely(ret < 0)) /* Excluded? */
                goto out_progress;
-       }
+       if (unlikely(ret > 0)) /* Error? */
+               goto out;
 
        /* Open the file.  */
+       requestedPerms = FILE_READ_DATA |
+                        FILE_READ_ATTRIBUTES |
+                        READ_CONTROL |
+                        ACCESS_SYSTEM_SECURITY |
+                        SYNCHRONIZE;
+retry_open:
        status = winnt_openat(cur_dir,
                              (cur_dir ? filename : full_path),
                              (cur_dir ? filename_nchars : full_path_nchars),
-                             FILE_READ_DATA |
-                                       FILE_READ_ATTRIBUTES |
-                                       READ_CONTROL |
-                                       ACCESS_SYSTEM_SECURITY |
-                                       SYNCHRONIZE,
+                             requestedPerms,
                              &h);
        if (unlikely(!NT_SUCCESS(status))) {
-               set_errno_from_nt_status(status);
-               ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("\"%ls\": Can't open file "
-                                "(status=0x%08"PRIx32")",
-                                printable_path(full_path), (u32)status);
-               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
+               if (status == STATUS_DELETE_PENDING) {
+                       WARNING("\"%ls\": Deletion pending; skipping file",
+                               printable_path(full_path));
+                       ret = 0;
+                       goto out;
+               }
+               if (status == STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED &&
+                   (requestedPerms & FILE_READ_DATA)) {
+                       /* This happens on encrypted files.  */
+                       requestedPerms &= ~FILE_READ_DATA;
+                       goto retry_open;
+               }
+
+               winnt_error(status, L"\"%ls\": Can't open file",
+                           printable_path(full_path));
+               if (status == STATUS_FVE_LOCKED_VOLUME)
+                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_FVE_LOCKED_VOLUME;
+               else
+                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
                goto out;
        }
 
        /* Get information about the file.  */
-       {
-               IO_STATUS_BLOCK iosb;
+       status = get_file_info(h, &file_info);
+       if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+               winnt_error(status, L"\"%ls\": Can't get file information",
+                           printable_path(full_path));
+               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_STAT;
+               goto out;
+       }
 
-               status = (*func_NtQueryInformationFile)(h, &iosb,
-                                                       &file_info,
-                                                       sizeof(file_info),
-                                                       FileAllInformation);
-
-               if (unlikely(!NT_SUCCESS(status) &&
-                            status != STATUS_BUFFER_OVERFLOW))
-               {
-                       set_errno_from_nt_status(status);
-                       ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("\"%ls\": Can't get file information "
-                                        "(status=0x%08"PRIx32")",
-                                        printable_path(full_path), (u32)status);
-                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_STAT;
-                       goto out;
-               }
+       if (unlikely(!(requestedPerms & FILE_READ_DATA)) &&
+           !(file_info.attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED))
+       {
+               ERROR("\"%ls\": Permission to read data was denied",
+                     printable_path(full_path));
+               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
+               goto out;
        }
 
        if (unlikely(!cur_dir)) {
-
                /* Root of tree being captured; get volume information.  */
-
-               FILE_FS_ATTRIBUTE_INFORMATION attr_info;
-               FILE_FS_VOLUME_INFORMATION vol_info;
-               IO_STATUS_BLOCK iosb;
-
-               /* Get volume flags  */
-               status = (*func_NtQueryVolumeInformationFile)(h, &iosb,
-                                                             &attr_info,
-                                                             sizeof(attr_info),
-                                                             FileFsAttributeInformation);
-               if (likely((NT_SUCCESS(status) ||
-                           (status == STATUS_BUFFER_OVERFLOW)) &&
-                          (iosb.Information >=
-                               offsetof(FILE_FS_ATTRIBUTE_INFORMATION,
-                                        FileSystemAttributes) +
-                               sizeof(attr_info.FileSystemAttributes))))
-               {
-                       vol_flags = attr_info.FileSystemAttributes;
-               } else {
-                       set_errno_from_nt_status(status);
-                       WARNING_WITH_ERRNO("\"%ls\": Can't get volume attributes "
-                                          "(status=0x%08"PRIx32")",
-                                          printable_path(full_path),
-                                          (u32)status);
-                       vol_flags = 0;
-               }
-
-               /* Set inode number of root directory  */
-               params->capture_root_ino =
-                       file_info.InternalInformation.IndexNumber.QuadPart;
-
-               /* Get volume ID.  */
-               status = (*func_NtQueryVolumeInformationFile)(h, &iosb,
-                                                             &vol_info,
-                                                             sizeof(vol_info),
-                                                             FileFsVolumeInformation);
-               if (likely((NT_SUCCESS(status) ||
-                           (status == STATUS_BUFFER_OVERFLOW)) &&
-                          (iosb.Information >=
-                               offsetof(FILE_FS_VOLUME_INFORMATION,
-                                        VolumeSerialNumber) +
-                               sizeof(vol_info.VolumeSerialNumber))))
-               {
-                       params->capture_root_dev = vol_info.VolumeSerialNumber;
-               } else {
-                       set_errno_from_nt_status(status);
-                       WARNING_WITH_ERRNO("\"%ls\": Can't get volume ID "
-                                          "(status=0x%08"PRIx32")",
-                                          printable_path(full_path),
-                                          (u32)status);
-                       params->capture_root_dev = 0;
-               }
+               ctx->vol_flags = get_volume_information(h, full_path, params);
+               params->capture_root_ino = file_info.ino;
        }
 
-       /* If this is a reparse point, read the reparse data.  */
-       if (unlikely(file_info.BasicInformation.FileAttributes &
-                    FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT))
-       {
-               rpbuf = alloca(REPARSE_POINT_MAX_SIZE);
-               ret = winnt_get_reparse_data(h, full_path, params,
-                                            rpbuf, &rpbuflen);
-               switch (ret) {
-               case RP_EXCLUDED:
-                       ret = 0;
-                       goto out;
-               case RP_FIXED:
-                       not_rpfixed = 0;
-                       break;
-               case RP_NOT_FIXED:
-                       not_rpfixed = 1;
-                       break;
-               default:
-                       ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("\"%ls\": Can't get reparse data",
-                                        printable_path(full_path));
-                       goto out;
-               }
-       }
 
        /* Create a WIM dentry with an associated inode, which may be shared.
         *
         * However, we need to explicitly check for directories and files with
         * only 1 link and refuse to hard link them.  This is because Windows
         * has a bug where it can return duplicate File IDs for files and
-        * directories on the FAT filesystem. */
+        * directories on the FAT filesystem.
+        *
+        * Since we don't follow mount points on Windows, we don't need to query
+        * the volume ID per-file.  Just once, for the root, is enough.  But we
+        * can't simply pass 0, because then there could be inode collisions
+        * among multiple calls to win32_build_dentry_tree() that are scanning
+        * files on different volumes.  */
        ret = inode_table_new_dentry(params->inode_table,
                                     filename,
-                                    file_info.InternalInformation.IndexNumber.QuadPart,
-                                    0, /* We don't follow mount points, so we
-                                          currently don't need to get the
-                                          volume ID / device number.  */
-                                    (file_info.StandardInformation.NumberOfLinks <= 1 ||
-                                       (file_info.BasicInformation.FileAttributes &
-                                        FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY)),
+                                    file_info.ino,
+                                    params->capture_root_dev,
+                                    (file_info.num_links <= 1),
                                     &root);
        if (ret)
                goto out;
@@ -1240,62 +1547,95 @@ winnt_build_dentry_tree_recursive(struct wim_dentry **root_ret,
        if (inode->i_nlink > 1) {
                /* Shared inode (hard link); skip reading per-inode information.
                 */
-               ret = 0;
                goto out_progress;
        }
 
-       inode->i_attributes = file_info.BasicInformation.FileAttributes;
-       inode->i_creation_time = file_info.BasicInformation.CreationTime.QuadPart;
-       inode->i_last_write_time = file_info.BasicInformation.LastWriteTime.QuadPart;
-       inode->i_last_access_time = file_info.BasicInformation.LastAccessTime.QuadPart;
-       inode->i_resolved = 1;
+       inode->i_attributes = file_info.attributes;
+       inode->i_creation_time = file_info.creation_time;
+       inode->i_last_write_time = file_info.last_write_time;
+       inode->i_last_access_time = file_info.last_access_time;
 
        /* Get the file's security descriptor, unless we are capturing in
         * NO_ACLS mode or the volume does not support security descriptors.  */
        if (!(params->add_flags & WIMLIB_ADD_FLAG_NO_ACLS)
-           && (vol_flags & FILE_PERSISTENT_ACLS))
+           && (ctx->vol_flags & FILE_PERSISTENT_ACLS))
        {
                status = winnt_get_security_descriptor(h, inode,
-                                                      params->sd_set, stats,
+                                                      params->sd_set, ctx,
                                                       params->add_flags);
                if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
-                       set_errno_from_nt_status(status);
-                       ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("\"%ls\": Can't read security "
-                                        "descriptor (status=0x%08"PRIu32")",
-                                        printable_path(full_path),
-                                        (u32)status);
+                       winnt_error(status,
+                                   L"\"%ls\": Can't read security descriptor",
+                                   printable_path(full_path));
                        ret = WIMLIB_ERR_STAT;
                        goto out;
                }
        }
 
-       /* Load information about the unnamed data stream and any named data
-        * streams.  */
-       ret = winnt_scan_streams(&h,
-                                full_path,
-                                full_path_nchars,
-                                inode,
-                                params->unhashed_streams,
-                                file_info.StandardInformation.EndOfFile.QuadPart,
-                                vol_flags);
-       if (ret)
-               goto out;
-
+       /* If this is a reparse point, load the reparse data.  */
        if (unlikely(inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT)) {
+               ret = winnt_load_reparse_data(h, inode, full_path, params);
+               if (ret)
+                       goto out;
+       }
 
-               /* Reparse point: set the reparse data (already read).  */
+       sort_key = get_sort_key(h);
 
-               inode->i_not_rpfixed = not_rpfixed;
-               inode->i_reparse_tag = le32_to_cpu(*(le32*)rpbuf);
-               ret = inode_set_unnamed_stream(inode, rpbuf + 8, rpbuflen - 8,
-                                              params->lookup_table);
+       if (unlikely(inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED)) {
+               /* Load information about the raw encrypted data.  This is
+                * needed for any directory or non-directory that has
+                * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED set.
+                *
+                * Note: since OpenEncryptedFileRaw() fails with
+                * ERROR_SHARING_VIOLATION if there are any open handles to the
+                * file, we have to close the file and re-open it later if
+                * needed.  */
+               (*func_NtClose)(h);
+               h = NULL;
+               ret = winnt_scan_efsrpc_raw_data(inode,
+                                                full_path,
+                                                full_path_nchars,
+                                                params->unhashed_blobs,
+                                                ctx->snapshot);
+               if (ret)
+                       goto out;
+       } else {
+               /*
+                * Load information about data streams (unnamed and named).
+                *
+                * Skip this step for encrypted files, since the data from
+                * ReadEncryptedFileRaw() already contains all data streams (and
+                * they do in fact all get restored by WriteEncryptedFileRaw().)
+                *
+                * Note: WIMGAPI (as of Windows 8.1) gets wrong and stores both
+                * the EFSRPC data and the named data stream(s)...!
+                */
+               ret = winnt_scan_data_streams(h,
+                                             full_path,
+                                             full_path_nchars,
+                                             inode,
+                                             params->unhashed_blobs,
+                                             file_info.end_of_file,
+                                             ctx->vol_flags,
+                                             ctx->snapshot);
                if (ret)
                        goto out;
-       } else if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY) {
+       }
+
+       if (unlikely(should_try_to_use_wimboot_hash(inode, ctx, params))) {
+               ret = try_to_use_wimboot_hash(h, inode, params->blob_table, ctx,
+                                             full_path);
+               if (ret)
+                       goto out;
+       }
+
+       set_sort_key(inode, sort_key);
+
+       if (inode_is_directory(inode)) {
 
                /* Directory: recurse to children.  */
 
-               if (unlikely(h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)) {
+               if (unlikely(!h)) {
                        /* Re-open handle that was closed to read raw encrypted
                         * data.  */
                        status = winnt_openat(cur_dir,
@@ -1306,11 +1646,9 @@ winnt_build_dentry_tree_recursive(struct wim_dentry **root_ret,
                                              FILE_LIST_DIRECTORY | SYNCHRONIZE,
                                              &h);
                        if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
-                               set_errno_from_nt_status(status);
-                               ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("\"%ls\": Can't re-open file "
-                                                "(status=0x%08"PRIx32")",
-                                                printable_path(full_path),
-                                                (u32)status);
+                               winnt_error(status,
+                                           L"\"%ls\": Can't re-open file",
+                                           printable_path(full_path));
                                ret = WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
                                goto out;
                        }
@@ -1320,8 +1658,7 @@ winnt_build_dentry_tree_recursive(struct wim_dentry **root_ret,
                                              full_path_nchars,
                                              root,
                                              params,
-                                             stats,
-                                             vol_flags);
+                                             ctx);
                if (ret)
                        goto out;
        }
@@ -1329,36 +1666,38 @@ winnt_build_dentry_tree_recursive(struct wim_dentry **root_ret,
 out_progress:
        params->progress.scan.cur_path = printable_path(full_path);
        if (likely(root))
-               do_capture_progress(params, WIMLIB_SCAN_DENTRY_OK, inode);
+               ret = do_capture_progress(params, WIMLIB_SCAN_DENTRY_OK, inode);
        else
-               do_capture_progress(params, WIMLIB_SCAN_DENTRY_EXCLUDED, NULL);
+               ret = do_capture_progress(params, WIMLIB_SCAN_DENTRY_EXCLUDED, NULL);
 out:
-       if (likely(h != INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE))
+       if (likely(h))
                (*func_NtClose)(h);
-       if (likely(ret == 0))
-               *root_ret = root;
-       else
-               free_dentry_tree(root, params->lookup_table);
+       if (unlikely(ret)) {
+               free_dentry_tree(root, params->blob_table);
+               root = NULL;
+               ret = report_capture_error(params, ret, full_path);
+       }
+       *root_ret = root;
        return ret;
 }
 
 static void
-winnt_do_scan_warnings(const wchar_t *path, const struct winnt_scan_stats *stats)
+winnt_do_scan_warnings(const wchar_t *path, const struct winnt_scan_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       if (likely(stats->num_get_sacl_priv_notheld == 0 &&
-                  stats->num_get_sd_access_denied == 0))
+       if (likely(ctx->num_get_sacl_priv_notheld == 0 &&
+                  ctx->num_get_sd_access_denied == 0))
                return;
 
        WARNING("Scan of \"%ls\" complete, but with one or more warnings:", path);
-       if (stats->num_get_sacl_priv_notheld != 0) {
+       if (ctx->num_get_sacl_priv_notheld != 0) {
                WARNING("- Could not capture SACL (System Access Control List)\n"
                        "            on %lu files or directories.",
-                       stats->num_get_sacl_priv_notheld);
+                       ctx->num_get_sacl_priv_notheld);
        }
-       if (stats->num_get_sd_access_denied != 0) {
+       if (ctx->num_get_sd_access_denied != 0) {
                WARNING("- Could not capture security descriptor at all\n"
                        "            on %lu files or directories.",
-                       stats->num_get_sd_access_denied);
+                       ctx->num_get_sd_access_denied);
        }
        WARNING("To fully capture all security descriptors, run the program\n"
                "          with Administrator rights.");
@@ -1370,13 +1709,13 @@ winnt_do_scan_warnings(const wchar_t *path, const struct winnt_scan_stats *stats
 int
 win32_build_dentry_tree(struct wim_dentry **root_ret,
                        const wchar_t *root_disk_path,
-                       struct add_image_params *params)
+                       struct capture_params *params)
 {
-       wchar_t *path;
-       DWORD dret;
-       size_t path_nchars;
+       wchar_t *path = NULL;
+       struct winnt_scan_ctx ctx = {};
+       UNICODE_STRING ntpath;
+       size_t ntpath_nchars;
        int ret;
-       struct winnt_scan_stats stats;
 
        /* WARNING: There is no check for overflow later when this buffer is
         * being used!  But it's as long as the maximum path length understood
@@ -1385,36 +1724,42 @@ win32_build_dentry_tree(struct wim_dentry **root_ret,
        if (!path)
                return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
 
-       /* Translate into full path.  */
-       dret = GetFullPathName(root_disk_path, WINDOWS_NT_MAX_PATH - 3,
-                              &path[4], NULL);
-
-       if (unlikely(dret == 0 || dret >= WINDOWS_NT_MAX_PATH - 3)) {
-               ERROR("Can't get full path name for \"%ls\"", root_disk_path);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_UNSUPPORTED;
-       }
-
-       /* Add \??\ prefix to form the NT namespace path.  */
-       wmemcpy(path, L"\\??\\", 4);
-       path_nchars = dret + 4;
+       if (params->add_flags & WIMLIB_ADD_FLAG_SNAPSHOT)
+               ret = vss_create_snapshot(root_disk_path, &ntpath, &ctx.snapshot);
+       else
+               ret = win32_path_to_nt_path(root_disk_path, &ntpath);
 
-       /* Strip trailing slashes.  If we don't do this, we may create a path
-       * with multiple consecutive backslashes, which for some reason causes
-       * Windows to report that the file cannot be found.  */
-       while (unlikely(path[path_nchars - 1] == L'\\' &&
-                       path[path_nchars - 2] != L':'))
-               path[--path_nchars] = L'\0';
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
 
-       params->capture_root_nchars = path_nchars;
+       if (ntpath.Length < 4 * sizeof(wchar_t) ||
+           ntpath.Length > WINDOWS_NT_MAX_PATH * sizeof(wchar_t) ||
+           wmemcmp(ntpath.Buffer, L"\\??\\", 4))
+       {
+               ERROR("\"%ls\": unrecognized path format", root_disk_path);
+               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_PARAM;
+       } else {
+               ntpath_nchars = ntpath.Length / sizeof(wchar_t);
+               wmemcpy(path, ntpath.Buffer, ntpath_nchars);
+               path[ntpath_nchars] = L'\0';
 
-       memset(&stats, 0, sizeof(stats));
+               params->capture_root_nchars = ntpath_nchars;
+               if (path[ntpath_nchars - 1] == L'\\')
+                       params->capture_root_nchars--;
+               ret = 0;
+       }
+       HeapFree(GetProcessHeap(), 0, ntpath.Buffer);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
 
        ret = winnt_build_dentry_tree_recursive(root_ret, NULL,
-                                               path, path_nchars, L"", 0,
-                                               params, &stats, 0);
+                                               path, ntpath_nchars,
+                                               L"", 0, params, &ctx);
+out:
+       vss_put_snapshot(ctx.snapshot);
        FREE(path);
        if (ret == 0)
-               winnt_do_scan_warnings(root_disk_path, &stats);
+               winnt_do_scan_warnings(root_disk_path, &ctx);
        return ret;
 }