Windows: improved error messages
[wimlib] / src / win32_apply.c
index 7148ca8..630a77f 100644 (file)
@@ -3,22 +3,20 @@
  */
 
 /*
- * Copyright (C) 2013 Eric Biggers
+ * Copyright (C) 2013, 2014, 2015 Eric Biggers
  *
- * This file is part of wimlib, a library for working with WIM files.
+ * This file is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
+ * the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free
+ * Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any
+ * later version.
  *
- * wimlib is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
- * terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
- * Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your option)
- * any later version.
- *
- * wimlib is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
- * WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR
- * A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more
+ * This file is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
+ * FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more
  * details.
  *
- * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
- * along with wimlib; if not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
+ * along with this file; if not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
  */
 
 #ifdef __WIN32__
 #  include "config.h"
 #endif
 
-#include <aclapi.h> /* for SetSecurityInfo() */
-
 #include "wimlib/win32_common.h"
 
 #include "wimlib/apply.h"
+#include "wimlib/assert.h"
+#include "wimlib/capture.h" /* for mangle_pat() and match_pattern_list()  */
 #include "wimlib/dentry.h"
-#include "wimlib/endianness.h"
 #include "wimlib/error.h"
 #include "wimlib/lookup_table.h"
 #include "wimlib/metadata.h"
+#include "wimlib/paths.h"
 #include "wimlib/reparse.h"
-#include "wimlib/security.h"
+#include "wimlib/textfile.h"
+#include "wimlib/xml.h"
+#include "wimlib/wildcard.h"
+#include "wimlib/wimboot.h"
+
+struct win32_apply_ctx {
+
+       /* Extract flags, the pointer to the WIMStruct, etc.  */
+       struct apply_ctx common;
+
+       /* WIMBoot information, only filled in if WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_WIMBOOT
+        * was provided  */
+       struct {
+               u64 data_source_id;
+               struct string_set *prepopulate_pats;
+               void *mem_prepopulate_pats;
+               u8 wim_lookup_table_hash[SHA1_HASH_SIZE];
+               bool wof_running;
+               bool tried_to_load_prepopulate_list;
+       } wimboot;
+
+       /* Open handle to the target directory  */
+       HANDLE h_target;
+
+       /* NT namespace path to the target directory (buffer allocated)  */
+       UNICODE_STRING target_ntpath;
+
+       /* Temporary buffer for building paths (buffer allocated)  */
+       UNICODE_STRING pathbuf;
+
+       /* Object attributes to reuse for opening files in the target directory.
+        * (attr.ObjectName == &pathbuf) and (attr.RootDirectory == h_target).
+        */
+       OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES attr;
 
-#define MAX_CREATE_HARD_LINK_WARNINGS 5
-#define MAX_CREATE_SOFT_LINK_WARNINGS 5
+       /* Temporary I/O status block for system calls  */
+       IO_STATUS_BLOCK iosb;
 
-#define MAX_SET_SD_ACCESS_DENIED_WARNINGS 1
-#define MAX_SET_SACL_PRIV_NOTHELD_WARNINGS 1
+       /* Allocated buffer for creating "printable" paths from our
+        * target-relative NT paths  */
+       wchar_t *print_buffer;
 
-static const wchar_t *apply_access_denied_msg =
-L"If you are not running this program as the administrator, you may\n"
- "          need to do so, so that all data and metadata can be extracted\n"
- "          exactly as the origignal copy.  However, if you do not care that\n"
- "          the security descriptors are extracted correctly, you could run\n"
- "          `wimlib-imagex apply' with the --no-acls flag instead.\n"
- ;
+       /* Allocated buffer for reading stream data when it cannot be extracted
+        * directly  */
+       u8 *data_buffer;
 
+       /* Pointer to the next byte in @data_buffer to fill  */
+       u8 *data_buffer_ptr;
 
-static int
-win32_extract_try_rpfix(u8 *rpbuf,
-                       u16 *rpbuflen_p,
-                       const wchar_t *extract_root_realpath,
-                       unsigned extract_root_realpath_nchars)
-{
-       struct reparse_data rpdata;
-       wchar_t *target;
-       size_t target_nchars;
-       size_t stripped_nchars;
-       wchar_t *stripped_target;
-       wchar_t stripped_target_nchars;
-       int ret;
+       /* Size allocated in @data_buffer  */
+       size_t data_buffer_size;
 
-       utf16lechar *new_target;
-       utf16lechar *new_print_name;
-       size_t new_target_nchars;
-       size_t new_print_name_nchars;
-       utf16lechar *p;
+       /* Current offset in the raw encrypted file being written  */
+       size_t encrypted_offset;
 
-       ret = parse_reparse_data(rpbuf, *rpbuflen_p, &rpdata);
-       if (ret)
-               return ret;
+       /* Current size of the raw encrypted file being written  */
+       size_t encrypted_size;
 
-       if (extract_root_realpath[0] == L'\0' ||
-           extract_root_realpath[1] != L':' ||
-           extract_root_realpath[2] != L'\\')
-       {
-               ERROR("Can't understand full path format \"%ls\".  "
-                     "Try turning reparse point fixups off...",
-                     extract_root_realpath);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_REPARSE_POINT_FIXUP_FAILED;
-       }
+       /* Temporary buffer for reparse data  */
+       struct reparse_buffer_disk rpbuf;
 
-       ret = parse_substitute_name(rpdata.substitute_name,
-                                   rpdata.substitute_name_nbytes,
-                                   rpdata.rptag);
-       if (ret < 0)
-               return 0;
-       stripped_nchars = ret;
-       target = rpdata.substitute_name;
-       target_nchars = rpdata.substitute_name_nbytes / sizeof(utf16lechar);
-       stripped_target = target + stripped_nchars;
-       stripped_target_nchars = target_nchars - stripped_nchars;
-
-       new_target = alloca((6 + extract_root_realpath_nchars +
-                            stripped_target_nchars) * sizeof(utf16lechar));
-
-       p = new_target;
-       if (stripped_nchars == 6) {
-               /* Include \??\ prefix if it was present before */
-               p = wmempcpy(p, L"\\??\\", 4);
-       }
+       /* Temporary buffer for reparse data of "fixed" absolute symbolic links
+        * and junctions  */
+       struct reparse_buffer_disk rpfixbuf;
 
-       /* Print name excludes the \??\ if present. */
-       new_print_name = p;
-       if (stripped_nchars != 0) {
-               /* Get drive letter from real path to extract root, if a drive
-                * letter was present before. */
-               *p++ = extract_root_realpath[0];
-               *p++ = extract_root_realpath[1];
-       }
-       /* Copy the rest of the extract root */
-       p = wmempcpy(p, extract_root_realpath + 2, extract_root_realpath_nchars - 2);
+       /* Array of open handles to filesystem streams currently being written
+        */
+       HANDLE open_handles[MAX_OPEN_STREAMS];
 
-       /* Append the stripped target */
-       p = wmempcpy(p, stripped_target, stripped_target_nchars);
-       new_target_nchars = p - new_target;
-       new_print_name_nchars = p - new_print_name;
+       /* Number of handles in @open_handles currently open (filled in from the
+        * beginning of the array)  */
+       unsigned num_open_handles;
 
-       if (new_target_nchars * sizeof(utf16lechar) >= REPARSE_POINT_MAX_SIZE ||
-           new_print_name_nchars * sizeof(utf16lechar) >= REPARSE_POINT_MAX_SIZE)
-       {
-               ERROR("Path names too long to do reparse point fixup!");
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_REPARSE_POINT_FIXUP_FAILED;
-       }
-       rpdata.substitute_name = new_target;
-       rpdata.substitute_name_nbytes = new_target_nchars * sizeof(utf16lechar);
-       rpdata.print_name = new_print_name;
-       rpdata.print_name_nbytes = new_print_name_nchars * sizeof(utf16lechar);
-       return make_reparse_buffer(&rpdata, rpbuf, rpbuflen_p);
-}
+       /* List of dentries, joined by @tmp_list, that need to have reparse data
+        * extracted as soon as the whole stream has been read into
+        * @data_buffer.  */
+       struct list_head reparse_dentries;
 
-/* Wrapper around the FSCTL_SET_REPARSE_POINT ioctl to set the reparse data on
- * an extracted reparse point. */
-static int
-win32_set_reparse_data(HANDLE h,
-                      const struct wim_inode *inode,
-                      const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte,
-                      const wchar_t *path,
-                      struct apply_args *args)
+       /* List of dentries, joined by @tmp_list, that need to have raw
+        * encrypted data extracted as soon as the whole stream has been read
+        * into @data_buffer.  */
+       struct list_head encrypted_dentries;
+
+       /* Number of files for which we didn't have permission to set the full
+        * security descriptor.  */
+       unsigned long partial_security_descriptors;
+
+       /* Number of files for which we didn't have permission to set any part
+        * of the security descriptor.  */
+       unsigned long no_security_descriptors;
+
+       /* Number of files for which we couldn't set the short name.  */
+       unsigned long num_set_short_name_failures;
+
+       /* Number of files for which we couldn't remove the short name.  */
+       unsigned long num_remove_short_name_failures;
+
+       /* Have we tried to enable short name support on the target volume yet?
+        */
+       bool tried_to_enable_short_names;
+};
+
+/* Get the drive letter from a Windows path, or return the null character if the
+ * path is relative.  */
+static wchar_t
+get_drive_letter(const wchar_t *path)
 {
-       int ret;
-       u8 rpbuf[REPARSE_POINT_MAX_SIZE] _aligned_attribute(8);
-       DWORD bytesReturned;
-       u16 rpbuflen;
+       /* Skip \\?\ prefix  */
+       if (!wcsncmp(path, L"\\\\?\\", 4))
+               path += 4;
 
-       DEBUG("Setting reparse data on \"%ls\"", path);
+       /* Return drive letter if valid  */
+       if (((path[0] >= L'a' && path[0] <= L'z') ||
+            (path[0] >= L'A' && path[0] <= L'Z')) && path[1] == L':')
+               return path[0];
 
-       ret = wim_inode_get_reparse_data(inode, rpbuf, &rpbuflen);
-       if (ret)
-               return ret;
+       return L'\0';
+}
 
-       if (args->extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_RPFIX &&
-           (inode->i_reparse_tag == WIM_IO_REPARSE_TAG_SYMLINK ||
-            inode->i_reparse_tag == WIM_IO_REPARSE_TAG_MOUNT_POINT) &&
-           !inode->i_not_rpfixed)
-       {
-               ret = win32_extract_try_rpfix(rpbuf,
-                                             &rpbuflen,
-                                             args->target_realpath,
-                                             args->target_realpath_len);
-               if (ret)
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_REPARSE_POINT_FIXUP_FAILED;
+static void
+get_vol_flags(const wchar_t *target, DWORD *vol_flags_ret,
+             bool *short_names_supported_ret)
+{
+       wchar_t filesystem_name[MAX_PATH + 1];
+       wchar_t drive[4];
+       wchar_t *volume = NULL;
+
+       *vol_flags_ret = 0;
+       *short_names_supported_ret = false;
+
+       drive[0] = get_drive_letter(target);
+       if (drive[0]) {
+               drive[1] = L':';
+               drive[2] = L'\\';
+               drive[3] = L'\0';
+               volume = drive;
        }
 
-       /* Set the reparse data on the open file using the
-        * FSCTL_SET_REPARSE_POINT ioctl.
-        *
-        * There are contradictions in Microsoft's documentation for this:
-        *
-        * "If hDevice was opened without specifying FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED,
-        * lpOverlapped is ignored."
-        *
-        * --- So setting lpOverlapped to NULL is okay since it's ignored.
-        *
-        * "If lpOverlapped is NULL, lpBytesReturned cannot be NULL. Even when an
-        * operation returns no output data and lpOutBuffer is NULL,
-        * DeviceIoControl makes use of lpBytesReturned. After such an
-        * operation, the value of lpBytesReturned is meaningless."
-        *
-        * --- So lpOverlapped not really ignored, as it affects another
-        *  parameter.  This is the actual behavior: lpBytesReturned must be
-        *  specified, even though lpBytesReturned is documented as:
-        *
-        *  "Not used with this operation; set to NULL."
-        */
-       if (!DeviceIoControl(h, FSCTL_SET_REPARSE_POINT, rpbuf,
-                            rpbuflen,
-                            NULL, 0,
-                            &bytesReturned /* lpBytesReturned */,
-                            NULL /* lpOverlapped */))
+       if (!GetVolumeInformation(volume, NULL, 0, NULL, NULL,
+                                 vol_flags_ret, filesystem_name,
+                                 ARRAY_LEN(filesystem_name)))
        {
-               DWORD err = GetLastError();
-               if (err == ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED || err == ERROR_PRIVILEGE_NOT_HELD)
-               {
-                       args->num_soft_links_failed++;
-                       if (args->num_soft_links_failed <= MAX_CREATE_SOFT_LINK_WARNINGS) {
-                               WARNING("Can't set reparse data on \"%ls\": Access denied!\n"
-                                       "          You may be trying to extract a symbolic "
-                                       "link without the\n"
-                                       "          SeCreateSymbolicLink privilege, which by "
-                                       "default non-Administrator\n"
-                                       "          accounts do not have.", path);
-                       }
-                       if (args->num_hard_links_failed == MAX_CREATE_HARD_LINK_WARNINGS) {
-                               WARNING("Suppressing further warnings regarding failure to extract\n"
-                                       "          reparse points due to insufficient privileges...");
-                       }
-               } else {
-                       ERROR("Failed to set reparse data on \"%ls\"", path);
-                       win32_error(err);
-                       if (inode->i_reparse_tag == WIM_IO_REPARSE_TAG_SYMLINK ||
-                           inode->i_reparse_tag == WIM_IO_REPARSE_TAG_MOUNT_POINT)
-                               return WIMLIB_ERR_LINK;
-                       else
-                               return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
-               }
+               win32_warning(GetLastError(),
+                             L"Failed to get volume information for \"%ls\"",
+                             target);
+               return;
+       }
+
+       if (wcsstr(filesystem_name, L"NTFS")) {
+               /* FILE_SUPPORTS_HARD_LINKS is only supported on Windows 7 and
+                * later.  Force it on anyway if filesystem is NTFS.  */
+               *vol_flags_ret |= FILE_SUPPORTS_HARD_LINKS;
+
+               /* There's no volume flag for short names, but according to the
+                * MS documentation they are only user-settable on NTFS.  */
+               *short_names_supported_ret = true;
        }
-       return 0;
 }
 
-/* Wrapper around the FSCTL_SET_COMPRESSION ioctl to change the
- * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED flag of a file or directory. */
+static const wchar_t *
+current_path(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx);
+
+static void
+build_extraction_path(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                     struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx);
+
 static int
-win32_set_compression_state(HANDLE hFile, USHORT format, const wchar_t *path)
+report_dentry_apply_error(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                         struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx, int ret)
 {
-       DWORD bytesReturned;
-       if (!DeviceIoControl(hFile, FSCTL_SET_COMPRESSION,
-                            &format, sizeof(USHORT),
-                            NULL, 0,
-                            &bytesReturned, NULL))
-       {
-               /* Could be a warning only, but we only call this if the volume
-                * supports compression.  So I'm calling this an error. */
-               DWORD err = GetLastError();
-               ERROR("Failed to set compression flag on \"%ls\"", path);
-               win32_error(err);
-               if (err == ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED || err == ERROR_PRIVILEGE_NOT_HELD)
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_INSUFFICIENT_PRIVILEGES_TO_EXTRACT;
-               else
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
-       }
-       return 0;
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+       return report_apply_error(&ctx->common, ret, current_path(ctx));
 }
 
-/* Wrapper around FSCTL_SET_SPARSE ioctl to set a file as sparse. */
-static int
-win32_set_sparse(HANDLE hFile, const wchar_t *path)
+static inline int
+check_apply_error(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                 struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx, int ret)
 {
-       DWORD bytesReturned;
-       if (!DeviceIoControl(hFile, FSCTL_SET_SPARSE,
-                            NULL, 0,
-                            NULL, 0,
-                            &bytesReturned, NULL))
-       {
-               /* Could be a warning only, but we only call this if the volume
-                * supports sparse files.  So I'm calling this an error. */
-               DWORD err = GetLastError();
-               WARNING("Failed to set sparse flag on \"%ls\"", path);
-               win32_error(err);
-               if (err == ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED || err == ERROR_PRIVILEGE_NOT_HELD)
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_INSUFFICIENT_PRIVILEGES_TO_EXTRACT;
-               else
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
-       }
-       return 0;
+       if (unlikely(ret))
+               ret = report_dentry_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+       return ret;
 }
 
-/*
- * Sets the security descriptor on an extracted file.
- */
 static int
-win32_set_security_data(const struct wim_inode *inode,
-                       HANDLE hFile,
-                       const wchar_t *path,
-                       struct apply_args *args)
+win32_get_supported_features(const wchar_t *target,
+                            struct wim_features *supported_features)
 {
-       PSECURITY_DESCRIPTOR descriptor;
-       unsigned long n;
-       DWORD err;
-       const struct wim_security_data *sd;
-
-       SECURITY_INFORMATION securityInformation = 0;
-
-       void *owner = NULL;
-       void *group = NULL;
-       ACL *dacl = NULL;
-       ACL *sacl = NULL;
-
-       BOOL owner_defaulted;
-       BOOL group_defaulted;
-       BOOL dacl_present;
-       BOOL dacl_defaulted;
-       BOOL sacl_present;
-       BOOL sacl_defaulted;
+       DWORD vol_flags;
+       bool short_names_supported;
 
-       sd = wim_const_security_data(args->w);
-       descriptor = sd->descriptors[inode->i_security_id];
+       /* Query the features of the target volume.  */
 
-       GetSecurityDescriptorOwner(descriptor, &owner, &owner_defaulted);
-       if (owner)
-               securityInformation |= OWNER_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
+       get_vol_flags(target, &vol_flags, &short_names_supported);
 
-       GetSecurityDescriptorGroup(descriptor, &group, &group_defaulted);
-       if (group)
-               securityInformation |= GROUP_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
+       supported_features->archive_files = 1;
+       supported_features->hidden_files = 1;
+       supported_features->system_files = 1;
 
-       GetSecurityDescriptorDacl(descriptor, &dacl_present,
-                                 &dacl, &dacl_defaulted);
-       if (dacl)
-               securityInformation |= DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
+       if (vol_flags & FILE_FILE_COMPRESSION)
+               supported_features->compressed_files = 1;
 
-       GetSecurityDescriptorSacl(descriptor, &sacl_present,
-                                 &sacl, &sacl_defaulted);
-       if (sacl)
-               securityInformation |= SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
-
-again:
-       if (securityInformation == 0)
-               return 0;
-       if (SetSecurityInfo(hFile, SE_FILE_OBJECT,
-                           securityInformation, owner, group, dacl, sacl))
-               return 0;
-       err = GetLastError();
-       if (args->extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS)
-               goto fail;
-       switch (err) {
-       case ERROR_PRIVILEGE_NOT_HELD:
-               if (securityInformation & SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION) {
-                       n = args->num_set_sacl_priv_notheld++;
-                       securityInformation &= ~SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
-                       sacl = NULL;
-                       if (n < MAX_SET_SACL_PRIV_NOTHELD_WARNINGS) {
-                               WARNING(
-"We don't have enough privileges to set the full security\n"
-"          descriptor on \"%ls\"!\n", path);
-                               if (args->num_set_sd_access_denied +
-                                   args->num_set_sacl_priv_notheld == 1)
-                               {
-                                       WARNING("%ls", apply_access_denied_msg);
-                               }
-                               WARNING("Re-trying with SACL omitted.\n", path);
-                       } else if (n == MAX_SET_SACL_PRIV_NOTHELD_WARNINGS) {
-                               WARNING(
-"Suppressing further 'privileges not held' error messages when setting\n"
-"          security descriptors.");
-                       }
-                       goto again;
-               }
-               /* Fall through */
-       case ERROR_INVALID_OWNER:
-       case ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED:
-               n = args->num_set_sd_access_denied++;
-               if (n < MAX_SET_SD_ACCESS_DENIED_WARNINGS) {
-                       WARNING("Failed to set security descriptor on \"%ls\": "
-                               "Access denied!\n", path);
-                       if (args->num_set_sd_access_denied +
-                           args->num_set_sacl_priv_notheld == 1)
-                       {
-                               WARNING("%ls", apply_access_denied_msg);
-                       }
-               } else if (n == MAX_SET_SD_ACCESS_DENIED_WARNINGS) {
-                       WARNING(
-"Suppressing further access denied error messages when setting\n"
-"          security descriptors");
-               }
-               return 0;
-       default:
-fail:
-               ERROR("Failed to set security descriptor on \"%ls\"", path);
-               win32_error(err);
-               if (err == ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED || err == ERROR_PRIVILEGE_NOT_HELD)
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_INSUFFICIENT_PRIVILEGES_TO_EXTRACT;
-               else
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
+       if (vol_flags & FILE_SUPPORTS_ENCRYPTION) {
+               supported_features->encrypted_files = 1;
+               supported_features->encrypted_directories = 1;
        }
-}
 
+       supported_features->not_context_indexed_files = 1;
 
-static int
-win32_extract_chunk(const void *buf, size_t len, void *arg)
-{
-       HANDLE hStream = arg;
+       /* Don't do anything with FILE_SUPPORTS_SPARSE_FILES.  */
 
-       DWORD nbytes_written;
-       wimlib_assert(len <= 0xffffffff);
+       if (vol_flags & FILE_NAMED_STREAMS)
+               supported_features->named_data_streams = 1;
 
-       if (!WriteFile(hStream, buf, len, &nbytes_written, NULL) ||
-           nbytes_written != len)
-       {
-               DWORD err = GetLastError();
-               ERROR("WriteFile(): write error");
-               win32_error(err);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
-       }
-       return 0;
-}
+       if (vol_flags & FILE_SUPPORTS_HARD_LINKS)
+               supported_features->hard_links = 1;
 
-static int
-do_win32_extract_stream(HANDLE hStream, const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte)
-{
-       return extract_wim_resource(lte, wim_resource_size(lte),
-                                   win32_extract_chunk, hStream);
-}
+       if (vol_flags & FILE_SUPPORTS_REPARSE_POINTS)
+               supported_features->reparse_points = 1;
 
-struct win32_encrypted_extract_ctx {
-       const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte;
-       u64 offset;
-};
+       if (vol_flags & FILE_PERSISTENT_ACLS)
+               supported_features->security_descriptors = 1;
 
-static DWORD WINAPI
-win32_encrypted_import_cb(unsigned char *data, void *_ctx,
-                         unsigned long *len_p)
-{
-       struct win32_encrypted_extract_ctx *ctx = _ctx;
-       unsigned long len = *len_p;
-       const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte = ctx->lte;
+       if (short_names_supported)
+               supported_features->short_names = 1;
 
-       len = min(len, wim_resource_size(lte) - ctx->offset);
+       supported_features->timestamps = 1;
 
-       if (read_partial_wim_resource_into_buf(lte, len, ctx->offset, data))
-               return ERROR_READ_FAULT;
+       /* Note: Windows does not support case sensitive filenames!  At least
+        * not without changing the registry and rebooting...  */
 
-       ctx->offset += len;
-       *len_p = len;
-       return ERROR_SUCCESS;
+       return 0;
 }
 
-/* Create an encrypted file and extract the raw encrypted data to it.
- *
- * @path:  Path to encrypted file to create.
- * @lte:   WIM lookup_table entry for the raw encrypted data.
- *
- * This is separate from do_win32_extract_stream() because the WIM is supposed
- * to contain the *raw* encrypted data, which needs to be extracted ("imported")
- * using the special APIs OpenEncryptedFileRawW(), WriteEncryptedFileRaw(), and
- * CloseEncryptedFileRaw().
- *
- * Returns 0 on success; nonzero on failure.
- */
+/* Load the patterns from [PrepopulateList] of WimBootCompress.ini in the WIM
+ * image being extracted.  */
 static int
-do_win32_extract_encrypted_stream(const wchar_t *path,
-                                 const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte)
+load_prepopulate_pats(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       void *file_ctx;
+       const wchar_t *path = L"\\Windows\\System32\\WimBootCompress.ini";
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte;
        int ret;
+       void *buf;
+       struct string_set *s;
+       void *mem;
+       struct text_file_section sec;
+
+       ctx->wimboot.tried_to_load_prepopulate_list = true;
+
+       dentry = get_dentry(ctx->common.wim, path, WIMLIB_CASE_INSENSITIVE);
+       if (!dentry ||
+           (dentry->d_inode->i_attributes & (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY |
+                                             FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT |
+                                             FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED)) ||
+           !(lte = inode_unnamed_lte(dentry->d_inode, ctx->common.wim->lookup_table)))
+       {
+               WARNING("%ls does not exist in WIM image!", path);
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_PATH_DOES_NOT_EXIST;
+       }
 
-       DEBUG("Opening file \"%ls\" to extract raw encrypted data", path);
+       ret = read_full_stream_into_alloc_buf(lte, &buf);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
 
-       ret = OpenEncryptedFileRawW(path, CREATE_FOR_IMPORT, &file_ctx);
-       if (ret) {
-               ERROR("Failed to open \"%ls\" to write raw encrypted data", path);
-               win32_error(ret);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
+       s = CALLOC(1, sizeof(struct string_set));
+       if (!s) {
+               FREE(buf);
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
        }
 
-       if (lte) {
-               struct win32_encrypted_extract_ctx ctx;
+       sec.name = T("PrepopulateList");
+       sec.strings = s;
 
-               ctx.lte = lte;
-               ctx.offset = 0;
-               ret = WriteEncryptedFileRaw(win32_encrypted_import_cb, &ctx, file_ctx);
-               if (ret == ERROR_SUCCESS) {
-                       ret = 0;
-               } else {
-                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
-                       ERROR("Failed to extract encrypted file \"%ls\"", path);
-               }
+       ret = do_load_text_file(path, buf, lte->size, &mem, &sec, 1,
+                               LOAD_TEXT_FILE_REMOVE_QUOTES |
+                                       LOAD_TEXT_FILE_NO_WARNINGS,
+                               mangle_pat);
+       BUILD_BUG_ON(OS_PREFERRED_PATH_SEPARATOR != WIM_PATH_SEPARATOR);
+       FREE(buf);
+       if (ret) {
+               FREE(s);
+               return ret;
        }
-       CloseEncryptedFileRaw(file_ctx);
-       return ret;
+       ctx->wimboot.prepopulate_pats = s;
+       ctx->wimboot.mem_prepopulate_pats = mem;
+       return 0;
 }
 
-static inline DWORD
-win32_mask_attributes(DWORD i_attributes)
+/* Returns %true if the specified absolute path to a file in the WIM image
+ * matches a pattern in [PrepopulateList] of WimBootCompress.ini.  Otherwise
+ * returns %false.  */
+static bool
+in_prepopulate_list(const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars,
+                   const struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       return i_attributes & ~(FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE |
-                               FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED |
-                               FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT |
-                               FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY |
-                               FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED |
-                               FILE_FLAG_DELETE_ON_CLOSE |
-                               FILE_FLAG_NO_BUFFERING |
-                               FILE_FLAG_OPEN_NO_RECALL |
-                               FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED |
-                               FILE_FLAG_RANDOM_ACCESS |
-                               /*FILE_FLAG_SESSION_AWARE |*/
-                               FILE_FLAG_SEQUENTIAL_SCAN |
-                               FILE_FLAG_WRITE_THROUGH);
+       const struct string_set *pats = ctx->wimboot.prepopulate_pats;
+
+       if (!pats || !pats->num_strings)
+               return false;
+
+       return match_pattern_list(path, path_nchars, pats);
 }
 
-static inline DWORD
-win32_get_create_flags_and_attributes(DWORD i_attributes)
+/* Returns %true if the specified absolute path to a file in the WIM image can
+ * be subject to external backing when extracted.  Otherwise returns %false.  */
+static bool
+can_externally_back_path(const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars,
+                        const struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       /*
-        * Some attributes cannot be set by passing them to CreateFile().  In
-        * particular:
-        *
-        * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY:
-        *   CreateDirectory() must be called instead of CreateFile().
-        *
-        * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE:
-        *   Needs an ioctl.
-        *   See: win32_set_sparse().
-        *
-        * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED:
-        *   Not clear from the documentation, but apparently this needs an
-        *   ioctl as well.
-        *   See: win32_set_compressed().
-        *
-        * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT:
-        *   Needs an ioctl, with the reparse data specified.
-        *   See: win32_set_reparse_data().
-        *
-        * In addition, clear any file flags in the attributes that we don't
-        * want, but also specify FILE_FLAG_OPEN_REPARSE_POINT and
-        * FILE_FLAG_BACKUP_SEMANTICS as we are a backup application.
-        */
-       return win32_mask_attributes(i_attributes) |
-               FILE_FLAG_OPEN_REPARSE_POINT |
-               FILE_FLAG_BACKUP_SEMANTICS;
+       if (in_prepopulate_list(path, path_nchars, ctx))
+               return false;
+
+       /* Since we attempt to modify the SYSTEM registry after it's extracted
+        * (see end_wimboot_extraction()), it can't be extracted as externally
+        * backed.  This extends to associated files such as SYSTEM.LOG that
+        * also must be writable in order to write to the registry.  Normally,
+        * SYSTEM is in [PrepopulateList], and the SYSTEM.* files match patterns
+        * in [ExclusionList] and therefore are not captured in the WIM at all.
+        * However, a WIM that wasn't specifically captured in "WIMBoot mode"
+        * may contain SYSTEM.* files.  So to make things "just work", hard-code
+        * the pattern.  */
+       if (match_path(path, path_nchars, L"\\Windows\\System32\\config\\SYSTEM*",
+                      OS_PREFERRED_PATH_SEPARATOR, false))
+               return false;
+
+       return true;
 }
 
-/* Set compression and/or sparse attributes on a stream, if supported by the
- * volume. */
+#define WIM_BACKING_NOT_ENABLED                -1
+#define WIM_BACKING_NOT_POSSIBLE       -2
+#define WIM_BACKING_EXCLUDED           -3
+
 static int
-win32_set_special_stream_attributes(HANDLE hFile, const struct wim_inode *inode,
-                                   struct wim_lookup_table_entry *unnamed_stream_lte,
-                                   const wchar_t *path, unsigned vol_flags)
+will_externally_back_inode(struct wim_inode *inode, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx,
+                          const struct wim_dentry **excluded_dentry_ret)
 {
+       struct list_head *next;
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       struct wim_lookup_table_entry *stream;
        int ret;
 
-       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED) {
-               if (vol_flags & FILE_FILE_COMPRESSION) {
-                       ret = win32_set_compression_state(hFile,
-                                                         COMPRESSION_FORMAT_DEFAULT,
-                                                         path);
-                       if (ret)
-                               return ret;
-               } else {
-                       DEBUG("Cannot set compression attribute on \"%ls\": "
-                             "volume does not support transparent compression",
-                             path);
-               }
-       }
+       if (inode->i_can_externally_back)
+               return 0;
 
-       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE) {
-               if (vol_flags & FILE_SUPPORTS_SPARSE_FILES) {
-                       DEBUG("Setting sparse flag on \"%ls\"", path);
-                       ret = win32_set_sparse(hFile, path);
-                       if (ret)
-                               return ret;
-               } else {
-                       DEBUG("Cannot set sparse attribute on \"%ls\": "
-                             "volume does not support sparse files",
-                             path);
-               }
-       }
-       return 0;
-}
+       /* This may do redundant checks because the cached value
+        * i_can_externally_back is 2-state (as opposed to 3-state:
+        * unknown/no/yes).  But most files can be externally backed, so this
+        * way is fine.  */
 
-/* Pre-create directories; extract encrypted streams */
-static int
-win32_begin_extract_unnamed_stream(const struct wim_inode *inode,
-                                  const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte,
-                                  const wchar_t *path,
-                                  DWORD *creationDisposition_ret,
-                                  unsigned int vol_flags)
-{
-       DWORD err;
-       int ret;
+       if (inode->i_attributes & (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY |
+                                  FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT |
+                                  FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED))
+               return WIM_BACKING_NOT_POSSIBLE;
 
-       /* Directories must be created with CreateDirectoryW().  Then the call
-        * to CreateFileW() will merely open the directory that was already
-        * created rather than creating a new file. */
-       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY) {
-               if (!win32_path_is_root_of_drive(path)) {
-                       if (!CreateDirectoryW(path, NULL)) {
-                               err = GetLastError();
-                               if (err != ERROR_ALREADY_EXISTS) {
-                                       ERROR("Failed to create directory \"%ls\"",
-                                             path);
-                                       win32_error(err);
-                                       return WIMLIB_ERR_MKDIR;
-                               }
-                       }
-                       DEBUG("Created directory \"%ls\"", path);
-               }
-               *creationDisposition_ret = OPEN_EXISTING;
-       }
-       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED &&
-           vol_flags & FILE_SUPPORTS_ENCRYPTION)
-       {
-               if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY) {
-                       unsigned remaining_sharing_violations = 100;
-                       while (!EncryptFile(path)) {
-                               if (remaining_sharing_violations &&
-                                   err == ERROR_SHARING_VIOLATION)
-                               {
-                                       WARNING("Couldn't encrypt directory \"%ls\" "
-                                               "due to sharing violation; re-trying "
-                                               "after 100 ms", path);
-                                       Sleep(100);
-                                       remaining_sharing_violations--;
-                               } else {
-                                       err = GetLastError();
-                                       ERROR("Failed to encrypt directory \"%ls\"",
-                                             path);
-                                       win32_error(err);
-                                       return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
-                               }
-                       }
-               } else {
-                       ret = do_win32_extract_encrypted_stream(path, lte);
-                       if (ret)
-                               return ret;
-                       DEBUG("Extracted encrypted file \"%ls\"", path);
-               }
-               *creationDisposition_ret = OPEN_EXISTING;
-       }
+       stream = inode_unnamed_lte_resolved(inode);
 
-       /* Set file attributes if we created the file.  Otherwise, we haven't
-        * created the file set and we will set the attributes in the call to
-        * CreateFileW().
-        *
-        * The FAT filesystem does not let you change the attributes of the root
-        * directory, so treat that as a special case and do not set attributes.
-        * */
-       if (*creationDisposition_ret == OPEN_EXISTING &&
-           !win32_path_is_root_of_drive(path))
-       {
-               if (!SetFileAttributesW(path,
-                                       win32_mask_attributes(inode->i_attributes)))
+       if (!stream ||
+           stream->resource_location != RESOURCE_IN_WIM ||
+           stream->rspec->wim != ctx->common.wim ||
+           stream->size != stream->rspec->uncompressed_size)
+               return WIM_BACKING_NOT_POSSIBLE;
+
+       /*
+        * We need to check the patterns in [PrepopulateList] against every name
+        * of the inode, in case any of them match.
+        */
+       next = inode->i_extraction_aliases.next;
+       do {
+               dentry = list_entry(next, struct wim_dentry,
+                                   d_extraction_alias_node);
+
+               ret = calculate_dentry_full_path(dentry);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+
+               if (!can_externally_back_path(dentry->_full_path,
+                                             wcslen(dentry->_full_path), ctx))
                {
-                       err = GetLastError();
-                       ERROR("Failed to set attributes on \"%ls\"", path);
-                       win32_error(err);
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
+                       if (excluded_dentry_ret)
+                               *excluded_dentry_ret = dentry;
+                       return WIM_BACKING_EXCLUDED;
                }
-       }
+               next = next->next;
+       } while (next != &inode->i_extraction_aliases);
+
+       inode->i_can_externally_back = 1;
        return 0;
 }
 
-/* Set security descriptor and extract stream data or reparse data (skip the
- * unnamed data stream of encrypted files, which was already extracted). */
+/*
+ * Determines if the unnamed data stream of a file will be created as an
+ * external backing, as opposed to a standard extraction.
+ */
 static int
-win32_finish_extract_stream(HANDLE h, const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
-                           const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte,
-                           const wchar_t *stream_path,
-                           const wchar_t *stream_name_utf16,
-                           struct apply_args *args)
+win32_will_externally_back(struct wim_dentry *dentry, struct apply_ctx *_ctx)
 {
-       int ret = 0;
-       const struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
-       if (stream_name_utf16 == NULL) {
-               /* Unnamed stream. */
-
-               /* Set security descriptor, unless the extract_flags indicate
-                * not to or the volume does not supported it.  Note that this
-                * is only done when the unnamed stream is being extracted, as
-                * security descriptors are per-file and not per-stream. */
-               if (inode->i_security_id >= 0 &&
-                   !(args->extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_ACLS)
-                   && (args->vol_flags & FILE_PERSISTENT_ACLS))
-               {
-                       ret = win32_set_security_data(inode, h, stream_path, args);
-                       if (ret)
-                               return ret;
-               }
+       struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx = (struct win32_apply_ctx *)_ctx;
 
-               /* Handle reparse points.  The data for them needs to be set
-                * using a special ioctl.  Note that the reparse point may have
-                * been created using CreateFileW() in the case of
-                * non-directories or CreateDirectoryW() in the case of
-                * directories; but the ioctl works either way.  Also, it is
-                * only this step that actually sets the
-                * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT, as it is not valid to set it
-                * using SetFileAttributesW() or CreateFileW().
-                *
-                * If the volume does not support reparse points we simply
-                * ignore the reparse data.  (N.B. the code currently doesn't
-                * actually reach this case because reparse points are skipped
-                * entirely on such volumes.) */
-               if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT) {
-                       if (args->vol_flags & FILE_SUPPORTS_REPARSE_POINTS) {
-                               ret = win32_set_reparse_data(h, inode,
-                                                            lte, stream_path,
-                                                            args);
-                               if (ret)
-                                       return ret;
-                       } else {
-                               DEBUG("Cannot set reparse data on \"%ls\": volume "
-                                     "does not support reparse points", stream_path);
-                       }
-               } else if (lte != NULL &&
-                          !(args->vol_flags & FILE_SUPPORTS_ENCRYPTION &&
-                            inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED))
-               {
-                       /* Extract the data of the unnamed stream, unless the
-                        * lookup table entry is NULL (indicating an empty
-                        * stream for which no data needs to be extracted), or
-                        * the stream is encrypted and therefore was already
-                        * extracted as a special case. */
-                       ret = do_win32_extract_stream(h, lte);
-                       if (ret)
-                               return ret;
-               }
+       if (!(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_WIMBOOT))
+               return WIM_BACKING_NOT_ENABLED;
 
-               if (dentry_has_short_name(dentry) && !dentry->dos_name_invalid)
-                       SetFileShortNameW(h, dentry->short_name);
-               else if (running_on_windows_7_or_later())
-                       SetFileShortNameW(h, L"");
-       } else {
-               /* Extract the data for a named data stream. */
-               if (lte != NULL) {
-                       DEBUG("Extracting named data stream \"%ls\" (len = %"PRIu64")",
-                             stream_path, wim_resource_size(lte));
-                       ret = do_win32_extract_stream(h, lte);
-               }
-       }
-       return ret;
-}
+       if (!ctx->wimboot.tried_to_load_prepopulate_list)
+               if (load_prepopulate_pats(ctx) == WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM)
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
 
-static int
-win32_decrypt_file(HANDLE open_handle, const wchar_t *path)
-{
-       DWORD err;
-       /* We cannot call DecryptFileW() while there is an open handle to the
-        * file.  So close it first. */
-       if (!CloseHandle(open_handle)) {
-               err = GetLastError();
-               ERROR("Failed to close handle for \"%ls\"", path);
-               win32_error(err);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
-       }
-       if (!DecryptFileW(path, 0 /* reserved parameter; set to 0 */)) {
-               err = GetLastError();
-               ERROR("Failed to decrypt file \"%ls\"", path);
-               win32_error(err);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
-       }
-       return 0;
+       return will_externally_back_inode(dentry->d_inode, ctx, NULL);
 }
 
-/*
- * Create and extract a stream to a file, or create a directory, using the
- * Windows API.
- *
- * This handles reparse points, directories, alternate data streams, encrypted
- * files, compressed files, etc.
- *
- * @dentry: WIM dentry for the file or directory being extracted.
- *
- * @path:  Path to extract the file to.
- *
- * @stream_name_utf16:
- *        Name of the stream, or NULL if the stream is unnamed.  This will
- *        be called with a NULL stream_name_utf16 before any non-NULL
- *        stream_name_utf16's.
- *
- * @lte:   WIM lookup table entry for the stream.  May be NULL to indicate
- *         a stream of length 0.
- *
- * @args:  Additional apply context, including flags indicating supported
- *         volume features.
- *
- * Returns 0 on success; nonzero on failure.
- */
 static int
-win32_extract_stream(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
-                    const wchar_t *path,
-                    const wchar_t *stream_name_utf16,
-                    struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte,
-                    struct apply_args *args)
+set_external_backing(HANDLE h, struct wim_inode *inode, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       wchar_t *stream_path;
-       HANDLE h;
        int ret;
-       DWORD err;
-       DWORD creationDisposition = CREATE_ALWAYS;
-       DWORD requestedAccess;
-       BY_HANDLE_FILE_INFORMATION file_info;
-       unsigned remaining_sharing_violations = 1000;
-       const struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       const struct wim_dentry *excluded_dentry;
 
-       if (stream_name_utf16) {
-               /* Named stream.  Create a buffer that contains the UTF-16LE
-                * string [.\]path:stream_name_utf16.  This is needed to
-                * create and open the stream using CreateFileW().  I'm not
-                * aware of any other APIs to do this.  Note: the '$DATA' suffix
-                * seems to be unneeded.  Additional note: a ".\" prefix needs
-                * to be added when the path is a 1-character long relative path
-                * to avoid ambiguity with drive letters. */
-               size_t stream_path_nchars;
-               size_t path_nchars;
-               size_t stream_name_nchars;
-               const wchar_t *prefix;
-
-               path_nchars = wcslen(path);
-               stream_name_nchars = wcslen(stream_name_utf16);
-               stream_path_nchars = path_nchars + 1 + stream_name_nchars;
-               if (path_nchars == 1 && !is_any_path_separator(path[0])) {
-                       static const wchar_t _prefix[] =
-                               {L'.', OS_PREFERRED_PATH_SEPARATOR, L'\0'};
-                       prefix = _prefix;
-                       stream_path_nchars += 2;
-               } else {
-                       prefix = L"";
-               }
-               stream_path = alloca((stream_path_nchars + 1) * sizeof(wchar_t));
-               swprintf(stream_path, L"%ls%ls:%ls",
-                        prefix, path, stream_name_utf16);
-       } else {
-               /* Unnamed stream; its path is just the path to the file itself.
-                * */
-               stream_path = (wchar_t*)path;
+       ret = will_externally_back_inode(inode, ctx, &excluded_dentry);
+       if (ret > 0) /* Error.  */
+               return ret;
 
-               ret = win32_begin_extract_unnamed_stream(inode, lte, path,
-                                                        &creationDisposition,
-                                                        args->vol_flags);
-               if (ret)
-                       goto fail;
-       }
+       if (ret < 0 && ret != WIM_BACKING_EXCLUDED)
+               return 0; /* Not externally backing, other than due to exclusion.  */
 
-       DEBUG("Opening \"%ls\"", stream_path);
-       requestedAccess = GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE |
-                         ACCESS_SYSTEM_SECURITY;
-       /* DELETE access is needed for SetFileShortNameW(), for some reason.
-        * But don't request it for the extraction root, for the following
-        * reasons:
-        *
-        * - Requesting DELETE access on the extraction root will cause a
-        *   sharing violation if the extraction root is the current working
-        *   directory (".").
-        * - The extraction root may be extracted to a different name than given
-        *   in the WIM file, in which case the DOS name, if given, would not be
-        *   meaningful.
-        * - For full-image extractions, the root dentry is supposed to be
-        *   unnamed anyway.
-        * - Microsoft's ImageX does not extract the root directory.
-        */
-       if (dentry != args->extract_root)
-               requestedAccess |= DELETE;
-try_open_again:
-       /* Open the stream to be extracted.  Depending on what we have set
-        * creationDisposition to, we may be creating this for the first time,
-        * or we may be opening on existing stream we already created using
-        * CreateDirectoryW() or OpenEncryptedFileRawW(). */
-       h = CreateFileW(stream_path,
-                       requestedAccess,
-                       FILE_SHARE_READ,
-                       NULL,
-                       creationDisposition,
-                       win32_get_create_flags_and_attributes(inode->i_attributes),
-                       NULL);
-       if (h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) {
-               err = GetLastError();
-               if (err == ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED &&
-                   win32_path_is_root_of_drive(stream_path))
-               {
-                       ret = 0;
-                       goto out;
-               }
-               if ((err == ERROR_PRIVILEGE_NOT_HELD ||
-                    err == ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED) &&
-                   (requestedAccess & ACCESS_SYSTEM_SECURITY))
-               {
-                       /* Try opening the file again without privilege to
-                        * modify SACL. */
-                       requestedAccess &= ~ACCESS_SYSTEM_SECURITY;
-                       goto try_open_again;
-               }
-               if (err == ERROR_SHARING_VIOLATION &&
-                   (inode->i_attributes & (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED |
-                                           FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY)) ==
-                       (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED | FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY))
+       if (unlikely(ret == WIM_BACKING_EXCLUDED)) {
+               /* Not externally backing due to exclusion.  */
+               union wimlib_progress_info info;
+
+               build_extraction_path(excluded_dentry, ctx);
+
+               info.wimboot_exclude.path_in_wim = excluded_dentry->_full_path;
+               info.wimboot_exclude.extraction_path = current_path(ctx);
+
+               return call_progress(ctx->common.progfunc,
+                                    WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_WIMBOOT_EXCLUDE,
+                                    &info, ctx->common.progctx);
+       } else {
+               /* Externally backing.  */
+               if (unlikely(!wimboot_set_pointer(h,
+                                                 inode_unnamed_lte_resolved(inode),
+                                                 ctx->wimboot.data_source_id,
+                                                 ctx->wimboot.wim_lookup_table_hash,
+                                                 ctx->wimboot.wof_running)))
                {
-                       if (remaining_sharing_violations) {
-                               --remaining_sharing_violations;
-                               /* This can happen when restoring encrypted directories
-                                * for some reason.  Probably a bug in EncryptFile(). */
-                               WARNING("Couldn't open \"%ls\" due to sharing violation; "
-                                       "re-trying after 100ms", stream_path);
-                               Sleep(100);
-                               goto try_open_again;
-                       } else {
-                               ERROR("Too many sharing violations; giving up...");
-                       }
+                       const DWORD err = GetLastError();
+
+                       build_extraction_path(inode_first_extraction_dentry(inode), ctx);
+                       win32_error(err, L"\"%ls\": Couldn't set WIMBoot pointer data",
+                                   current_path(ctx));
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_WIMBOOT;
                }
-               if (creationDisposition == OPEN_EXISTING)
-                       ERROR("Failed to open \"%ls\"", stream_path);
-               else
-                       ERROR("Failed to create \"%ls\"", stream_path);
-               win32_error(err);
-               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
-               goto fail;
+               return 0;
        }
+}
 
-       /* Check the attributes of the file we just opened, and remove
-        * encryption or compression if either was set by default but is not
-        * supposed to be set based on the WIM inode attributes. */
-       if (!GetFileInformationByHandle(h, &file_info)) {
-               err = GetLastError();
-               ERROR("Failed to get attributes of \"%ls\"", stream_path);
-               win32_error(err);
-               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_STAT;
-               goto fail_close_handle;
-       }
+/* Calculates the SHA-1 message digest of the WIM's lookup table.  */
+static int
+hash_lookup_table(WIMStruct *wim, u8 hash[SHA1_HASH_SIZE])
+{
+       return wim_reshdr_to_hash(&wim->hdr.lookup_table_reshdr, wim, hash);
+}
 
-       /* Remove encryption? */
-       if (file_info.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED &&
-           !(inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED))
-       {
-               /* File defaulted to encrypted due to being in an encrypted
-                * directory, but is not actually supposed to be encrypted.
-                *
-                * This is a workaround, because I'm not aware of any way to
-                * directly (e.g. with CreateFileW()) create an unencrypted file
-                * in a directory with FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED set. */
-               ret = win32_decrypt_file(h, stream_path);
-               if (ret)
-                       goto fail; /* win32_decrypt_file() closed the handle. */
-               creationDisposition = OPEN_EXISTING;
-               goto try_open_again;
-       }
+/* Prepare for doing a "WIMBoot" extraction by loading patterns from
+ * [PrepopulateList] of WimBootCompress.ini and allocating a WOF data source ID
+ * on the target volume.  */
+static int
+start_wimboot_extraction(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       int ret;
+       WIMStruct *wim = ctx->common.wim;
 
-       /* Remove compression? */
-       if (file_info.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED &&
-           !(inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED))
-       {
-               /* Similar to the encrypted case, above, if the file defaulted
-                * to compressed due to being in an compressed directory, but is
-                * not actually supposed to be compressed, explicitly set the
-                * compression format to COMPRESSION_FORMAT_NONE. */
-               ret = win32_set_compression_state(h, COMPRESSION_FORMAT_NONE,
-                                                 stream_path);
-               if (ret)
-                       goto fail_close_handle;
-       }
+       if (!ctx->wimboot.tried_to_load_prepopulate_list)
+               if (load_prepopulate_pats(ctx) == WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM)
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
 
-       /* Set compression and/or sparse attributes if needed */
-       ret = win32_set_special_stream_attributes(h, inode, lte, path,
-                                                 args->vol_flags);
+       if (!wim_info_get_wimboot(wim->wim_info, wim->current_image))
+               WARNING("Image is not marked as WIMBoot compatible!");
 
+       ret = hash_lookup_table(ctx->common.wim,
+                               ctx->wimboot.wim_lookup_table_hash);
        if (ret)
-               goto fail_close_handle;
-
-       /* At this point we have at least created the needed stream with the
-        * appropriate attributes.  We have yet to set the appropriate security
-        * descriptor and actually extract the stream data (other than for
-        * extracted files, which were already extracted).
-        * win32_finish_extract_stream() handles these additional steps. */
-       ret = win32_finish_extract_stream(h, dentry, lte, stream_path,
-                                         stream_name_utf16, args);
-       if (ret)
-               goto fail_close_handle;
-
-       /* Done extracting the stream.  Close the handle and return. */
-       DEBUG("Closing \"%ls\"", stream_path);
-       if (!CloseHandle(h)) {
-               err = GetLastError();
-               ERROR("Failed to close \"%ls\"", stream_path);
-               win32_error(err);
-               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
-               goto fail;
-       }
-       ret = 0;
-       goto out;
-fail_close_handle:
-       CloseHandle(h);
-fail:
-       ERROR("Error extracting \"%ls\"", stream_path);
-out:
-       return ret;
+               return ret;
+
+       return wimboot_alloc_data_source_id(wim->filename,
+                                           wim->hdr.guid,
+                                           wim->current_image,
+                                           ctx->common.target,
+                                           &ctx->wimboot.data_source_id,
+                                           &ctx->wimboot.wof_running);
 }
 
-/*
- * Creates a file, directory, or reparse point and extracts all streams to it
- * (unnamed data stream and/or reparse point stream, plus any alternate data
- * streams).  Handles sparse, compressed, and/or encrypted files.
- *
- * @dentry:    WIM dentry for this file or directory.
- * @path:      UTF-16LE external path to extract the inode to.
- * @args:      Additional extraction context.
+static void
+build_win32_extraction_path(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                           struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx);
+
+/* Sets WimBoot=1 in the extracted SYSTEM registry hive.
  *
- * Returns 0 on success; nonzero on failure.
- */
+ * WIMGAPI does this, and it's possible that it's important.
+ * But I don't know exactly what this value means to Windows.  */
 static int
-win32_extract_streams(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
-                     const wchar_t *path, struct apply_args *args)
+end_wimboot_extraction(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       struct wim_lookup_table_entry *unnamed_lte;
-       int ret;
-       const struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       wchar_t subkeyname[32];
+       LONG res;
+       LONG res2;
+       HKEY key;
+       DWORD value;
 
-       /* First extract the unnamed stream. */
+       dentry = get_dentry(ctx->common.wim, L"\\Windows\\System32\\config\\SYSTEM",
+                           WIMLIB_CASE_INSENSITIVE);
 
-       unnamed_lte = inode_unnamed_lte_resolved(inode);
-       ret = win32_extract_stream(dentry, path, NULL, unnamed_lte, args);
-       if (ret)
+       if (!dentry || !will_extract_dentry(dentry))
                goto out;
 
-       /* Extract any named streams, if supported by the volume. */
+       if (!will_extract_dentry(wim_get_current_root_dentry(ctx->common.wim)))
+               goto out;
+
+       /* Not bothering to use the native routines (e.g. NtLoadKey()) for this.
+        * If this doesn't work, you probably also have many other problems.  */
+
+       build_win32_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+
+       randomize_char_array_with_alnum(subkeyname, 20);
+       subkeyname[20] = L'\0';
+
+       res = RegLoadKey(HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, subkeyname, ctx->pathbuf.Buffer);
+       if (res)
+               goto out_check_res;
+
+       wcscpy(&subkeyname[20], L"\\Setup");
+
+       res = RegCreateKeyEx(HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, subkeyname, 0, NULL,
+                            REG_OPTION_BACKUP_RESTORE, 0, NULL, &key, NULL);
+       if (res)
+               goto out_unload_key;
+
+       value = 1;
+
+       res = RegSetValueEx(key, L"WimBoot", 0, REG_DWORD,
+                           (const BYTE *)&value, sizeof(DWORD));
+       if (res)
+               goto out_close_key;
+
+       res = RegFlushKey(key);
+
+out_close_key:
+       res2 = RegCloseKey(key);
+       if (!res)
+               res = res2;
+out_unload_key:
+       subkeyname[20] = L'\0';
+       RegUnLoadKey(HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, subkeyname);
+out_check_res:
+       if (res) {
+               /* Warning only.  */
+               win32_warning(res, L"Failed to set \\Setup: dword \"WimBoot\"=1 "
+                             "value in registry hive \"%ls\"",
+                             ctx->pathbuf.Buffer);
+       }
+out:
+       return 0;
+}
+
+/* Returns the number of wide characters needed to represent the path to the
+ * specified @dentry, relative to the target directory, when extracted.
+ *
+ * Does not include null terminator (not needed for NtCreateFile).  */
+static size_t
+dentry_extraction_path_length(const struct wim_dentry *dentry)
+{
+       size_t len = 0;
+       const struct wim_dentry *d;
+
+       d = dentry;
+       do {
+               len += d->d_extraction_name_nchars + 1;
+               d = d->d_parent;
+       } while (!dentry_is_root(d) && will_extract_dentry(d));
+
+       return --len;  /* No leading slash  */
+}
+
+/* Returns the length of the longest string that might need to be appended to
+ * the path to an alias of an inode to open or create a named data stream.
+ *
+ * If the inode has no named data streams, this will be 0.  Otherwise, this will
+ * be 1 plus the length of the longest-named data stream, since the data stream
+ * name must be separated from the path by the ':' character.  */
+static size_t
+inode_longest_named_data_stream_spec(const struct wim_inode *inode)
+{
+       size_t max = 0;
+       for (u16 i = 0; i < inode->i_num_ads; i++) {
+               size_t len = inode->i_ads_entries[i].stream_name_nbytes;
+               if (len > max)
+                       max = len;
+       }
+       if (max)
+               max = 1 + (max / sizeof(wchar_t));
+       return max;
+}
+
+/* Find the length, in wide characters, of the longest path needed for
+ * extraction of any file in @dentry_list relative to the target directory.
+ *
+ * Accounts for named data streams, but does not include null terminator (not
+ * needed for NtCreateFile).  */
+static size_t
+compute_path_max(struct list_head *dentry_list)
+{
+       size_t max = 0;
+       const struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+
+       list_for_each_entry(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node) {
+               size_t len;
+
+               len = dentry_extraction_path_length(dentry);
+
+               /* Account for named data streams  */
+               len += inode_longest_named_data_stream_spec(dentry->d_inode);
+
+               if (len > max)
+                       max = len;
+       }
+
+       return max;
+}
+
+/* Build the path at which to extract the @dentry, relative to the target
+ * directory.
+ *
+ * The path is saved in ctx->pathbuf.  */
+static void
+build_extraction_path(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                     struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       size_t len;
+       wchar_t *p;
+       const struct wim_dentry *d;
+
+       len = dentry_extraction_path_length(dentry);
+
+       ctx->pathbuf.Length = len * sizeof(wchar_t);
+       p = ctx->pathbuf.Buffer + len;
+       for (d = dentry;
+            !dentry_is_root(d->d_parent) && will_extract_dentry(d->d_parent);
+            d = d->d_parent)
+       {
+               p -= d->d_extraction_name_nchars;
+               wmemcpy(p, d->d_extraction_name, d->d_extraction_name_nchars);
+               *--p = '\\';
+       }
+       /* No leading slash  */
+       p -= d->d_extraction_name_nchars;
+       wmemcpy(p, d->d_extraction_name, d->d_extraction_name_nchars);
+}
+
+/* Build the path at which to extract the @dentry, relative to the target
+ * directory, adding the suffix for a named data stream.
+ *
+ * The path is saved in ctx->pathbuf.  */
+static void
+build_extraction_path_with_ads(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                              struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx,
+                              const wchar_t *stream_name,
+                              size_t stream_name_nchars)
+{
+       wchar_t *p;
+
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+
+       /* Add :NAME for named data stream  */
+       p = ctx->pathbuf.Buffer + (ctx->pathbuf.Length / sizeof(wchar_t));
+       *p++ = L':';
+       wmemcpy(p, stream_name, stream_name_nchars);
+       ctx->pathbuf.Length += (1 + stream_name_nchars) * sizeof(wchar_t);
+}
+
+/* Build the Win32 namespace path to the specified @dentry when extracted.
+ *
+ * The path is saved in ctx->pathbuf and will be null terminated.
+ *
+ * XXX: We could get rid of this if it wasn't needed for the file encryption
+ * APIs, and the registry manipulation in WIMBoot mode.  */
+static void
+build_win32_extraction_path(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                           struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+
+       /* Prepend target_ntpath to our relative path, then change \??\ into \\?\  */
+
+       memmove(ctx->pathbuf.Buffer +
+                       (ctx->target_ntpath.Length / sizeof(wchar_t)) + 1,
+               ctx->pathbuf.Buffer, ctx->pathbuf.Length);
+       memcpy(ctx->pathbuf.Buffer, ctx->target_ntpath.Buffer,
+               ctx->target_ntpath.Length);
+       ctx->pathbuf.Buffer[ctx->target_ntpath.Length / sizeof(wchar_t)] = L'\\';
+       ctx->pathbuf.Length += ctx->target_ntpath.Length + sizeof(wchar_t);
+       ctx->pathbuf.Buffer[ctx->pathbuf.Length / sizeof(wchar_t)] = L'\0';
+
+       wimlib_assert(ctx->pathbuf.Length >= 4 * sizeof(wchar_t) &&
+                     !wmemcmp(ctx->pathbuf.Buffer, L"\\??\\", 4));
+
+       ctx->pathbuf.Buffer[1] = L'\\';
+
+}
+
+/* Returns a "printable" representation of the last relative NT path that was
+ * constructed with build_extraction_path() or build_extraction_path_with_ads().
+ *
+ * This will be overwritten by the next call to this function.  */
+static const wchar_t *
+current_path(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       wchar_t *p = ctx->print_buffer;
+
+       p = wmempcpy(p, ctx->common.target, ctx->common.target_nchars);
+       *p++ = L'\\';
+       p = wmempcpy(p, ctx->pathbuf.Buffer, ctx->pathbuf.Length / sizeof(wchar_t));
+       *p = L'\0';
+       return ctx->print_buffer;
+}
+
+/* Open handle to the target directory if it is not already open.  If the target
+ * directory does not exist, this creates it.  */
+static int
+open_target_directory(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       NTSTATUS status;
+
+       if (ctx->h_target)
+               return 0;
+
+       ctx->attr.Length = sizeof(ctx->attr);
+       ctx->attr.RootDirectory = NULL;
+       ctx->attr.ObjectName = &ctx->target_ntpath;
+       status = (*func_NtCreateFile)(&ctx->h_target,
+                                     FILE_TRAVERSE,
+                                     &ctx->attr,
+                                     &ctx->iosb,
+                                     NULL,
+                                     0,
+                                     FILE_SHARE_VALID_FLAGS,
+                                     FILE_OPEN_IF,
+                                     FILE_DIRECTORY_FILE |
+                                             FILE_OPEN_REPARSE_POINT |
+                                             FILE_OPEN_FOR_BACKUP_INTENT,
+                                     NULL,
+                                     0);
+       if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+               winnt_error(status, L"Can't open or create directory \"%ls\"",
+                           ctx->common.target);
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_OPENDIR;
+       }
+       ctx->attr.RootDirectory = ctx->h_target;
+       ctx->attr.ObjectName = &ctx->pathbuf;
+       return 0;
+}
+
+static void
+close_target_directory(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       if (ctx->h_target) {
+               (*func_NtClose)(ctx->h_target);
+               ctx->h_target = NULL;
+               ctx->attr.RootDirectory = NULL;
+       }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Ensures the target directory exists and opens a handle to it, in preparation
+ * of using paths relative to it.
+ */
+static int
+prepare_target(struct list_head *dentry_list, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       int ret;
+       size_t path_max;
+
+       ret = win32_path_to_nt_path(ctx->common.target, &ctx->target_ntpath);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
+
+       ret = open_target_directory(ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
+
+       path_max = compute_path_max(dentry_list);
+       /* Add some extra for building Win32 paths for the file encryption APIs,
+        * and ensure we have at least enough to potentially use a 8.3 name for
+        * the last component.  */
+       path_max += max(2 + (ctx->target_ntpath.Length / sizeof(wchar_t)),
+                       8 + 1 + 3);
+
+       ctx->pathbuf.MaximumLength = path_max * sizeof(wchar_t);
+       ctx->pathbuf.Buffer = MALLOC(ctx->pathbuf.MaximumLength);
+       if (!ctx->pathbuf.Buffer)
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+
+       ctx->print_buffer = MALLOC((ctx->common.target_nchars + 1 + path_max + 1) *
+                                  sizeof(wchar_t));
+       if (!ctx->print_buffer)
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+/* When creating an inode that will have a short (DOS) name, we create it using
+ * the long name associated with the short name.  This ensures that the short
+ * name gets associated with the correct long name.  */
+static struct wim_dentry *
+first_extraction_alias(const struct wim_inode *inode)
+{
+       struct list_head *next = inode->i_extraction_aliases.next;
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+
+       do {
+               dentry = list_entry(next, struct wim_dentry,
+                                   d_extraction_alias_node);
+               if (dentry_has_short_name(dentry))
+                       break;
+               next = next->next;
+       } while (next != &inode->i_extraction_aliases);
+       return dentry;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Set or clear FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED if the inherited value is different
+ * from the desired value.
+ *
+ * Note that you can NOT override the inherited value of
+ * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED directly with NtCreateFile().
+ */
+static int
+adjust_compression_attribute(HANDLE h, const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                            struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       const bool compressed = (dentry->d_inode->i_attributes &
+                                FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED);
+
+       if (ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_ATTRIBUTES)
+               return 0;
+
+       if (!ctx->common.supported_features.compressed_files)
+               return 0;
+
+       FILE_BASIC_INFORMATION info;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       USHORT compression_state;
+
+       /* Get current attributes  */
+       status = (*func_NtQueryInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb,
+                                               &info, sizeof(info),
+                                               FileBasicInformation);
+       if (NT_SUCCESS(status) &&
+           compressed == !!(info.FileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED))
+       {
+               /* Nothing needs to be done.  */
+               return 0;
+       }
+
+       /* Set the new compression state  */
+
+       if (compressed)
+               compression_state = COMPRESSION_FORMAT_DEFAULT;
+       else
+               compression_state = COMPRESSION_FORMAT_NONE;
+
+       status = (*func_NtFsControlFile)(h,
+                                        NULL,
+                                        NULL,
+                                        NULL,
+                                        &ctx->iosb,
+                                        FSCTL_SET_COMPRESSION,
+                                        &compression_state,
+                                        sizeof(USHORT),
+                                        NULL,
+                                        0);
+       if (NT_SUCCESS(status))
+               return 0;
+
+       winnt_error(status, L"Can't %s compression attribute on \"%ls\"",
+                   (compressed ? "set" : "clear"), current_path(ctx));
+       return WIMLIB_ERR_SET_ATTRIBUTES;
+}
+
+/* Try to enable short name support on the target volume.  If successful, return
+ * true.  If unsuccessful, issue a warning and return false.  */
+static bool
+try_to_enable_short_names(const wchar_t *volume)
+{
+       HANDLE h;
+       FILE_FS_PERSISTENT_VOLUME_INFORMATION info;
+       BOOL bret;
+       DWORD bytesReturned;
+
+       h = CreateFile(volume, GENERIC_WRITE,
+                      FILE_SHARE_VALID_FLAGS, NULL, OPEN_EXISTING,
+                      FILE_FLAG_BACKUP_SEMANTICS, NULL);
+       if (h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
+               goto fail;
+
+       info.VolumeFlags = 0;
+       info.FlagMask = PERSISTENT_VOLUME_STATE_SHORT_NAME_CREATION_DISABLED;
+       info.Version = 1;
+       info.Reserved = 0;
+
+       bret = DeviceIoControl(h, FSCTL_SET_PERSISTENT_VOLUME_STATE,
+                              &info, sizeof(info), NULL, 0,
+                              &bytesReturned, NULL);
+
+       CloseHandle(h);
+
+       if (!bret)
+               goto fail;
+       return true;
+
+fail:
+       win32_warning(GetLastError(),
+                     L"Failed to enable short name support on %ls",
+                     volume + 4);
+       return false;
+}
+
+static NTSTATUS
+remove_conflicting_short_name(const struct wim_dentry *dentry, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       wchar_t *name;
+       wchar_t *end;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       HANDLE h;
+       size_t bufsize = offsetof(FILE_NAME_INFORMATION, FileName) +
+                        (13 * sizeof(wchar_t));
+       u8 buf[bufsize] _aligned_attribute(8);
+       bool retried = false;
+       FILE_NAME_INFORMATION *info = (FILE_NAME_INFORMATION *)buf;
+
+       memset(buf, 0, bufsize);
+
+       /* Build the path with the short name.  */
+       name = &ctx->pathbuf.Buffer[ctx->pathbuf.Length / sizeof(wchar_t)];
+       while (name != ctx->pathbuf.Buffer && *(name - 1) != L'\\')
+               name--;
+       end = mempcpy(name, dentry->short_name, dentry->short_name_nbytes);
+       ctx->pathbuf.Length = ((u8 *)end - (u8 *)ctx->pathbuf.Buffer);
+
+       /* Open the conflicting file (by short name).  */
+       status = (*func_NtOpenFile)(&h, GENERIC_WRITE | DELETE,
+                                   &ctx->attr, &ctx->iosb,
+                                   FILE_SHARE_VALID_FLAGS,
+                                   FILE_OPEN_REPARSE_POINT | FILE_OPEN_FOR_BACKUP_INTENT);
+       if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+               winnt_warning(status, L"Can't open \"%ls\"", current_path(ctx));
+               goto out;
+       }
+
+#if 0
+       WARNING("Overriding conflicting short name; path=\"%ls\"",
+               current_path(ctx));
+#endif
+
+       /* Try to remove the short name on the conflicting file.  */
+
+retry:
+       status = (*func_NtSetInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb, info, bufsize,
+                                             FileShortNameInformation);
+
+       if (status == STATUS_INVALID_PARAMETER && !retried) {
+
+               /* Microsoft forgot to make it possible to remove short names
+                * until Windows 7.  Oops.  Use a random short name instead.  */
+
+               info->FileNameLength = 12 * sizeof(wchar_t);
+               for (int i = 0; i < 8; i++)
+                       info->FileName[i] = 'A' + (rand() % 26);
+               info->FileName[8] = L'.';
+               info->FileName[9] = L'W';
+               info->FileName[10] = L'L';
+               info->FileName[11] = L'B';
+               info->FileName[12] = L'\0';
+               retried = true;
+               goto retry;
+       }
+       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+out:
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+       return status;
+}
+
+/* Set the short name on the open file @h which has been created at the location
+ * indicated by @dentry.
+ *
+ * Note that this may add, change, or remove the short name.
+ *
+ * @h must be opened with DELETE access.
+ *
+ * Returns 0 or WIMLIB_ERR_SET_SHORT_NAME.  The latter only happens in
+ * STRICT_SHORT_NAMES mode.
+ */
+static int
+set_short_name(HANDLE h, const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+              struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+
+       if (!ctx->common.supported_features.short_names)
+               return 0;
+
+       /*
+        * Note: The size of the FILE_NAME_INFORMATION buffer must be such that
+        * FileName contains at least 2 wide characters (4 bytes).  Otherwise,
+        * NtSetInformationFile() will return STATUS_INFO_LENGTH_MISMATCH.  This
+        * is despite the fact that FileNameLength can validly be 0 or 2 bytes,
+        * with the former case being removing the existing short name if
+        * present, rather than setting one.
+        *
+        * The null terminator is seemingly optional, but to be safe we include
+        * space for it and zero all unused space.
+        */
+
+       size_t bufsize = offsetof(FILE_NAME_INFORMATION, FileName) +
+                        max(dentry->short_name_nbytes, sizeof(wchar_t)) +
+                        sizeof(wchar_t);
+       u8 buf[bufsize] _aligned_attribute(8);
+       FILE_NAME_INFORMATION *info = (FILE_NAME_INFORMATION *)buf;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       bool tried_to_remove_existing = false;
+
+       memset(buf, 0, bufsize);
+
+       info->FileNameLength = dentry->short_name_nbytes;
+       memcpy(info->FileName, dentry->short_name, dentry->short_name_nbytes);
+
+retry:
+       status = (*func_NtSetInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb, info, bufsize,
+                                             FileShortNameInformation);
+       if (NT_SUCCESS(status))
+               return 0;
+
+       if (status == STATUS_SHORT_NAMES_NOT_ENABLED_ON_VOLUME) {
+               if (dentry->short_name_nbytes == 0)
+                       return 0;
+               if (!ctx->tried_to_enable_short_names) {
+                       wchar_t volume[7];
+                       int ret;
+
+                       ctx->tried_to_enable_short_names = true;
+
+                       ret = win32_get_drive_path(ctx->common.target,
+                                                  volume);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+                       if (try_to_enable_short_names(volume))
+                               goto retry;
+               }
+       }
+
+       /*
+        * Short names can conflict in several cases:
+        *
+        * - a file being extracted has a short name conflicting with an
+        *   existing file
+        *
+        * - a file being extracted has a short name conflicting with another
+        *   file being extracted (possible, but shouldn't happen)
+        *
+        * - a file being extracted has a short name that conflicts with the
+        *   automatically generated short name of a file we previously
+        *   extracted, but failed to set the short name for.  Sounds unlikely,
+        *   but this actually does happen fairly often on versions of Windows
+        *   prior to Windows 7 because they do not support removing short names
+        *   from files.
+        */
+       if (unlikely(status == STATUS_OBJECT_NAME_COLLISION) &&
+           dentry->short_name_nbytes && !tried_to_remove_existing)
+       {
+               tried_to_remove_existing = true;
+               status = remove_conflicting_short_name(dentry, ctx);
+               if (NT_SUCCESS(status))
+                       goto retry;
+       }
+
+       /* By default, failure to set short names is not an error (since short
+        * names aren't too important anymore...).  */
+       if (!(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_SHORT_NAMES)) {
+               if (dentry->short_name_nbytes)
+                       ctx->num_set_short_name_failures++;
+               else
+                       ctx->num_remove_short_name_failures++;
+               return 0;
+       }
+
+       winnt_error(status, L"Can't set short name on \"%ls\"", current_path(ctx));
+       return WIMLIB_ERR_SET_SHORT_NAME;
+}
+
+/*
+ * A wrapper around NtCreateFile() to make it slightly more usable...
+ * This uses the path currently constructed in ctx->pathbuf.
+ *
+ * Also, we always specify FILE_OPEN_FOR_BACKUP_INTENT and
+ * FILE_OPEN_REPARSE_POINT.
+ */
+static NTSTATUS
+do_create_file(PHANDLE FileHandle,
+              ACCESS_MASK DesiredAccess,
+              PLARGE_INTEGER AllocationSize,
+              ULONG FileAttributes,
+              ULONG CreateDisposition,
+              ULONG CreateOptions,
+              struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       return (*func_NtCreateFile)(FileHandle,
+                                   DesiredAccess,
+                                   &ctx->attr,
+                                   &ctx->iosb,
+                                   AllocationSize,
+                                   FileAttributes,
+                                   FILE_SHARE_VALID_FLAGS,
+                                   CreateDisposition,
+                                   CreateOptions |
+                                       FILE_OPEN_FOR_BACKUP_INTENT |
+                                       FILE_OPEN_REPARSE_POINT,
+                                   NULL,
+                                   0);
+}
+
+/* Like do_create_file(), but builds the extraction path of the @dentry first.
+ */
+static NTSTATUS
+create_file(PHANDLE FileHandle,
+           ACCESS_MASK DesiredAccess,
+           PLARGE_INTEGER AllocationSize,
+           ULONG FileAttributes,
+           ULONG CreateDisposition,
+           ULONG CreateOptions,
+           const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+           struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+       return do_create_file(FileHandle,
+                             DesiredAccess,
+                             AllocationSize,
+                             FileAttributes,
+                             CreateDisposition,
+                             CreateOptions,
+                             ctx);
+}
+
+static int
+delete_file_or_stream(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       HANDLE h;
+       FILE_DISPOSITION_INFORMATION disposition_info;
+       FILE_BASIC_INFORMATION basic_info;
+       bool retried = false;
+
+       status = do_create_file(&h,
+                               DELETE,
+                               NULL,
+                               0,
+                               FILE_OPEN,
+                               FILE_NON_DIRECTORY_FILE,
+                               ctx);
+       if (unlikely(!NT_SUCCESS(status))) {
+               winnt_error(status, L"Can't open \"%ls\" for deletion",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
+       }
+
+retry:
+       disposition_info.DoDeleteFile = TRUE;
+       status = (*func_NtSetInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb,
+                                             &disposition_info,
+                                             sizeof(disposition_info),
+                                             FileDispositionInformation);
+       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+       if (likely(NT_SUCCESS(status)))
+               return 0;
+
+       if (status == STATUS_CANNOT_DELETE && !retried) {
+               /* Clear file attributes and try again.  This is necessary for
+                * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY files.  */
+               status = do_create_file(&h,
+                                       FILE_WRITE_ATTRIBUTES | DELETE,
+                                       NULL,
+                                       0,
+                                       FILE_OPEN,
+                                       FILE_NON_DIRECTORY_FILE,
+                                       ctx);
+               if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+                       winnt_error(status,
+                                   L"Can't open \"%ls\" to reset attributes",
+                                   current_path(ctx));
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
+               }
+               memset(&basic_info, 0, sizeof(basic_info));
+               basic_info.FileAttributes = FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL;
+               status = (*func_NtSetInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb,
+                                                     &basic_info,
+                                                     sizeof(basic_info),
+                                                     FileBasicInformation);
+               if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+                       winnt_error(status,
+                                   L"Can't reset file attributes on \"%ls\"",
+                                   current_path(ctx));
+                       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_SET_ATTRIBUTES;
+               }
+               retried = true;
+               goto retry;
+       }
+       winnt_error(status, L"Can't delete \"%ls\"", current_path(ctx));
+       return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Create a nondirectory file or named data stream at the current path,
+ * superseding any that already exists at that path.  If successful, return an
+ * open handle to the file or named data stream.
+ */
+static int
+supersede_file_or_stream(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx, HANDLE *h_ret)
+{
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       bool retried = false;
+
+       /* FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM is needed to ensure that
+        * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED doesn't get set before we want it to be.  */
+retry:
+       status = do_create_file(h_ret,
+                               GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE | DELETE,
+                               NULL,
+                               FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM,
+                               FILE_CREATE,
+                               FILE_NON_DIRECTORY_FILE,
+                               ctx);
+       if (likely(NT_SUCCESS(status)))
+               return 0;
+
+       /* STATUS_OBJECT_NAME_COLLISION means that the file or stream already
+        * exists.  Delete the existing file or stream, then try again.
+        *
+        * Note: we don't use FILE_OVERWRITE_IF or FILE_SUPERSEDE because of
+        * problems with certain file attributes, especially
+        * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED.  FILE_SUPERSEDE is also broken in the
+        * Windows PE ramdisk.  */
+       if (status == STATUS_OBJECT_NAME_COLLISION && !retried) {
+               int ret = delete_file_or_stream(ctx);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+               retried = true;
+               goto retry;
+       }
+       winnt_error(status, L"Can't create \"%ls\"", current_path(ctx));
+       return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
+}
+
+/* Create empty named data streams.
+ *
+ * Since these won't have 'struct wim_lookup_table_entry's, they won't show up
+ * in the call to extract_stream_list().  Hence the need for the special case.
+ */
+static int
+create_any_empty_ads(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                    struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       const struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       bool path_modified = false;
+       int ret = 0;
+
+       if (!ctx->common.supported_features.named_data_streams)
+               return 0;
+
+       for (u16 i = 0; i < inode->i_num_ads; i++) {
+               const struct wim_ads_entry *entry;
+               HANDLE h;
+
+               entry = &inode->i_ads_entries[i];
+
+               /* Not named?  */
+               if (!entry->stream_name_nbytes)
+                       continue;
+
+               /* Not empty?  */
+               if (entry->lte)
+                       continue;
+
+               build_extraction_path_with_ads(dentry, ctx,
+                                              entry->stream_name,
+                                              entry->stream_name_nbytes /
+                                                       sizeof(wchar_t));
+               path_modified = true;
+               ret = supersede_file_or_stream(ctx, &h);
+               if (ret)
+                       break;
+               (*func_NtClose)(h);
+       }
+       /* Restore the path to the dentry itself  */
+       if (path_modified)
+               build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+       return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Creates the directory named by @dentry, or uses an existing directory at that
+ * location.  If necessary, sets the short name and/or fixes compression and
+ * encryption attributes.
+ *
+ * Returns 0, WIMLIB_ERR_MKDIR, or WIMLIB_ERR_SET_SHORT_NAME.
+ */
+static int
+create_directory(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       HANDLE h;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       int ret;
+
+       /* DELETE is needed for set_short_name(); GENERIC_READ and GENERIC_WRITE
+        * are needed for adjust_compression_attribute().
+        *
+        * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM is needed to ensure that
+        * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED doesn't get set before we want it to be.  */
+       status = create_file(&h, GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE | DELETE, NULL,
+                            FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM, FILE_OPEN_IF, FILE_DIRECTORY_FILE,
+                            dentry, ctx);
+       if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+               winnt_error(status, L"Can't create directory \"%ls\"",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_MKDIR;
+       }
+
+       ret = set_short_name(h, dentry, ctx);
+
+       if (!ret)
+               ret = adjust_compression_attribute(h, dentry, ctx);
+
+       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+       return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Create all the directories being extracted, other than the target directory
+ * itself.
+ *
+ * Note: we don't honor directory hard links.  However, we don't allow them to
+ * exist in WIM images anyway (see inode_fixup.c).
+ */
+static int
+create_directories(struct list_head *dentry_list,
+                  struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       const struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       int ret;
+
+       list_for_each_entry(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node) {
+
+               if (!(dentry->d_inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY))
+                       continue;
+
+               /* Note: Here we include files with
+                * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY|FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT, but we
+                * wait until later to actually set the reparse data.  */
+
+               /* If the root dentry is being extracted, it was already done so
+                * in prepare_target().  */
+               if (!dentry_is_root(dentry)) {
+                       ret = create_directory(dentry, ctx);
+                       ret = check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+
+                       ret = create_any_empty_ads(dentry, ctx);
+                       ret = check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+               }
+
+               ret = report_file_created(&ctx->common);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+       }
+       return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Creates the nondirectory file named by @dentry.
+ *
+ * On success, returns an open handle to the file in @h_ret, with GENERIC_READ,
+ * GENERIC_WRITE, and DELETE access.  Also, the path to the file will be saved
+ * in ctx->pathbuf.  On failure, returns an error code.
+ */
+static int
+create_nondirectory_inode(HANDLE *h_ret, const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                         struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       int ret;
+       HANDLE h;
+
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+
+       ret = supersede_file_or_stream(ctx, &h);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       ret = adjust_compression_attribute(h, dentry, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out_close;
+
+       ret = create_any_empty_ads(dentry, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out_close;
+
+       *h_ret = h;
+       return 0;
+
+out_close:
+       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+out:
+       return ret;
+}
+
+/* Creates a hard link at the location named by @dentry to the file represented
+ * by the open handle @h.  Or, if the target volume does not support hard links,
+ * create a separate file instead.  */
+static int
+create_link(HANDLE h, const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+           struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       if (ctx->common.supported_features.hard_links) {
+
+               build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+
+               size_t bufsize = offsetof(FILE_LINK_INFORMATION, FileName) +
+                                ctx->pathbuf.Length + sizeof(wchar_t);
+               u8 buf[bufsize] _aligned_attribute(8);
+               FILE_LINK_INFORMATION *info = (FILE_LINK_INFORMATION *)buf;
+               NTSTATUS status;
+
+               info->ReplaceIfExists = TRUE;
+               info->RootDirectory = ctx->attr.RootDirectory;
+               info->FileNameLength = ctx->pathbuf.Length;
+               memcpy(info->FileName, ctx->pathbuf.Buffer, ctx->pathbuf.Length);
+               info->FileName[info->FileNameLength / 2] = L'\0';
+
+               /* Note: the null terminator isn't actually necessary,
+                * but if you don't add the extra character, you get
+                * STATUS_INFO_LENGTH_MISMATCH when FileNameLength
+                * happens to be 2  */
+
+               status = (*func_NtSetInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb,
+                                                     info, bufsize,
+                                                     FileLinkInformation);
+               if (NT_SUCCESS(status))
+                       return 0;
+               winnt_error(status, L"Failed to create link \"%ls\"",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_LINK;
+       } else {
+               HANDLE h2;
+               int ret;
+
+               ret = create_nondirectory_inode(&h2, dentry, ctx);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+
+               (*func_NtClose)(h2);
+               return 0;
+       }
+}
+
+/* Given an inode (represented by the open handle @h) for which one link has
+ * been created (named by @first_dentry), create the other links.
+ *
+ * Or, if the target volume does not support hard links, create separate files.
+ *
+ * Note: This uses ctx->pathbuf and does not reset it.
+ */
+static int
+create_links(HANDLE h, const struct wim_dentry *first_dentry,
+            struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       const struct wim_inode *inode;
+       const struct list_head *next;
+       const struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       int ret;
+
+       inode = first_dentry->d_inode;
+       next = inode->i_extraction_aliases.next;
+       do {
+               dentry = list_entry(next, struct wim_dentry,
+                                   d_extraction_alias_node);
+               if (dentry != first_dentry) {
+                       ret = create_link(h, dentry, ctx);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+               }
+               next = next->next;
+       } while (next != &inode->i_extraction_aliases);
+       return 0;
+}
+
+/* Create a nondirectory file, including all links.  */
+static int
+create_nondirectory(struct wim_inode *inode, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       struct wim_dentry *first_dentry;
+       HANDLE h;
+       int ret;
+
+       first_dentry = first_extraction_alias(inode);
+
+       /* Create first link.  */
+       ret = create_nondirectory_inode(&h, first_dentry, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
+
+       /* Set short name.  */
+       ret = set_short_name(h, first_dentry, ctx);
+
+       /* Create additional links, OR if hard links are not supported just
+        * create more files.  */
+       if (!ret)
+               ret = create_links(h, first_dentry, ctx);
+
+       /* "WIMBoot" extraction: set external backing by the WIM file if needed.  */
+       if (!ret && unlikely(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_WIMBOOT))
+               ret = set_external_backing(h, inode, ctx);
+
+       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+       return ret;
+}
+
+/* Create all the nondirectory files being extracted, including all aliases
+ * (hard links).  */
+static int
+create_nondirectories(struct list_head *dentry_list, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       struct wim_inode *inode;
+       int ret;
+
+       list_for_each_entry(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node) {
+               inode = dentry->d_inode;
+               if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY)
+                       continue;
+               /* Call create_nondirectory() only once per inode  */
+               if (dentry == inode_first_extraction_dentry(inode)) {
+                       ret = create_nondirectory(inode, ctx);
+                       ret = check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+               }
+               ret = report_file_created(&ctx->common);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+       }
+       return 0;
+}
+
+static void
+close_handles(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       for (unsigned i = 0; i < ctx->num_open_handles; i++)
+               (*func_NtClose)(ctx->open_handles[i]);
+}
+
+/* Prepare to read the next stream, which has size @stream_size, into an
+ * in-memory buffer.  */
+static bool
+prepare_data_buffer(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx, u64 stream_size)
+{
+       if (stream_size > ctx->data_buffer_size) {
+               /* Larger buffer needed.  */
+               void *new_buffer;
+               if ((size_t)stream_size != stream_size)
+                       return false;
+               new_buffer = REALLOC(ctx->data_buffer, stream_size);
+               if (!new_buffer)
+                       return false;
+               ctx->data_buffer = new_buffer;
+               ctx->data_buffer_size = stream_size;
+       }
+       /* On the first call this changes data_buffer_ptr from NULL, which tells
+        * extract_chunk() that the data buffer needs to be filled while reading
+        * the stream data.  */
+       ctx->data_buffer_ptr = ctx->data_buffer;
+       return true;
+}
+
+static int
+begin_extract_stream_instance(const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *stream,
+                             struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                             const wchar_t *stream_name,
+                             struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       const struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       size_t stream_name_nchars = 0;
+       FILE_ALLOCATION_INFORMATION alloc_info;
+       HANDLE h;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+
+       if (unlikely(stream_name))
+               stream_name_nchars = wcslen(stream_name);
+
+       if (unlikely(stream_name_nchars)) {
+               build_extraction_path_with_ads(dentry, ctx,
+                                              stream_name, stream_name_nchars);
+       } else {
+               build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+       }
+
+
+       /* Encrypted file?  */
+       if (unlikely(inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED)
+           && (stream_name_nchars == 0))
+       {
+               if (!ctx->common.supported_features.encrypted_files)
+                       return 0;
+
+               /* We can't write encrypted file streams directly; we must use
+                * WriteEncryptedFileRaw(), which requires providing the data
+                * through a callback function.  This can't easily be combined
+                * with our own callback-based approach.
+                *
+                * The current workaround is to simply read the stream into
+                * memory and write the encrypted file from that.
+                *
+                * TODO: This isn't sufficient for extremely large encrypted
+                * files.  Perhaps we should create an extra thread to write
+                * such files...  */
+               if (!prepare_data_buffer(ctx, stream->size))
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+               list_add_tail(&dentry->tmp_list, &ctx->encrypted_dentries);
+               return 0;
+       }
+
+       /* Reparse point?
+        *
+        * Note: FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT is tested *after*
+        * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED since the WIM format does not store both EFS
+        * data and reparse data for the same file, and the EFS data takes
+        * precedence.  */
+       if (unlikely(inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT)
+           && (stream_name_nchars == 0))
+       {
+               if (!ctx->common.supported_features.reparse_points)
+                       return 0;
+
+               /* We can't write the reparse stream directly; we must set it
+                * with FSCTL_SET_REPARSE_POINT, which requires that all the
+                * data be available.  So, stage the data in a buffer.  */
+
+               if (!prepare_data_buffer(ctx, stream->size))
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+               list_add_tail(&dentry->tmp_list, &ctx->reparse_dentries);
+               return 0;
+       }
+
+       if (ctx->num_open_handles == MAX_OPEN_STREAMS) {
+               /* XXX: Fix this.  But because of the checks in
+                * extract_stream_list(), this can now only happen on a
+                * filesystem that does not support hard links.  */
+               ERROR("Can't extract data: too many open files!");
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_UNSUPPORTED;
+       }
+
+       /* Open a new handle  */
+       status = do_create_file(&h,
+                               FILE_WRITE_DATA | SYNCHRONIZE,
+                               NULL, 0, FILE_OPEN_IF,
+                               FILE_SEQUENTIAL_ONLY |
+                                       FILE_SYNCHRONOUS_IO_NONALERT,
+                               ctx);
+       if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+               winnt_error(status, L"Can't open \"%ls\" for writing",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
+       }
+
+       ctx->open_handles[ctx->num_open_handles++] = h;
+
+       /* Allocate space for the data.  */
+       alloc_info.AllocationSize.QuadPart = stream->size;
+       (*func_NtSetInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb,
+                                    &alloc_info, sizeof(alloc_info),
+                                    FileAllocationInformation);
+       return 0;
+}
 
-       if (!(args->vol_flags & FILE_NAMED_STREAMS))
-               goto out;
-       for (u16 i = 0; i < inode->i_num_ads; i++) {
-               const struct wim_ads_entry *ads_entry = &inode->i_ads_entries[i];
+/* Set the reparse data @rpbuf of length @rpbuflen on the extracted file
+ * corresponding to the WIM dentry @dentry.  */
+static int
+do_set_reparse_data(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                   const void *rpbuf, u16 rpbuflen,
+                   struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       HANDLE h;
 
-               /* Skip the unnamed stream if it's in the ADS entries (we
-                * already extracted it...) */
-               if (ads_entry->stream_name_nbytes == 0)
-                       continue;
+       status = create_file(&h, GENERIC_WRITE, NULL,
+                            0, FILE_OPEN, 0, dentry, ctx);
+       if (!NT_SUCCESS(status))
+               goto fail;
 
-               /* Skip special UNIX data entries (see documentation for
-                * WIMLIB_ADD_FLAG_UNIX_DATA) */
-               if (ads_entry->stream_name_nbytes == WIMLIB_UNIX_DATA_TAG_UTF16LE_NBYTES
-                   && !memcmp(ads_entry->stream_name,
-                              WIMLIB_UNIX_DATA_TAG_UTF16LE,
-                              WIMLIB_UNIX_DATA_TAG_UTF16LE_NBYTES))
-                       continue;
+       status = (*func_NtFsControlFile)(h, NULL, NULL, NULL,
+                                        &ctx->iosb, FSCTL_SET_REPARSE_POINT,
+                                        (void *)rpbuf, rpbuflen,
+                                        NULL, 0);
+       (*func_NtClose)(h);
 
-               /* Extract the named stream */
-               ret = win32_extract_stream(dentry,
-                                          path,
-                                          ads_entry->stream_name,
-                                          ads_entry->lte,
-                                          args);
-               if (ret)
+       if (NT_SUCCESS(status))
+               return 0;
+
+       /* On Windows, by default only the Administrator can create symbolic
+        * links for some reason.  By default we just issue a warning if this
+        * appears to be the problem.  Use WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_SYMLINKS
+        * to get a hard error.  */
+       if (!(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_SYMLINKS)
+           && (status == STATUS_PRIVILEGE_NOT_HELD ||
+               status == STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED)
+           && (dentry->d_inode->i_reparse_tag == WIM_IO_REPARSE_TAG_SYMLINK ||
+               dentry->d_inode->i_reparse_tag == WIM_IO_REPARSE_TAG_MOUNT_POINT))
+       {
+               WARNING("Can't create symbolic link \"%ls\"!              \n"
+                       "          (Need Administrator rights, or at least "
+                       "the\n"
+                       "          SeCreateSymbolicLink privilege.)",
+                       current_path(ctx));
+               return 0;
+       }
+
+fail:
+       winnt_error(status, L"Can't set reparse data on \"%ls\"",
+                   current_path(ctx));
+       return WIMLIB_ERR_SET_REPARSE_DATA;
+}
+
+/* Given a Windows NT namespace path, such as \??\e:\Windows\System32, return a
+ * pointer to the suffix of the path that begins with the device directly, such
+ * as e:\Windows\System32.  */
+static const wchar_t *
+skip_nt_toplevel_component(const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars)
+{
+       static const wchar_t * const dirs[] = {
+               L"\\??\\",
+               L"\\DosDevices\\",
+               L"\\Device\\",
+       };
+       size_t first_dir_len = 0;
+       const wchar_t * const end = path + path_nchars;
+
+       for (size_t i = 0; i < ARRAY_LEN(dirs); i++) {
+               size_t len = wcslen(dirs[i]);
+               if (len <= (end - path) && !wcsnicmp(path, dirs[i], len)) {
+                       first_dir_len = len;
                        break;
+               }
        }
-out:
-       return ret;
+       if (first_dir_len == 0)
+               return path;
+       path += first_dir_len;
+       while (path != end && *path == L'\\')
+               path++;
+       return path;
 }
 
-static int
-dentry_clear_inode_visited(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *_ignore)
+/* Given a Windows NT namespace path, such as \??\e:\Windows\System32, return a
+ * pointer to the suffix of the path that is device-relative, such as
+ * Windows\System32.
+ *
+ * The path has an explicit length and is not necessarily null terminated.
+ *
+ * If the path just something like \??\e: then the returned pointer will point
+ * just past the colon.  In this case the length of the result will be 0
+ * characters.  */
+static const wchar_t *
+get_device_relative_path(const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars)
 {
-       dentry->d_inode->i_visited = 0;
-       return 0;
+       const wchar_t * const orig_path = path;
+       const wchar_t * const end = path + path_nchars;
+
+       path = skip_nt_toplevel_component(path, path_nchars);
+       if (path == orig_path)
+               return orig_path;
+
+       path = wmemchr(path, L'\\', (end - path));
+       if (!path)
+               return end;
+       do {
+               path++;
+       } while (path != end && *path == L'\\');
+       return path;
 }
 
-static int
-dentry_get_features(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *_features_p)
+/*
+ * Given a reparse point buffer for a symbolic link or junction, adjust its
+ * contents so that the target of the link is consistent with the new location
+ * of the files.
+ */
+static void
+try_rpfix(u8 *rpbuf, u16 *rpbuflen_p, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       DWORD features = 0;
-       DWORD *features_p = _features_p;
-       struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       struct reparse_data rpdata;
+       size_t orig_subst_name_nchars;
+       const wchar_t *relpath;
+       size_t relpath_nchars;
+       size_t target_ntpath_nchars;
+       size_t fixed_subst_name_nchars;
+       const wchar_t *fixed_print_name;
+       size_t fixed_print_name_nchars;
+
+       if (parse_reparse_data(rpbuf, *rpbuflen_p, &rpdata)) {
+               /* Do nothing if the reparse data is invalid.  */
+               return;
+       }
 
-       if (inode->i_visited) {
-               features |= FILE_SUPPORTS_HARD_LINKS;
-       } else {
-               inode->i_visited = 1;
-               if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE)
-                       features |= FILE_SUPPORTS_SPARSE_FILES;
-               if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT)
-                       features |= FILE_SUPPORTS_REPARSE_POINTS;
-               for (unsigned i = 0; i < inode->i_num_ads; i++)
-                       if (inode->i_ads_entries[i].stream_name_nbytes)
-                               features |= FILE_NAMED_STREAMS;
-               if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED)
-                       features |= FILE_SUPPORTS_ENCRYPTION;
-               if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED)
-                       features |= FILE_FILE_COMPRESSION;
-               if (inode->i_security_id != -1)
-                       features |= FILE_PERSISTENT_ACLS;
+       if (rpdata.rptag == WIM_IO_REPARSE_TAG_SYMLINK &&
+           (rpdata.rpflags & SYMBOLIC_LINK_RELATIVE))
+       {
+               /* Do nothing if it's a relative symbolic link.  */
+               return;
        }
-       *features_p |= features;
-       return 0;
+
+       /* Build the new substitute name from the NT namespace path to the
+        * target directory, then a path separator, then the "device relative"
+        * part of the old substitute name.  */
+
+       orig_subst_name_nchars = rpdata.substitute_name_nbytes / sizeof(wchar_t);
+
+       relpath = get_device_relative_path(rpdata.substitute_name,
+                                          orig_subst_name_nchars);
+       relpath_nchars = orig_subst_name_nchars -
+                        (relpath - rpdata.substitute_name);
+
+       target_ntpath_nchars = ctx->target_ntpath.Length / sizeof(wchar_t);
+
+       fixed_subst_name_nchars = target_ntpath_nchars;
+       if (relpath_nchars)
+               fixed_subst_name_nchars += 1 + relpath_nchars;
+       wchar_t fixed_subst_name[fixed_subst_name_nchars];
+
+       wmemcpy(fixed_subst_name, ctx->target_ntpath.Buffer,
+               target_ntpath_nchars);
+       if (relpath_nchars) {
+               fixed_subst_name[target_ntpath_nchars] = L'\\';
+               wmemcpy(&fixed_subst_name[target_ntpath_nchars + 1],
+                       relpath, relpath_nchars);
+       }
+       /* Doesn't need to be null-terminated.  */
+
+       /* Print name should be Win32, but not all NT names can even be
+        * translated to Win32 names.  But we can at least delete the top-level
+        * directory, such as \??\, and this will have the expected result in
+        * the usual case.  */
+       fixed_print_name = skip_nt_toplevel_component(fixed_subst_name,
+                                                     fixed_subst_name_nchars);
+       fixed_print_name_nchars = fixed_subst_name_nchars - (fixed_print_name -
+                                                            fixed_subst_name);
+
+       rpdata.substitute_name = fixed_subst_name;
+       rpdata.substitute_name_nbytes = fixed_subst_name_nchars * sizeof(wchar_t);
+       rpdata.print_name = (wchar_t *)fixed_print_name;
+       rpdata.print_name_nbytes = fixed_print_name_nchars * sizeof(wchar_t);
+       make_reparse_buffer(&rpdata, rpbuf, rpbuflen_p);
 }
 
-/* If not done already, load the supported feature flags for the volume onto
- * which the image is being extracted, and warn the user about any missing
- * features that could be important. */
+/* Sets reparse data on the specified file.  This handles "fixing" the targets
+ * of absolute symbolic links and junctions if WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_RPFIX was
+ * specified.  */
 static int
-win32_check_vol_flags(const wchar_t *output_path,
-                     struct wim_dentry *root, struct apply_args *args)
+set_reparse_data(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                const void *_rpbuf, u16 rpbuflen, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       DWORD dentry_features = 0;
-       DWORD missing_features;
+       const struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       const void *rpbuf = _rpbuf;
 
-       if (args->have_vol_flags)
-               return 0;
+       if ((ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_RPFIX)
+           && !inode->i_not_rpfixed
+           && (inode->i_reparse_tag == WIM_IO_REPARSE_TAG_SYMLINK ||
+               inode->i_reparse_tag == WIM_IO_REPARSE_TAG_MOUNT_POINT))
+       {
+               memcpy(&ctx->rpfixbuf, _rpbuf, rpbuflen);
+               try_rpfix((u8 *)&ctx->rpfixbuf, &rpbuflen, ctx);
+               rpbuf = &ctx->rpfixbuf;
+       }
+       return do_set_reparse_data(dentry, rpbuf, rpbuflen, ctx);
 
-       for_dentry_in_tree(root, dentry_clear_inode_visited, NULL);
-       for_dentry_in_tree(root, dentry_get_features, &dentry_features);
+}
 
-       win32_get_vol_flags(output_path, &args->vol_flags);
-       args->have_vol_flags = true;
+/* Import the next block of raw encrypted data  */
+static DWORD WINAPI
+import_encrypted_data(PBYTE pbData, PVOID pvCallbackContext, PULONG Length)
+{
+       struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx = pvCallbackContext;
+       ULONG copy_len;
 
-       missing_features = dentry_features & ~args->vol_flags;
+       copy_len = min(ctx->encrypted_size - ctx->encrypted_offset, *Length);
+       memcpy(pbData, &ctx->data_buffer[ctx->encrypted_offset], copy_len);
+       ctx->encrypted_offset += copy_len;
+       *Length = copy_len;
+       return ERROR_SUCCESS;
+}
 
-       /* Warn the user about data that may not be extracted. */
-       if (missing_features & FILE_SUPPORTS_SPARSE_FILES)
-               WARNING("Volume does not support sparse files!\n"
-                       "          Sparse files will be extracted as non-sparse.");
-       if (missing_features & FILE_SUPPORTS_REPARSE_POINTS)
-               WARNING("Volume does not support reparse points!\n"
-                       "          Reparse point data will not be extracted.");
-       if (missing_features & FILE_NAMED_STREAMS) {
-               WARNING("Volume does not support named data streams!\n"
-                       "          Named data streams will not be extracted.");
+/*
+ * Write the raw encrypted data to the already-created file (or directory)
+ * corresponding to @dentry.
+ *
+ * The raw encrypted data is provided in ctx->data_buffer, and its size is
+ * ctx->encrypted_size.
+ *
+ * This function may close the target directory, in which case the caller needs
+ * to re-open it if needed.
+ */
+static int
+extract_encrypted_file(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                      struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       void *rawctx;
+       DWORD err;
+       ULONG flags;
+       bool retried;
+
+       /* Temporarily build a Win32 path for OpenEncryptedFileRaw()  */
+       build_win32_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+
+       flags = CREATE_FOR_IMPORT | OVERWRITE_HIDDEN;
+       if (dentry->d_inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY)
+               flags |= CREATE_FOR_DIR;
+
+       retried = false;
+retry:
+       err = OpenEncryptedFileRaw(ctx->pathbuf.Buffer, flags, &rawctx);
+       if (err == ERROR_SHARING_VIOLATION && !retried) {
+               /* This can be caused by the handle we have open to the target
+                * directory.  Try closing it temporarily.  */
+               close_target_directory(ctx);
+               retried = true;
+               goto retry;
        }
-       if (missing_features & FILE_SUPPORTS_ENCRYPTION) {
-               WARNING("Volume does not support encryption!\n"
-                       "          Encrypted files will be extracted as raw data.");
+
+       /* Restore the NT namespace path  */
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+
+       if (err != ERROR_SUCCESS) {
+               win32_error(err, L"Can't open \"%ls\" for encrypted import",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
        }
-       if (missing_features & FILE_FILE_COMPRESSION) {
-               WARNING("Volume does not support transparent compression!\n"
-                       "          Compressed files will be extracted as non-compressed.");
+
+       ctx->encrypted_offset = 0;
+
+       err = WriteEncryptedFileRaw(import_encrypted_data, ctx, rawctx);
+
+       CloseEncryptedFileRaw(rawctx);
+
+       if (err != ERROR_SUCCESS) {
+               win32_error(err, L"Can't import encrypted file \"%ls\"",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
        }
-       if (missing_features & FILE_PERSISTENT_ACLS) {
-               if (args->extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS) {
-                       ERROR("Strict ACLs requested, but the volume does not "
-                             "support ACLs!");
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_VOLUME_LACKS_FEATURES;
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+/* Called when starting to read a stream for extraction on Windows  */
+static int
+begin_extract_stream(struct wim_lookup_table_entry *stream, void *_ctx)
+{
+       struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx = _ctx;
+       const struct stream_owner *owners = stream_owners(stream);
+       int ret;
+
+       ctx->num_open_handles = 0;
+       ctx->data_buffer_ptr = NULL;
+       INIT_LIST_HEAD(&ctx->reparse_dentries);
+       INIT_LIST_HEAD(&ctx->encrypted_dentries);
+
+       for (u32 i = 0; i < stream->out_refcnt; i++) {
+               const struct wim_inode *inode = owners[i].inode;
+               const wchar_t *stream_name = owners[i].stream_name;
+               struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+
+               /* A copy of the stream needs to be extracted to @inode.  */
+
+               if (ctx->common.supported_features.hard_links) {
+                       dentry = inode_first_extraction_dentry(inode);
+                       ret = begin_extract_stream_instance(stream, dentry,
+                                                           stream_name, ctx);
+                       ret = check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+                       if (ret)
+                               goto fail;
                } else {
-                       WARNING("Volume does not support persistent ACLS!\n"
-                               "          File permissions will not be extracted.");
+                       /* Hard links not supported.  Extract the stream
+                        * separately to each alias of the inode.  */
+                       struct list_head *next;
+
+                       next = inode->i_extraction_aliases.next;
+                       do {
+                               dentry = list_entry(next, struct wim_dentry,
+                                                   d_extraction_alias_node);
+                               ret = begin_extract_stream_instance(stream,
+                                                                   dentry,
+                                                                   stream_name,
+                                                                   ctx);
+                               ret = check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+                               if (ret)
+                                       goto fail;
+                               next = next->next;
+                       } while (next != &inode->i_extraction_aliases);
                }
        }
-       if (running_on_windows_7_or_later() &&
-           (missing_features & FILE_SUPPORTS_HARD_LINKS))
-       {
-               WARNING("Volume does not support hard links!\n"
-                       "          Hard links will be extracted as duplicate files.");
+
+       return 0;
+
+fail:
+       close_handles(ctx);
+       return ret;
+}
+
+/* Called when the next chunk of a stream has been read for extraction on
+ * Windows  */
+static int
+extract_chunk(const void *chunk, size_t size, void *_ctx)
+{
+       struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx = _ctx;
+
+       /* Write the data chunk to each open handle  */
+       for (unsigned i = 0; i < ctx->num_open_handles; i++) {
+               u8 *bufptr = (u8 *)chunk;
+               size_t bytes_remaining = size;
+               NTSTATUS status;
+               while (bytes_remaining) {
+                       ULONG count = min(0xFFFFFFFF, bytes_remaining);
+
+                       status = (*func_NtWriteFile)(ctx->open_handles[i],
+                                                    NULL, NULL, NULL,
+                                                    &ctx->iosb, bufptr, count,
+                                                    NULL, NULL);
+                       if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+                               winnt_error(status, L"Error writing data to target volume");
+                               return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
+                       }
+                       bufptr += ctx->iosb.Information;
+                       bytes_remaining -= ctx->iosb.Information;
+               }
        }
+
+       /* Copy the data chunk into the buffer (if needed)  */
+       if (ctx->data_buffer_ptr)
+               ctx->data_buffer_ptr = mempcpy(ctx->data_buffer_ptr,
+                                              chunk, size);
        return 0;
 }
 
-/*
- * Try extracting a hard link.
- *
- * @output_path:  Path to link to be extracted.
- *
- * @inode:        WIM inode that the link is to; inode->i_extracted_file
- *               the path to a name of the file that has already been
- *               extracted (we use this to create the hard link).
- *
- * @args:         Additional apply context, used here to keep track of
- *                the number of times creating a hard link failed due to
- *                ERROR_INVALID_FUNCTION.  This error should indicate that hard
- *                links are not supported by the volume, and we would like to
- *                warn the user a few times, but not too many times.
- *
- * Returns 0 if the hard link was successfully extracted.  Returns
- * WIMLIB_ERR_LINK (> 0) if an error occurred, other than hard links possibly
- * being unsupported by the volume.  Returns a negative value if creating the
- * hard link failed due to ERROR_INVALID_FUNCTION.
- */
+/* Called when a stream has been fully read for extraction on Windows  */
 static int
-win32_try_hard_link(const wchar_t *output_path, const struct wim_inode *inode,
-                   struct apply_args *args)
+end_extract_stream(struct wim_lookup_table_entry *stream, int status, void *_ctx)
 {
-       DWORD err;
+       struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx = _ctx;
+       int ret;
+       const struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+
+       close_handles(ctx);
+
+       if (status)
+               return status;
+
+       if (likely(!ctx->data_buffer_ptr))
+               return 0;
+
+       if (!list_empty(&ctx->reparse_dentries)) {
+               if (stream->size > REPARSE_DATA_MAX_SIZE) {
+                       dentry = list_first_entry(&ctx->reparse_dentries,
+                                                 struct wim_dentry, tmp_list);
+                       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+                       ERROR("Reparse data of \"%ls\" has size "
+                             "%"PRIu64" bytes (exceeds %u bytes)",
+                             current_path(ctx), stream->size,
+                             REPARSE_DATA_MAX_SIZE);
+                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_REPARSE_DATA;
+                       return check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+               }
+               /* In the WIM format, reparse streams are just the reparse data
+                * and omit the header.  But we can reconstruct the header.  */
+               memcpy(ctx->rpbuf.rpdata, ctx->data_buffer, stream->size);
+               ctx->rpbuf.rpdatalen = stream->size;
+               ctx->rpbuf.rpreserved = 0;
+               list_for_each_entry(dentry, &ctx->reparse_dentries, tmp_list) {
+                       ctx->rpbuf.rptag = dentry->d_inode->i_reparse_tag;
+                       ret = set_reparse_data(dentry, &ctx->rpbuf,
+                                              stream->size + REPARSE_DATA_OFFSET,
+                                              ctx);
+                       ret = check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+               }
+       }
+
+       if (!list_empty(&ctx->encrypted_dentries)) {
+               ctx->encrypted_size = stream->size;
+               list_for_each_entry(dentry, &ctx->encrypted_dentries, tmp_list) {
+                       ret = extract_encrypted_file(dentry, ctx);
+                       ret = check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+                       /* Re-open the target directory if needed.  */
+                       ret = open_target_directory(ctx);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+               }
+       }
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+/* Attributes that can't be set directly  */
+#define SPECIAL_ATTRIBUTES                     \
+       (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT   |       \
+        FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY       |       \
+        FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED       |       \
+        FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE     |       \
+        FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED)
+
+/* Set the security descriptor @desc, of @desc_size bytes, on the file with open
+ * handle @h.  */
+static NTSTATUS
+set_security_descriptor(HANDLE h, const void *_desc,
+                       size_t desc_size, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       SECURITY_INFORMATION info;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR_RELATIVE *desc;
+
+       /*
+        * Ideally, we would just pass in the security descriptor buffer as-is.
+        * But it turns out that Windows can mess up the security descriptor
+        * even when using the low-level NtSetSecurityObject() function:
+        *
+        * - Windows will clear SE_DACL_AUTO_INHERITED if it is set in the
+        *   passed buffer.  To actually get Windows to set
+        *   SE_DACL_AUTO_INHERITED, the application must set the non-persistent
+        *   flag SE_DACL_AUTO_INHERIT_REQ.  As usual, Microsoft didn't bother
+        *   to properly document either of these flags.  It's unclear how
+        *   important SE_DACL_AUTO_INHERITED actually is, but to be safe we use
+        *   the SE_DACL_AUTO_INHERIT_REQ workaround to set it if needed.
+        *
+        * - The above also applies to the equivalent SACL flags,
+        *   SE_SACL_AUTO_INHERITED and SE_SACL_AUTO_INHERIT_REQ.
+        *
+        * - If the application says that it's setting
+        *   DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION, then Windows sets SE_DACL_PRESENT in the
+        *   resulting security descriptor, even if the security descriptor the
+        *   application provided did not have a DACL.  This seems to be
+        *   unavoidable, since omitting DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION would cause a
+        *   default DACL to remain.  Fortunately, this behavior seems harmless,
+        *   since the resulting DACL will still be "null" --- but it will be
+        *   "the other representation of null".
+        *
+        * - The above also applies to SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION and
+        *   SE_SACL_PRESENT.  Again, it's seemingly unavoidable but "harmless"
+        *   that Windows changes the representation of a "null SACL".
+        */
+       if (likely(desc_size <= STACK_MAX)) {
+               desc = alloca(desc_size);
+       } else {
+               desc = MALLOC(desc_size);
+               if (!desc)
+                       return STATUS_NO_MEMORY;
+       }
+
+       memcpy(desc, _desc, desc_size);
+
+       if (likely(desc_size >= 4)) {
+
+               if (desc->Control & SE_DACL_AUTO_INHERITED)
+                       desc->Control |= SE_DACL_AUTO_INHERIT_REQ;
+
+               if (desc->Control & SE_SACL_AUTO_INHERITED)
+                       desc->Control |= SE_SACL_AUTO_INHERIT_REQ;
+       }
 
-       /* There is a volume flag for this (FILE_SUPPORTS_HARD_LINKS),
-        * but it's only available on Windows 7 and later.
+       /*
+        * More API insanity.  We want to set the entire security descriptor
+        * as-is.  But all available APIs require specifying the specific parts
+        * of the security descriptor being set.  Especially annoying is that
+        * mandatory integrity labels are part of the SACL, but they aren't set
+        * with SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION.  Instead, applications must also
+        * specify LABEL_SECURITY_INFORMATION (Windows Vista, Windows 7) or
+        * BACKUP_SECURITY_INFORMATION (Windows 8).  But at least older versions
+        * of Windows don't error out if you provide these newer flags...
         *
-        * Otherwise, CreateHardLinkW() will apparently return
-        * ERROR_INVALID_FUNCTION if the volume does not support hard links. */
+        * Also, if the process isn't running as Administrator, then it probably
+        * doesn't have SE_RESTORE_PRIVILEGE.  In this case, it will always get
+        * the STATUS_PRIVILEGE_NOT_HELD error by trying to set the SACL, even
+        * if the security descriptor it provided did not have a SACL.  By
+        * default, in this case we try to recover and set as much of the
+        * security descriptor as possible --- potentially excluding the DACL, and
+        * even the owner, as well as the SACL.
+        */
 
-       DEBUG("Creating hard link \"%ls => %ls\"",
-             output_path, inode->i_extracted_file);
+       info = OWNER_SECURITY_INFORMATION | GROUP_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
+              DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION | SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
+              LABEL_SECURITY_INFORMATION | BACKUP_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
 
-       if (running_on_windows_7_or_later() &&
-           !(args->vol_flags & FILE_SUPPORTS_HARD_LINKS))
-               goto hard_links_unsupported;
 
-       if (CreateHardLinkW(output_path, inode->i_extracted_file, NULL))
-               return 0;
+       /*
+        * It's also worth noting that SetFileSecurity() is unusable because it
+        * doesn't request "backup semantics" when it opens the file internally.
+        * NtSetSecurityObject() seems to be the best function to use in backup
+        * applications.  (SetSecurityInfo() should also work, but it's harder
+        * to use and must call NtSetSecurityObject() internally anyway.
+        * BackupWrite() is theoretically usable as well, but it's inflexible
+        * and poorly documented.)
+        */
 
-       err = GetLastError();
-       if (err != ERROR_INVALID_FUNCTION) {
-               ERROR("Can't create hard link \"%ls => %ls\"",
-                     output_path, inode->i_extracted_file);
-               win32_error(err);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_LINK;
+retry:
+       status = (*func_NtSetSecurityObject)(h, info, desc);
+       if (NT_SUCCESS(status))
+               goto out_maybe_free_desc;
+
+       /* Failed to set the requested parts of the security descriptor.  If the
+        * error was permissions-related, try to set fewer parts of the security
+        * descriptor, unless WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS is enabled.  */
+       if ((status == STATUS_PRIVILEGE_NOT_HELD ||
+            status == STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED) &&
+           !(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS))
+       {
+               if (info & SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION) {
+                       info &= ~(SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
+                                 LABEL_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
+                                 BACKUP_SECURITY_INFORMATION);
+                       ctx->partial_security_descriptors++;
+                       goto retry;
+               }
+               if (info & DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION) {
+                       info &= ~DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
+                       goto retry;
+               }
+               if (info & OWNER_SECURITY_INFORMATION) {
+                       info &= ~OWNER_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
+                       goto retry;
+               }
+               /* Nothing left except GROUP, and if we removed it we
+                * wouldn't have anything at all.  */
        }
-hard_links_unsupported:
-       args->num_hard_links_failed++;
-       if (args->num_hard_links_failed <= MAX_CREATE_HARD_LINK_WARNINGS) {
-               if (running_on_windows_7_or_later())
+
+       /* No part of the security descriptor could be set, or
+        * WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS is enabled and the full security
+        * descriptor could not be set.  */
+       if (!(info & SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION))
+               ctx->partial_security_descriptors--;
+       ctx->no_security_descriptors++;
+
+out_maybe_free_desc:
+       if (unlikely(desc_size > STACK_MAX))
+               FREE(desc);
+       return status;
+}
+
+/* Set metadata on the open file @h from the WIM inode @inode.  */
+static int
+do_apply_metadata_to_file(HANDLE h, const struct wim_inode *inode,
+                         struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       FILE_BASIC_INFORMATION info;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+
+       /* Set security descriptor if present and not in NO_ACLS mode  */
+       if (inode->i_security_id >= 0 &&
+           !(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_ACLS))
+       {
+               const struct wim_security_data *sd;
+               const void *desc;
+               size_t desc_size;
+
+               sd = wim_get_current_security_data(ctx->common.wim);
+               desc = sd->descriptors[inode->i_security_id];
+               desc_size = sd->sizes[inode->i_security_id];
+
+               status = set_security_descriptor(h, desc, desc_size, ctx);
+               if (!NT_SUCCESS(status) &&
+                   (ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS))
                {
-                       WARNING("Extracting duplicate copy of \"%ls\" "
-                               "rather than hard link", output_path);
-               } else {
-                       WARNING("Can't create hard link \"%ls\" => \"%ls\":\n"
-                               "          Volume does not support hard links!\n"
-                               "          Falling back to extracting a copy of the file.",
-                               output_path, inode->i_extracted_file);
+                       winnt_error(status,
+                                   L"Can't set security descriptor on \"%ls\"",
+                                   current_path(ctx));
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_SET_SECURITY;
                }
        }
-       if (args->num_hard_links_failed == MAX_CREATE_HARD_LINK_WARNINGS)
-               WARNING("Suppressing further hard linking warnings...");
-       return -1;
+
+       /* Set attributes and timestamps  */
+       info.CreationTime.QuadPart = inode->i_creation_time;
+       info.LastAccessTime.QuadPart = inode->i_last_access_time;
+       info.LastWriteTime.QuadPart = inode->i_last_write_time;
+       info.ChangeTime.QuadPart = 0;
+       if (ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_ATTRIBUTES) {
+               info.FileAttributes = FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL;
+       } else {
+               info.FileAttributes = inode->i_attributes & ~SPECIAL_ATTRIBUTES;
+               if (info.FileAttributes == 0)
+                       info.FileAttributes = FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL;
+       }
+
+       status = (*func_NtSetInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb,
+                                             &info, sizeof(info),
+                                             FileBasicInformation);
+       /* On FAT volumes we get STATUS_INVALID_PARAMETER if we try to set
+        * attributes on the root directory.  (Apparently because FAT doesn't
+        * actually have a place to store those attributes!)  */
+       if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)
+           && !(status == STATUS_INVALID_PARAMETER &&
+                dentry_is_root(inode_first_extraction_dentry(inode))))
+       {
+               winnt_error(status, L"Can't set basic metadata on \"%ls\"",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_SET_ATTRIBUTES;
+       }
+
+       return 0;
 }
 
-/* Extract a file, directory, reparse point, or hard link to an
- * already-extracted file using the Win32 API */
-int
-win32_do_apply_dentry(const wchar_t *output_path,
-                     size_t output_path_num_chars,
-                     struct wim_dentry *dentry,
-                     struct apply_args *args)
+static int
+apply_metadata_to_file(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                      struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
+       const struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       DWORD perms;
+       HANDLE h;
+       NTSTATUS status;
        int ret;
-       struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
 
-       ret = win32_check_vol_flags(output_path, dentry, args);
-       if (ret)
-               return ret;
-       if (inode->i_nlink > 1 && inode->i_extracted_file != NULL) {
-               /* Linked file, with another name already extracted.  Create a
-                * hard link. */
-               ret = win32_try_hard_link(output_path, inode, args);
-               if (ret >= 0)
-                       return ret;
-               /* Negative return value from win32_try_hard_link() indicates
-                * that hard links are probably not supported by the volume.
-                * Fall back to extracting a copy of the file. */
+       perms = FILE_WRITE_ATTRIBUTES | WRITE_DAC |
+               WRITE_OWNER | ACCESS_SYSTEM_SECURITY;
+
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+
+       /* Open a handle with as many relevant permissions as possible.  */
+       while (!NT_SUCCESS(status = do_create_file(&h, perms, NULL,
+                                                  0, FILE_OPEN, 0, ctx)))
+       {
+               if (status == STATUS_PRIVILEGE_NOT_HELD ||
+                   status == STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED)
+               {
+                       if (perms & ACCESS_SYSTEM_SECURITY) {
+                               perms &= ~ACCESS_SYSTEM_SECURITY;
+                               continue;
+                       }
+                       if (perms & WRITE_DAC) {
+                               perms &= ~WRITE_DAC;
+                               continue;
+                       }
+                       if (perms & WRITE_OWNER) {
+                               perms &= ~WRITE_OWNER;
+                               continue;
+                       }
+               }
+               winnt_error(status, L"Can't open \"%ls\" to set metadata",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
        }
 
-       /* If this is a reparse point and the volume does not support reparse
-        * points, just skip it completely. */
-       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT &&
-           !(args->vol_flags & FILE_SUPPORTS_REPARSE_POINTS))
+       ret = do_apply_metadata_to_file(h, inode, ctx);
+
+       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+
+       return ret;
+}
+
+static int
+apply_metadata(struct list_head *dentry_list, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       const struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       int ret;
+
+       /* We go in reverse so that metadata is set on all a directory's
+        * children before the directory itself.  This avoids any potential
+        * problems with attributes, timestamps, or security descriptors.  */
+       list_for_each_entry_reverse(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node)
        {
-               WARNING("Not extracting reparse point \"%ls\"", output_path);
-               dentry->not_extracted = 1;
-       } else {
-               /* Create the file, directory, or reparse point, and extract the
-                * data streams. */
-               ret = win32_extract_streams(dentry, output_path, args);
+               ret = apply_metadata_to_file(dentry, ctx);
+               ret = check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+               ret = report_file_metadata_applied(&ctx->common);
                if (ret)
                        return ret;
-       }
-       if (inode->i_extracted_file == NULL) {
-               const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte;
-
-               /* Tally bytes extracted, including all alternate data streams,
-                * unless we extracted a hard link (or, at least extracted a
-                * name that was supposed to be a hard link) */
-               for (unsigned i = 0; i <= inode->i_num_ads; i++) {
-                       lte = inode_stream_lte_resolved(inode, i);
-                       if (lte)
-                               args->progress.extract.completed_bytes +=
-                                                       wim_resource_size(lte);
-               }
-               if (inode->i_nlink > 1) {
-                       /* Save extracted path for a later call to
-                        * CreateHardLinkW() if this inode has multiple links.
-                        * */
-                       inode->i_extracted_file = WCSDUP(output_path);
-                       if (!inode->i_extracted_file)
-                               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
-               }
        }
        return 0;
 }
 
-/* Set timestamps on an extracted file using the Win32 API */
-int
-win32_do_apply_dentry_timestamps(const wchar_t *path,
-                                size_t path_num_chars,
-                                struct wim_dentry *dentry,
-                                struct apply_args *args)
+/* Issue warnings about problems during the extraction for which warnings were
+ * not already issued (due to the high number of potential warnings if we issued
+ * them per-file).  */
+static void
+do_warnings(const struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       DWORD err;
-       HANDLE h;
-       const struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       if (ctx->partial_security_descriptors == 0
+           && ctx->no_security_descriptors == 0
+           && ctx->num_set_short_name_failures == 0
+       #if 0
+           && ctx->num_remove_short_name_failures == 0
+       #endif
+           )
+               return;
+
+       WARNING("Extraction to \"%ls\" complete, but with one or more warnings:",
+               ctx->common.target);
+       if (ctx->num_set_short_name_failures) {
+               WARNING("- Could not set short names on %lu files or directories",
+                       ctx->num_set_short_name_failures);
+       }
+#if 0
+       if (ctx->num_remove_short_name_failures) {
+               WARNING("- Could not remove short names on %lu files or directories"
+                       "          (This is expected on Vista and earlier)",
+                       ctx->num_remove_short_name_failures);
+       }
+#endif
+       if (ctx->partial_security_descriptors) {
+               WARNING("- Could only partially set the security descriptor\n"
+                       "            on %lu files or directories.",
+                       ctx->partial_security_descriptors);
+       }
+       if (ctx->no_security_descriptors) {
+               WARNING("- Could not set security descriptor at all\n"
+                       "            on %lu files or directories.",
+                       ctx->no_security_descriptors);
+       }
+       if (ctx->partial_security_descriptors || ctx->no_security_descriptors) {
+               WARNING("To fully restore all security descriptors, run the program\n"
+                       "          with Administrator rights.");
+       }
+}
 
-       /* Windows doesn't let you change the timestamps of the root directory
-        * (at least on FAT, which is dumb but expected since FAT doesn't store
-        * any metadata about the root directory...) */
-       if (win32_path_is_root_of_drive(path))
-               return 0;
+static uint64_t
+count_dentries(const struct list_head *dentry_list)
+{
+       const struct list_head *cur;
+       uint64_t count = 0;
 
-       DEBUG("Opening \"%ls\" to set timestamps", path);
-       h = win32_open_existing_file(path, FILE_WRITE_ATTRIBUTES);
-       if (h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) {
-               err = GetLastError();
-               goto fail;
-       }
+       list_for_each(cur, dentry_list)
+               count++;
 
-       FILETIME creationTime = {.dwLowDateTime = inode->i_creation_time & 0xffffffff,
-                                .dwHighDateTime = inode->i_creation_time >> 32};
-       FILETIME lastAccessTime = {.dwLowDateTime = inode->i_last_access_time & 0xffffffff,
-                                 .dwHighDateTime = inode->i_last_access_time >> 32};
-       FILETIME lastWriteTime = {.dwLowDateTime = inode->i_last_write_time & 0xffffffff,
-                                 .dwHighDateTime = inode->i_last_write_time >> 32};
-
-       DEBUG("Calling SetFileTime() on \"%ls\"", path);
-       if (!SetFileTime(h, &creationTime, &lastAccessTime, &lastWriteTime)) {
-               err = GetLastError();
-               CloseHandle(h);
-               goto fail;
+       return count;
+}
+
+/* Extract files from a WIM image to a directory on Windows  */
+static int
+win32_extract(struct list_head *dentry_list, struct apply_ctx *_ctx)
+{
+       int ret;
+       struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx = (struct win32_apply_ctx *)_ctx;
+       uint64_t dentry_count;
+
+       ret = prepare_target(dentry_list, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       if (unlikely(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_WIMBOOT)) {
+               ret = start_wimboot_extraction(ctx);
+               if (ret)
+                       goto out;
        }
-       DEBUG("Closing \"%ls\"", path);
-       if (!CloseHandle(h)) {
-               err = GetLastError();
-               goto fail;
+
+       dentry_count = count_dentries(dentry_list);
+
+       ret = start_file_structure_phase(&ctx->common, dentry_count);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       ret = create_directories(dentry_list, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       ret = create_nondirectories(dentry_list, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       ret = end_file_structure_phase(&ctx->common);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       struct read_stream_list_callbacks cbs = {
+               .begin_stream      = begin_extract_stream,
+               .begin_stream_ctx  = ctx,
+               .consume_chunk     = extract_chunk,
+               .consume_chunk_ctx = ctx,
+               .end_stream        = end_extract_stream,
+               .end_stream_ctx    = ctx,
+       };
+       ret = extract_stream_list(&ctx->common, &cbs);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       ret = start_file_metadata_phase(&ctx->common, dentry_count);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       ret = apply_metadata(dentry_list, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       ret = end_file_metadata_phase(&ctx->common);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       if (unlikely(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_WIMBOOT)) {
+               ret = end_wimboot_extraction(ctx);
+               if (ret)
+                       goto out;
        }
-       goto out;
-fail:
-       /* Only warn if setting timestamps failed; still return 0. */
-       WARNING("Can't set timestamps on \"%ls\"", path);
-       win32_error(err);
+
+       do_warnings(ctx);
 out:
-       return 0;
+       close_target_directory(ctx);
+       if (ctx->target_ntpath.Buffer)
+               HeapFree(GetProcessHeap(), 0, ctx->target_ntpath.Buffer);
+       FREE(ctx->pathbuf.Buffer);
+       FREE(ctx->print_buffer);
+       if (ctx->wimboot.prepopulate_pats) {
+               FREE(ctx->wimboot.prepopulate_pats->strings);
+               FREE(ctx->wimboot.prepopulate_pats);
+       }
+       FREE(ctx->wimboot.mem_prepopulate_pats);
+       FREE(ctx->data_buffer);
+       return ret;
 }
 
+const struct apply_operations win32_apply_ops = {
+       .name                   = "Windows",
+       .get_supported_features = win32_get_supported_features,
+       .extract                = win32_extract,
+       .will_externally_back   = win32_will_externally_back,
+       .context_size           = sizeof(struct win32_apply_ctx),
+};
+
 #endif /* __WIN32__ */