add System Compression support
[wimlib] / src / win32_apply.c
index b764665..0367719 100644 (file)
@@ -3,22 +3,20 @@
  */
 
 /*
- * Copyright (C) 2013 Eric Biggers
+ * Copyright (C) 2013, 2014, 2015 Eric Biggers
  *
- * This file is part of wimlib, a library for working with WIM files.
+ * This file is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
+ * the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free
+ * Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any
+ * later version.
  *
- * wimlib is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
- * terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
- * Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your option)
- * any later version.
- *
- * wimlib is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
- * WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR
- * A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more
+ * This file is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
+ * FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more
  * details.
  *
- * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
- * along with wimlib; if not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
+ * along with this file; if not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
  */
 
 #ifdef __WIN32__
 #include "wimlib/win32_common.h"
 
 #include "wimlib/apply.h"
+#include "wimlib/assert.h"
+#include "wimlib/blob_table.h"
+#include "wimlib/capture.h" /* for mangle_pat() and match_pattern_list()  */
+#include "wimlib/dentry.h"
+#include "wimlib/encoding.h"
 #include "wimlib/error.h"
-#include "wimlib/lookup_table.h"
+#include "wimlib/metadata.h"
+#include "wimlib/paths.h"
+#include "wimlib/pattern.h"
+#include "wimlib/reparse.h"
+#include "wimlib/textfile.h"
+#include "wimlib/xml.h"
+#include "wimlib/wimboot.h"
+#include "wimlib/wof.h"
+
+struct win32_apply_ctx {
+
+       /* Extract flags, the pointer to the WIMStruct, etc.  */
+       struct apply_ctx common;
+
+       /* WIMBoot information, only filled in if WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_WIMBOOT
+        * was provided  */
+       struct {
+               /* This array contains the WIM files registered with WOF on the
+                * target volume for this extraction operation.  All WIMStructs
+                * in this array are distinct and have ->filename != NULL.  */
+               struct wimboot_wim {
+                       WIMStruct *wim;
+                       u64 data_source_id;
+                       u8 blob_table_hash[SHA1_HASH_SIZE];
+               } *wims;
+               size_t num_wims;
+               bool wof_running;
+               bool have_wrong_version_wims;
+               bool have_uncompressed_wims;
+               bool have_unsupported_compressed_resources;
+               bool have_huge_resources;
+       } wimboot;
+
+       /* External backing information  */
+       struct string_set *prepopulate_pats;
+       void *mem_prepopulate_pats;
+       bool tried_to_load_prepopulate_list;
+
+       /* Open handle to the target directory  */
+       HANDLE h_target;
+
+       /* NT namespace path to the target directory (buffer allocated)  */
+       UNICODE_STRING target_ntpath;
+
+       /* Temporary buffer for building paths (buffer allocated)  */
+       UNICODE_STRING pathbuf;
+
+       /* Object attributes to reuse for opening files in the target directory.
+        * (attr.ObjectName == &pathbuf) and (attr.RootDirectory == h_target).
+        */
+       OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES attr;
+
+       /* Temporary I/O status block for system calls  */
+       IO_STATUS_BLOCK iosb;
+
+       /* Allocated buffer for creating "printable" paths from our
+        * target-relative NT paths  */
+       wchar_t *print_buffer;
+
+       /* Allocated buffer for reading blob data when it cannot be extracted
+        * directly  */
+       u8 *data_buffer;
+
+       /* Pointer to the next byte in @data_buffer to fill  */
+       u8 *data_buffer_ptr;
+
+       /* Size allocated in @data_buffer  */
+       size_t data_buffer_size;
+
+       /* Current offset in the raw encrypted file being written  */
+       size_t encrypted_offset;
+
+       /* Current size of the raw encrypted file being written  */
+       size_t encrypted_size;
+
+       /* Temporary buffer for reparse data  */
+       struct reparse_buffer_disk rpbuf;
+
+       /* Temporary buffer for reparse data of "fixed" absolute symbolic links
+        * and junctions  */
+       struct reparse_buffer_disk rpfixbuf;
+
+       /* Array of open handles to filesystem streams currently being written
+        */
+       HANDLE open_handles[MAX_OPEN_FILES];
+
+       /* Number of handles in @open_handles currently open (filled in from the
+        * beginning of the array)  */
+       unsigned num_open_handles;
+
+       /* List of dentries, joined by @d_tmp_list, that need to have reparse
+        * data extracted as soon as the whole blob has been read into
+        * @data_buffer.  */
+       struct list_head reparse_dentries;
+
+       /* List of dentries, joined by @d_tmp_list, that need to have raw
+        * encrypted data extracted as soon as the whole blob has been read into
+        * @data_buffer.  */
+       struct list_head encrypted_dentries;
+
+       /* Number of files for which we didn't have permission to set the full
+        * security descriptor.  */
+       unsigned long partial_security_descriptors;
+
+       /* Number of files for which we didn't have permission to set any part
+        * of the security descriptor.  */
+       unsigned long no_security_descriptors;
+
+       /* Number of files for which we couldn't set the short name.  */
+       unsigned long num_set_short_name_failures;
+
+       /* Number of files for which we couldn't remove the short name.  */
+       unsigned long num_remove_short_name_failures;
+
+       /* Number of files on which we couldn't set System Compression.  */
+       unsigned long num_system_compression_failures;
+
+       /* Have we tried to enable short name support on the target volume yet?
+        */
+       bool tried_to_enable_short_names;
+};
+
+/* Get the drive letter from a Windows path, or return the null character if the
+ * path is relative.  */
+static wchar_t
+get_drive_letter(const wchar_t *path)
+{
+       /* Skip \\?\ prefix  */
+       if (!wcsncmp(path, L"\\\\?\\", 4))
+               path += 4;
+
+       /* Return drive letter if valid  */
+       if (((path[0] >= L'a' && path[0] <= L'z') ||
+            (path[0] >= L'A' && path[0] <= L'Z')) && path[1] == L':')
+               return path[0];
+
+       return L'\0';
+}
+
+static void
+get_vol_flags(const wchar_t *target, DWORD *vol_flags_ret,
+             bool *short_names_supported_ret)
+{
+       wchar_t filesystem_name[MAX_PATH + 1];
+       wchar_t drive[4];
+       wchar_t *volume = NULL;
+
+       *vol_flags_ret = 0;
+       *short_names_supported_ret = false;
+
+       drive[0] = get_drive_letter(target);
+       if (drive[0]) {
+               drive[1] = L':';
+               drive[2] = L'\\';
+               drive[3] = L'\0';
+               volume = drive;
+       }
+
+       if (!GetVolumeInformation(volume, NULL, 0, NULL, NULL,
+                                 vol_flags_ret, filesystem_name,
+                                 ARRAY_LEN(filesystem_name)))
+       {
+               win32_warning(GetLastError(),
+                             L"Failed to get volume information for \"%ls\"",
+                             target);
+               return;
+       }
+
+       if (wcsstr(filesystem_name, L"NTFS")) {
+               /* FILE_SUPPORTS_HARD_LINKS is only supported on Windows 7 and
+                * later.  Force it on anyway if filesystem is NTFS.  */
+               *vol_flags_ret |= FILE_SUPPORTS_HARD_LINKS;
+
+               /* There's no volume flag for short names, but according to the
+                * MS documentation they are only user-settable on NTFS.  */
+               *short_names_supported_ret = true;
+       }
+}
+
+static const wchar_t *
+current_path(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx);
+
+static void
+build_extraction_path(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                     struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx);
 
 static int
-win32_start_extract(const wchar_t *path, struct apply_ctx *ctx)
+report_dentry_apply_error(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                         struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx, int ret)
 {
-       int ret;
-       unsigned vol_flags;
-       bool supports_SetFileShortName;
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+       return report_apply_error(&ctx->common, ret, current_path(ctx));
+}
 
-       ret = win32_get_vol_flags(path, &vol_flags, &supports_SetFileShortName);
-       if (ret)
-               return ret;
+static inline int
+check_apply_error(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                 struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx, int ret)
+{
+       if (unlikely(ret))
+               ret = report_dentry_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+       return ret;
+}
 
-       ctx->supported_features.archive_files = 1;
-       ctx->supported_features.hidden_files = 1;
-       ctx->supported_features.system_files = 1;
+static int
+win32_get_supported_features(const wchar_t *target,
+                            struct wim_features *supported_features)
+{
+       DWORD vol_flags;
+       bool short_names_supported;
+
+       /* Query the features of the target volume.  */
+
+       get_vol_flags(target, &vol_flags, &short_names_supported);
+
+       supported_features->archive_files = 1;
+       supported_features->hidden_files = 1;
+       supported_features->system_files = 1;
 
        if (vol_flags & FILE_FILE_COMPRESSION)
-               ctx->supported_features.compressed_files = 1;
+               supported_features->compressed_files = 1;
 
        if (vol_flags & FILE_SUPPORTS_ENCRYPTION) {
-               ctx->supported_features.encrypted_files = 1;
-               ctx->supported_features.encrypted_directories = 1;
+               supported_features->encrypted_files = 1;
+               supported_features->encrypted_directories = 1;
        }
 
-       ctx->supported_features.not_context_indexed_files = 1;
+       supported_features->not_context_indexed_files = 1;
 
-       if (vol_flags & FILE_SUPPORTS_SPARSE_FILES)
-               ctx->supported_features.sparse_files = 1;
+       /* Don't do anything with FILE_SUPPORTS_SPARSE_FILES.  */
 
        if (vol_flags & FILE_NAMED_STREAMS)
-               ctx->supported_features.named_data_streams = 1;
+               supported_features->named_data_streams = 1;
 
        if (vol_flags & FILE_SUPPORTS_HARD_LINKS)
-               ctx->supported_features.hard_links = 1;
+               supported_features->hard_links = 1;
 
-       if (vol_flags & FILE_SUPPORTS_REPARSE_POINTS) {
-               ctx->supported_features.reparse_points = 1;
-               if (win32func_CreateSymbolicLinkW)
-                       ctx->supported_features.symlink_reparse_points = 1;
-       }
+       if (vol_flags & FILE_SUPPORTS_REPARSE_POINTS)
+               supported_features->reparse_points = 1;
 
        if (vol_flags & FILE_PERSISTENT_ACLS)
-               ctx->supported_features.security_descriptors = 1;
+               supported_features->security_descriptors = 1;
+
+       if (short_names_supported)
+               supported_features->short_names = 1;
+
+       supported_features->timestamps = 1;
+
+       /* Note: Windows does not support case sensitive filenames!  At least
+        * not without changing the registry and rebooting...  */
 
-       if (supports_SetFileShortName)
-               ctx->supported_features.short_names = 1;
        return 0;
 }
 
-/* Create a normal file, overwriting one already present.  */
+#define COMPACT_FLAGS  (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_COMPACT_XPRESS4K |         \
+                        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_COMPACT_XPRESS8K |         \
+                        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_COMPACT_XPRESS16K |        \
+                        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_COMPACT_LZX)
+
+
+
+/*
+ * If not done already, load the patterns from the [PrepopulateList] section of
+ * WimBootCompress.ini in the WIM image being extracted.
+ *
+ * Note: WimBootCompress.ini applies to both types of "external backing":
+ *
+ *     - WIM backing ("WIMBoot" - Windows 8.1 and later)
+ *     - File backing ("System Compression" - Windows 10 and later)
+ */
 static int
-win32_create_file(const wchar_t *path, struct apply_ctx *ctx, u64 *cookie_ret)
+load_prepopulate_pats(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       HANDLE h;
-       unsigned retry_count = 0;
-       DWORD dwFlagsAndAttributes = FILE_FLAG_BACKUP_SEMANTICS;
+       const wchar_t *path = L"\\Windows\\System32\\WimBootCompress.ini";
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       const struct blob_descriptor *blob;
+       int ret;
+       void *buf;
+       struct string_set *s;
+       void *mem;
+       struct text_file_section sec;
 
-retry:
-       /* WRITE_OWNER and WRITE_DAC privileges are required for some reason,
-        * even through we're creating a new file.  */
-       h = CreateFile(path, WRITE_OWNER | WRITE_DAC, 0, NULL,
-                      CREATE_ALWAYS, dwFlagsAndAttributes, NULL);
-       if (h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) {
-               /* File couldn't be created.  */
-               DWORD err = GetLastError();
-               if (err == ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED && retry_count == 0) {
-
-                       /* Access denied error for the first time.  Try
-                        * adjusting file attributes.  */
-
-                       /* Get attributes of the existing file.  */
-                       DWORD attribs = GetFileAttributes(path);
-                       if (attribs != INVALID_FILE_ATTRIBUTES &&
-                           (attribs & (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_HIDDEN |
-                                       FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM |
-                                       FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY)))
-                       {
-                               /* If the existing file has
-                                * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_HIDDEN and/or
-                                * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM, they must be set in
-                                * the call to CreateFile().  This is true even
-                                * when FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL was not specified,
-                                * contrary to the MS "documentation".  */
-                               dwFlagsAndAttributes |= (attribs &
-                                                        (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_HIDDEN |
-                                                         FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM));
-                               /* If the existing file has
-                                * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY, it must be cleared
-                                * before attempting to create a new file over
-                                * it.  This is true even when the process has
-                                * the SE_RESTORE_NAME privilege and requested
-                                * the FILE_FLAG_BACKUP_SEMANTICS flag to
-                                * CreateFile().  */
-                               if (attribs & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY) {
-                                       SetFileAttributes(path,
-                                                         attribs & ~FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY);
-                               }
-                               retry_count++;
-                               goto retry;
-                       }
-               }
-               set_errno_from_win32_error(err);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
+       if (ctx->tried_to_load_prepopulate_list)
+               return 0;
+
+       ctx->tried_to_load_prepopulate_list = true;
+
+       dentry = get_dentry(ctx->common.wim, path, WIMLIB_CASE_INSENSITIVE);
+       if (!dentry ||
+           (dentry->d_inode->i_attributes & (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY |
+                                             FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT |
+                                             FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED)) ||
+           !(blob = inode_get_blob_for_unnamed_data_stream(dentry->d_inode,
+                                                           ctx->common.wim->blob_table)))
+       {
+               WARNING("%ls does not exist in the WIM image.\n"
+                       "          The default configuration will be used instead; it assumes that all\n"
+                       "          files are valid for external backing regardless of path, equivalent\n"
+                       "          to an empty [PrepopulateList] section.", path);
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_PATH_DOES_NOT_EXIST;
        }
-       CloseHandle(h);
+
+       ret = read_blob_into_alloc_buf(blob, &buf);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
+
+       s = CALLOC(1, sizeof(struct string_set));
+       if (!s) {
+               FREE(buf);
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+       }
+
+       sec.name = T("PrepopulateList");
+       sec.strings = s;
+
+       ret = do_load_text_file(path, buf, blob->size, &mem, &sec, 1,
+                               LOAD_TEXT_FILE_REMOVE_QUOTES |
+                                       LOAD_TEXT_FILE_NO_WARNINGS,
+                               mangle_pat);
+       BUILD_BUG_ON(OS_PREFERRED_PATH_SEPARATOR != WIM_PATH_SEPARATOR);
+       FREE(buf);
+       if (ret) {
+               FREE(s);
+               return ret;
+       }
+       ctx->prepopulate_pats = s;
+       ctx->mem_prepopulate_pats = mem;
        return 0;
 }
 
-static int
-win32_create_directory(const wchar_t *path, struct apply_ctx *ctx,
-                      u64 *cookie_ret)
+/* Returns %true if the specified absolute path to a file in the WIM image can
+ * be subject to external backing when extracted.  Otherwise returns %false.  */
+static bool
+can_externally_back_path(const wchar_t *path, const struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       if (!CreateDirectory(path, NULL))
-               if (GetLastError() != ERROR_ALREADY_EXISTS)
-                       goto error;
-       return 0;
-
-error:
-       set_errno_from_GetLastError();
-       return WIMLIB_ERR_MKDIR;
+       /* Does the path match a pattern given in the [PrepopulateList] section
+        * of WimBootCompress.ini?  */
+       if (ctx->prepopulate_pats && match_pattern_list(path, ctx->prepopulate_pats))
+               return false;
+
+       /* Since we attempt to modify the SYSTEM registry after it's extracted
+        * (see end_wimboot_extraction()), it can't be extracted as externally
+        * backed.  This extends to associated files such as SYSTEM.LOG that
+        * also must be writable in order to write to the registry.  Normally,
+        * SYSTEM is in [PrepopulateList], and the SYSTEM.* files match patterns
+        * in [ExclusionList] and therefore are not captured in the WIM at all.
+        * However, a WIM that wasn't specifically captured in "WIMBoot mode"
+        * may contain SYSTEM.* files.  So to make things "just work", hard-code
+        * the pattern.  */
+       if (match_path(path, L"\\Windows\\System32\\config\\SYSTEM*", false))
+               return false;
+
+       return true;
 }
 
-static int
-win32_create_hardlink(const wchar_t *oldpath, const wchar_t *newpath,
-                     struct apply_ctx *ctx)
+/* Can the specified WIM resource be used as the source of an external backing
+ * for the wof.sys WIM provider?  */
+static bool
+is_resource_valid_for_external_backing(const struct wim_resource_descriptor *rdesc,
+                                      struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       if (!CreateHardLink(newpath, oldpath, NULL)) {
-               if (GetLastError() != ERROR_ALREADY_EXISTS)
-                       goto error;
-               if (!DeleteFile(newpath))
-                       goto error;
-               if (!CreateHardLink(newpath, oldpath, NULL))
-                       goto error;
+       /* Must be the original WIM file format.  This check excludes pipable
+        * resources and solid resources.  It also excludes other resources
+        * contained in such files even if they would be otherwise compatible.
+        */
+       if (rdesc->wim->hdr.magic != WIM_MAGIC ||
+           rdesc->wim->hdr.wim_version != WIM_VERSION_DEFAULT)
+       {
+               ctx->wimboot.have_wrong_version_wims = true;
+               return false;
+       }
+
+       /*
+        * Whitelist of compression types and chunk sizes supported by
+        * Microsoft's WOF driver.
+        *
+        * Notes:
+        *    - Uncompressed WIMs result in BSOD.  However, this only applies to
+        *      the WIM file itself, not to uncompressed resources in a WIM file
+        *      that is otherwise compressed.
+        *    - XPRESS 64K sometimes appears to work, but sometimes it causes
+        *      reads to fail with STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL.
+        */
+       switch (rdesc->compression_type) {
+       case WIMLIB_COMPRESSION_TYPE_NONE:
+               if (rdesc->wim->compression_type == WIMLIB_COMPRESSION_TYPE_NONE) {
+                       ctx->wimboot.have_uncompressed_wims = true;
+                       return false;
+               }
+               break;
+       case WIMLIB_COMPRESSION_TYPE_XPRESS:
+               switch (rdesc->chunk_size) {
+               case 4096:
+               case 8192:
+               case 16384:
+               case 32768:
+                       break;
+               default:
+                       ctx->wimboot.have_unsupported_compressed_resources = true;
+                       return false;
+               }
+               break;
+       case WIMLIB_COMPRESSION_TYPE_LZX:
+               switch (rdesc->chunk_size) {
+               case 32768:
+                       break;
+               default:
+                       ctx->wimboot.have_unsupported_compressed_resources = true;
+                       return false;
+               }
+               break;
+       default:
+               ctx->wimboot.have_unsupported_compressed_resources = true;
+               return false;
+       }
+
+       /* Microsoft's WoF driver errors out if it tries to satisfy a read with
+        * ending offset >= 4 GiB from an externally backed file.  */
+       if (rdesc->uncompressed_size > 4200000000) {
+               ctx->wimboot.have_huge_resources = true;
+               return false;
        }
-       return 0;
 
-error:
-       set_errno_from_GetLastError();
-       return WIMLIB_ERR_LINK;
+       return true;
 }
 
+#define EXTERNAL_BACKING_NOT_ENABLED           -1
+#define EXTERNAL_BACKING_NOT_POSSIBLE          -2
+#define EXTERNAL_BACKING_EXCLUDED              -3
+
+/*
+ * Determines whether the specified file will be externally backed.  Returns a
+ * negative status code if no, 0 if yes, or a positive wimlib error code on
+ * error.  If the file is excluded from external backing based on its path, then
+ * *excluded_dentry_ret is set to the dentry for the path that matched the
+ * exclusion rule.
+ *
+ * Note that this logic applies to both types of "external backing":
+ *
+ *     - WIM backing ("WIMBoot" - Windows 8.1 and later)
+ *     - File backing ("System Compression" - Windows 10 and later)
+ *
+ * However, in the case of WIM backing we also need to validate that the WIM
+ * resource that would be the source of the backing is supported by the wof.sys
+ * WIM provider.
+ */
 static int
-win32_create_symlink(const wchar_t *oldpath, const wchar_t *newpath,
-                    struct apply_ctx *ctx)
+will_externally_back_inode(struct wim_inode *inode, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx,
+                          const struct wim_dentry **excluded_dentry_ret,
+                          bool wimboot_mode)
 {
-       if (!(*win32func_CreateSymbolicLinkW)(newpath, oldpath, 0)) {
-               if (GetLastError() != ERROR_ALREADY_EXISTS)
-                       goto error;
-               if (!DeleteFile(newpath))
-                       goto error;
-               if (!(*win32func_CreateSymbolicLinkW)(newpath, oldpath, 0))
-                       goto error;
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       struct blob_descriptor *blob;
+       int ret;
+
+       if (load_prepopulate_pats(ctx) == WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM)
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+
+       if (inode->i_can_externally_back)
+               return 0;
+
+       /* This may do redundant checks because the cached value
+        * i_can_externally_back is 2-state (as opposed to 3-state:
+        * unknown/no/yes).  But most files can be externally backed, so this
+        * way is fine.  */
+
+       if (inode->i_attributes & (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY |
+                                  FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT |
+                                  FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED))
+               return EXTERNAL_BACKING_NOT_POSSIBLE;
+
+       blob = inode_get_blob_for_unnamed_data_stream_resolved(inode);
+
+       if (!blob)
+               return EXTERNAL_BACKING_NOT_POSSIBLE;
+
+       if (wimboot_mode &&
+           (blob->blob_location != BLOB_IN_WIM ||
+            !is_resource_valid_for_external_backing(blob->rdesc, ctx)))
+               return EXTERNAL_BACKING_NOT_POSSIBLE;
+
+       /*
+        * We need to check the patterns in [PrepopulateList] against every name
+        * of the inode, in case any of them match.
+        */
+
+       inode_for_each_extraction_alias(dentry, inode) {
+
+               ret = calculate_dentry_full_path(dentry);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+
+               if (!can_externally_back_path(dentry->d_full_path, ctx)) {
+                       if (excluded_dentry_ret)
+                               *excluded_dentry_ret = dentry;
+                       return EXTERNAL_BACKING_EXCLUDED;
+               }
        }
-       return 0;
 
-error:
-       set_errno_from_GetLastError();
-       return WIMLIB_ERR_LINK;
+       inode->i_can_externally_back = 1;
+       return 0;
 }
 
+/*
+ * Determines if the unnamed data stream of a file will be created as a WIM
+ * external backing (a "WIMBoot pointer file"), as opposed to a standard
+ * extraction.
+ */
 static int
-win32_extract_wim_chunk(const void *buf, size_t len, void *arg)
+win32_will_back_from_wim(struct wim_dentry *dentry, struct apply_ctx *_ctx)
 {
-       HANDLE h = (HANDLE)arg;
-       DWORD nbytes_written;
+       struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx = (struct win32_apply_ctx *)_ctx;
 
-       if (unlikely(!WriteFile(h, buf, len, &nbytes_written, NULL)))
-               goto error;
-       if (unlikely(nbytes_written != len))
-               goto error;
-       return 0;
+       if (!(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_WIMBOOT))
+               return EXTERNAL_BACKING_NOT_ENABLED;
+
+       return will_externally_back_inode(dentry->d_inode, ctx, NULL, true);
+}
 
-error:
-       set_errno_from_GetLastError();
-       return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
+/* Find the WOF registration information for the specified WIM file.  */
+static struct wimboot_wim *
+find_wimboot_wim(WIMStruct *wim_to_find, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       for (size_t i = 0; i < ctx->wimboot.num_wims; i++)
+               if (wim_to_find == ctx->wimboot.wims[i].wim)
+                       return &ctx->wimboot.wims[i];
+
+       wimlib_assert(0);
+       return NULL;
 }
 
 static int
-win32_extract_stream(const wchar_t *path, const wchar_t *stream_name,
-                    size_t stream_name_nchars,
-                    struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte, struct apply_ctx *ctx)
+set_backed_from_wim(HANDLE h, struct wim_inode *inode, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       DWORD creationDisposition = OPEN_EXISTING;
-       wchar_t *stream_path = (wchar_t*)path;
-       HANDLE h;
        int ret;
+       const struct wim_dentry *excluded_dentry;
+       const struct blob_descriptor *blob;
+       const struct wimboot_wim *wimboot_wim;
+
+       ret = will_externally_back_inode(inode, ctx, &excluded_dentry, true);
+       if (ret > 0) /* Error.  */
+               return ret;
+
+       if (ret < 0 && ret != EXTERNAL_BACKING_EXCLUDED)
+               return 0; /* Not externally backing, other than due to exclusion.  */
+
+       if (unlikely(ret == EXTERNAL_BACKING_EXCLUDED)) {
+               /* Not externally backing due to exclusion.  */
+               union wimlib_progress_info info;
+
+               build_extraction_path(excluded_dentry, ctx);
 
-       if (stream_name_nchars) {
-               creationDisposition = CREATE_ALWAYS;
-               stream_path = alloca(sizeof(wchar_t) *
-                                    (wcslen(path) + 1 +
-                                     wcslen(stream_name) + 1));
-               tsprintf(stream_path, L"%ls:%ls", path, stream_name);
+               info.wimboot_exclude.path_in_wim = excluded_dentry->d_full_path;
+               info.wimboot_exclude.extraction_path = current_path(ctx);
+
+               return call_progress(ctx->common.progfunc,
+                                    WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_WIMBOOT_EXCLUDE,
+                                    &info, ctx->common.progctx);
        }
 
-       h = CreateFile(stream_path, FILE_WRITE_DATA, 0, NULL,
-                      creationDisposition, FILE_FLAG_BACKUP_SEMANTICS |
-                                           FILE_FLAG_OPEN_REPARSE_POINT,
-                      NULL);
-       if (h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
-               goto error;
-
-       ret = 0;
-       if (!lte)
-               goto out_close_handle;
-       ret = extract_stream(lte, lte->size, win32_extract_wim_chunk, h);
-out_close_handle:
-       if (!CloseHandle(h))
-               goto error;
-       if (ret && !errno)
-               errno = -1;
-       return ret;
+       /* Externally backing.  */
+
+       blob = inode_get_blob_for_unnamed_data_stream_resolved(inode);
+       wimboot_wim = find_wimboot_wim(blob->rdesc->wim, ctx);
 
-error:
-       set_errno_from_GetLastError();
-       return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
+       if (unlikely(!wimboot_set_pointer(h,
+                                         blob,
+                                         wimboot_wim->data_source_id,
+                                         wimboot_wim->blob_table_hash,
+                                         ctx->wimboot.wof_running)))
+       {
+               const DWORD err = GetLastError();
+
+               build_extraction_path(inode_first_extraction_dentry(inode), ctx);
+               win32_error(err, L"\"%ls\": Couldn't set WIMBoot pointer data",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_WIMBOOT;
+       }
+       return 0;
 }
 
+/* Calculates the SHA-1 message digest of the WIM's blob table.  */
 static int
-win32_extract_unnamed_stream(file_spec_t file,
-                            struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte,
-                            struct apply_ctx *ctx)
+hash_blob_table(WIMStruct *wim, u8 hash[SHA1_HASH_SIZE])
 {
-       return win32_extract_stream(file.path, NULL, 0, lte, ctx);
+       return wim_reshdr_to_hash(&wim->hdr.blob_table_reshdr, wim, hash);
 }
 
 static int
-win32_extract_named_stream(file_spec_t file, const wchar_t *stream_name,
-                          size_t stream_name_nchars,
-                          struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte, struct apply_ctx *ctx)
+register_wim_with_wof(WIMStruct *wim, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       return win32_extract_stream(file.path, stream_name,
-                                   stream_name_nchars, lte, ctx);
-}
+       struct wimboot_wim *p;
+       int ret;
 
-struct win32_encrypted_extract_ctx {
-       const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte;
-       u64 offset;
-};
+       /* Check if already registered  */
+       for (size_t i = 0; i < ctx->wimboot.num_wims; i++)
+               if (wim == ctx->wimboot.wims[i].wim)
+                       return 0;
 
-static DWORD WINAPI
-win32_encrypted_import_cb(unsigned char *data, void *_import_ctx,
-                         unsigned long *len_p)
-{
-       struct win32_encrypted_extract_ctx *import_ctx = _import_ctx;
-       unsigned long len = *len_p;
-       const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte = import_ctx->lte;
+       /* Not yet registered  */
 
-       len = min(len, lte->size - import_ctx->offset);
+       p = REALLOC(ctx->wimboot.wims,
+                   (ctx->wimboot.num_wims + 1) * sizeof(ctx->wimboot.wims[0]));
+       if (!p)
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+       ctx->wimboot.wims = p;
 
-       if (read_partial_wim_stream_into_buf(lte, len, import_ctx->offset, data))
-               return ERROR_READ_FAULT;
+       ctx->wimboot.wims[ctx->wimboot.num_wims].wim = wim;
 
-       import_ctx->offset += len;
-       *len_p = len;
-       return ERROR_SUCCESS;
+       ret = hash_blob_table(wim, ctx->wimboot.wims[ctx->wimboot.num_wims].blob_table_hash);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
+
+       ret = wimboot_alloc_data_source_id(wim->filename,
+                                          wim->hdr.guid,
+                                          ctx->common.wim->current_image,
+                                          ctx->common.target,
+                                          &ctx->wimboot.wims[ctx->wimboot.num_wims].data_source_id,
+                                          &ctx->wimboot.wof_running);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
+
+       ctx->wimboot.num_wims++;
+       return 0;
 }
 
+/* Prepare for doing a "WIMBoot" extraction by registering each source WIM file
+ * with WOF on the target volume.  */
 static int
-win32_extract_encrypted_stream(const wchar_t *path,
-                              struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte,
-                              struct apply_ctx *ctx)
+start_wimboot_extraction(struct list_head *dentry_list, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       void *file_ctx;
-       DWORD err;
        int ret;
-       struct win32_encrypted_extract_ctx extract_ctx;
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+
+       if (!wim_info_get_wimboot(ctx->common.wim->wim_info,
+                                 ctx->common.wim->current_image))
+               WARNING("The WIM image is not marked as WIMBoot compatible.  This usually\n"
+                       "          means it is not intended to be used to back a Windows operating\n"
+                       "          system.  Proceeding anyway.");
+
+       list_for_each_entry(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node) {
+               struct blob_descriptor *blob;
+
+               ret = win32_will_back_from_wim(dentry, &ctx->common);
+               if (ret > 0) /* Error */
+                       return ret;
+               if (ret < 0) /* Won't externally back */
+                       continue;
+
+               blob = inode_get_blob_for_unnamed_data_stream_resolved(dentry->d_inode);
+               ret = register_wim_with_wof(blob->rdesc->wim, ctx);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+       }
 
-       err = OpenEncryptedFileRaw(path, CREATE_FOR_IMPORT, &file_ctx);
-       if (err != ERROR_SUCCESS) {
-               set_errno_from_win32_error(err);
-               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
-               goto out;
+       if (ctx->wimboot.have_wrong_version_wims) {
+  WARNING("At least one of the source WIM files uses a version of the WIM\n"
+"          file format that not supported by Microsoft's wof.sys driver.\n"
+"          Files whose data is contained in one of these WIM files will be\n"
+"          extracted as full files rather than externally backed.");
        }
 
-       extract_ctx.lte = lte;
-       extract_ctx.offset = 0;
-       err = WriteEncryptedFileRaw(win32_encrypted_import_cb, &extract_ctx,
-                                   file_ctx);
-       if (err != ERROR_SUCCESS) {
-               set_errno_from_win32_error(err);
-               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
-               goto out_close;
+       if (ctx->wimboot.have_uncompressed_wims) {
+  WARNING("At least one of the source WIM files is uncompressed.  Files whose\n"
+"          data is contained in an uncompressed WIM file will be extracted as\n"
+"          full files rather than externally backed, since uncompressed WIM\n"
+"          files are not supported by Microsoft's wof.sys driver.");
        }
 
-       ret = 0;
-out_close:
-       CloseEncryptedFileRaw(file_ctx);
-out:
-       return ret;
+       if (ctx->wimboot.have_unsupported_compressed_resources) {
+  WARNING("At least one of the source WIM files uses a compression format that\n"
+"          is not supported by Microsoft's wof.sys driver.  Files whose data is\n"
+"          contained in a compressed resource in one of these WIM files will be\n"
+"          extracted as full files rather than externally backed.  (The\n"
+"          compression formats supported by wof.sys are: XPRESS 4K, XPRESS 8K,\n"
+"          XPRESS 16K, XPRESS 32K, and LZX 32K.)");
+       }
+
+       if (ctx->wimboot.have_huge_resources) {
+  WARNING("Some files exceeded 4.2 GB in size.  Such files will be extracted\n"
+"          as full files rather than externally backed, since very large files\n"
+"          are not supported by Microsoft's wof.sys driver.");
+       }
+
+       return 0;
 }
 
-static BOOL
-win32_set_special_file_attributes(const wchar_t *path, u32 attributes)
+static void
+build_win32_extraction_path(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                           struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx);
+
+/* Sets WimBoot=1 in the extracted SYSTEM registry hive.
+ *
+ * WIMGAPI does this, and it's possible that it's important.
+ * But I don't know exactly what this value means to Windows.  */
+static int
+end_wimboot_extraction(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       HANDLE h;
-       DWORD err;
-       USHORT compression_format = COMPRESSION_FORMAT_DEFAULT;
-       DWORD bytes_returned;
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       wchar_t subkeyname[32];
+       LONG res;
+       LONG res2;
+       HKEY key;
+       DWORD value;
 
-       h = win32_open_existing_file(path, GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE);
-       if (h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
-               goto error;
+       dentry = get_dentry(ctx->common.wim, L"\\Windows\\System32\\config\\SYSTEM",
+                           WIMLIB_CASE_INSENSITIVE);
+
+       if (!dentry || !will_extract_dentry(dentry))
+               goto out;
 
-       if (attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE)
-               if (!DeviceIoControl(h, FSCTL_SET_SPARSE,
-                                    NULL, 0,
-                                    NULL, 0,
-                                    &bytes_returned, NULL))
-                       goto error_close_handle;
+       if (!will_extract_dentry(wim_get_current_root_dentry(ctx->common.wim)))
+               goto out;
 
-       if (attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED)
-               if (!DeviceIoControl(h, FSCTL_SET_COMPRESSION,
-                                    &compression_format, sizeof(USHORT),
-                                    NULL, 0,
-                                    &bytes_returned, NULL))
-                       goto error_close_handle;
+       /* Not bothering to use the native routines (e.g. NtLoadKey()) for this.
+        * If this doesn't work, you probably also have many other problems.  */
 
-       if (!CloseHandle(h))
-               goto error;
+       build_win32_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
 
-       if (attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED)
-               if (!EncryptFile(path))
-                       goto error;
+       randomize_char_array_with_alnum(subkeyname, 20);
+       subkeyname[20] = L'\0';
 
-       return TRUE;
+       res = RegLoadKey(HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, subkeyname, ctx->pathbuf.Buffer);
+       if (res)
+               goto out_check_res;
 
-error_close_handle:
-       err = GetLastError();
-       CloseHandle(h);
-       SetLastError(err);
-error:
-       return FALSE;
+       wcscpy(&subkeyname[20], L"\\Setup");
+
+       res = RegCreateKeyEx(HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, subkeyname, 0, NULL,
+                            REG_OPTION_BACKUP_RESTORE, 0, NULL, &key, NULL);
+       if (res)
+               goto out_unload_key;
+
+       value = 1;
+
+       res = RegSetValueEx(key, L"WimBoot", 0, REG_DWORD,
+                           (const BYTE *)&value, sizeof(DWORD));
+       if (res)
+               goto out_close_key;
+
+       res = RegFlushKey(key);
+
+out_close_key:
+       res2 = RegCloseKey(key);
+       if (!res)
+               res = res2;
+out_unload_key:
+       subkeyname[20] = L'\0';
+       RegUnLoadKey(HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, subkeyname);
+out_check_res:
+       if (res) {
+               /* Warning only.  */
+               win32_warning(res, L"Failed to set \\Setup: dword \"WimBoot\"=1 "
+                             "value in registry hive \"%ls\"",
+                             ctx->pathbuf.Buffer);
+       }
+out:
+       return 0;
 }
 
-static int
-win32_set_file_attributes(const wchar_t *path, u32 attributes,
-                         struct apply_ctx *ctx, unsigned pass)
+/* Returns the number of wide characters needed to represent the path to the
+ * specified @dentry, relative to the target directory, when extracted.
+ *
+ * Does not include null terminator (not needed for NtCreateFile).  */
+static size_t
+dentry_extraction_path_length(const struct wim_dentry *dentry)
 {
-       u32 special_attributes =
-               FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT |
-               FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY |
-               FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE |
-               FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED |
-               FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED;
-       u32 actual_attributes;
+       size_t len = 0;
+       const struct wim_dentry *d;
 
-       /* Delay setting FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY on the initial pass (when files
-        * are created, but data not extracted); otherwise the system will
-        * refuse access to the file even if the process has SeRestorePrivilege.
-        */
-       if (pass == 0)
-               attributes &= ~FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY;
+       d = dentry;
+       do {
+               len += d->d_extraction_name_nchars + 1;
+               d = d->d_parent;
+       } while (!dentry_is_root(d) && will_extract_dentry(d));
 
-       if (!SetFileAttributes(path, attributes & ~special_attributes))
-               goto error;
+       return --len;  /* No leading slash  */
+}
 
-       if (pass != 0)
-               return 0;
+/* Returns the length of the longest string that might need to be appended to
+ * the path to an alias of an inode to open or create a named data stream.
+ *
+ * If the inode has no named data streams, this will be 0.  Otherwise, this will
+ * be 1 plus the length of the longest-named data stream, since the data stream
+ * name must be separated from the path by the ':' character.  */
+static size_t
+inode_longest_named_data_stream_spec(const struct wim_inode *inode)
+{
+       size_t max = 0;
+       for (unsigned i = 0; i < inode->i_num_streams; i++) {
+               const struct wim_inode_stream *strm = &inode->i_streams[i];
+               if (!stream_is_named_data_stream(strm))
+                       continue;
+               size_t len = utf16le_len_chars(strm->stream_name);
+               if (len > max)
+                       max = len;
+       }
+       if (max)
+               max += 1;
+       return max;
+}
 
-       if (attributes & (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE |
-                         FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED |
-                         FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED))
-               if (!win32_set_special_file_attributes(path, attributes))
-                       goto error;
-
-       /* If file is not supposed to be encrypted or compressed, remove
-        * defaulted encrypted or compressed attributes (from creating file in
-        * encrypted or compressed directory).  */
-       actual_attributes = GetFileAttributes(path);
-       if (actual_attributes == INVALID_FILE_ATTRIBUTES)
-               goto error;
-
-       if ((actual_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED) &&
-           !(attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED))
-               if (!DecryptFile(path, 0))
-                       goto error;
-       if ((actual_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED) &&
-           !(attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED))
-       {
-               HANDLE h;
-               DWORD bytes_returned;
-               USHORT compression_format = COMPRESSION_FORMAT_NONE;
+/* Find the length, in wide characters, of the longest path needed for
+ * extraction of any file in @dentry_list relative to the target directory.
+ *
+ * Accounts for named data streams, but does not include null terminator (not
+ * needed for NtCreateFile).  */
+static size_t
+compute_path_max(struct list_head *dentry_list)
+{
+       size_t max = 0;
+       const struct wim_dentry *dentry;
 
-               h = win32_open_existing_file(path, GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE);
-               if (h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
-                       goto error;
+       list_for_each_entry(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node) {
+               size_t len;
 
-               if (!DeviceIoControl(h, FSCTL_SET_COMPRESSION,
-                                    &compression_format, sizeof(USHORT),
-                                    NULL, 0,
-                                    &bytes_returned, NULL))
-               {
-                       DWORD err = GetLastError();
-                       CloseHandle(h);
-                       SetLastError(err);
-                       goto error;
-               }
+               len = dentry_extraction_path_length(dentry);
 
-               if (!CloseHandle(h))
-                       goto error;
-       }
+               /* Account for named data streams  */
+               len += inode_longest_named_data_stream_spec(dentry->d_inode);
 
-       return 0;
+               if (len > max)
+                       max = len;
+       }
 
-error:
-       set_errno_from_GetLastError();
-       return WIMLIB_ERR_SET_ATTRIBUTES;
+       return max;
 }
 
-static int
-win32_set_reparse_data(const wchar_t *path, const u8 *rpbuf, u16 rpbuflen,
-                      struct apply_ctx *ctx)
+/* Build the path at which to extract the @dentry, relative to the target
+ * directory.
+ *
+ * The path is saved in ctx->pathbuf.  */
+static void
+build_extraction_path(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                     struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       HANDLE h;
-       DWORD err;
-       DWORD bytes_returned;
+       size_t len;
+       wchar_t *p;
+       const struct wim_dentry *d;
 
-       h = win32_open_existing_file(path, GENERIC_WRITE);
-       if (h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
-               goto error;
+       len = dentry_extraction_path_length(dentry);
 
-       if (!DeviceIoControl(h, FSCTL_SET_REPARSE_POINT,
-                            (void*)rpbuf, rpbuflen,
-                            NULL, 0, &bytes_returned, NULL))
-               goto error_close_handle;
+       ctx->pathbuf.Length = len * sizeof(wchar_t);
+       p = ctx->pathbuf.Buffer + len;
+       for (d = dentry;
+            !dentry_is_root(d->d_parent) && will_extract_dentry(d->d_parent);
+            d = d->d_parent)
+       {
+               p -= d->d_extraction_name_nchars;
+               wmemcpy(p, d->d_extraction_name, d->d_extraction_name_nchars);
+               *--p = '\\';
+       }
+       /* No leading slash  */
+       p -= d->d_extraction_name_nchars;
+       wmemcpy(p, d->d_extraction_name, d->d_extraction_name_nchars);
+}
 
-       if (!CloseHandle(h))
-               goto error;
+/* Build the path at which to extract the @dentry, relative to the target
+ * directory, adding the suffix for a named data stream.
+ *
+ * The path is saved in ctx->pathbuf.  */
+static void
+build_extraction_path_with_ads(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                              struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx,
+                              const wchar_t *stream_name,
+                              size_t stream_name_nchars)
+{
+       wchar_t *p;
 
-       return 0;
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
 
-error_close_handle:
-       err = GetLastError();
-       CloseHandle(h);
-       SetLastError(err);
-error:
-       set_errno_from_GetLastError();
-       return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE; /* XXX: need better error code */
+       /* Add :NAME for named data stream  */
+       p = ctx->pathbuf.Buffer + (ctx->pathbuf.Length / sizeof(wchar_t));
+       *p++ = L':';
+       wmemcpy(p, stream_name, stream_name_nchars);
+       ctx->pathbuf.Length += (1 + stream_name_nchars) * sizeof(wchar_t);
 }
 
-static int
-win32_set_short_name(const wchar_t *path, const wchar_t *short_name,
-                    size_t short_name_nchars, struct apply_ctx *ctx)
+/* Build the Win32 namespace path to the specified @dentry when extracted.
+ *
+ * The path is saved in ctx->pathbuf and will be null terminated.
+ *
+ * XXX: We could get rid of this if it wasn't needed for the file encryption
+ * APIs, and the registry manipulation in WIMBoot mode.  */
+static void
+build_win32_extraction_path(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                           struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       HANDLE h;
-       DWORD err;
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
 
-       h = win32_open_existing_file(path, GENERIC_WRITE | DELETE);
-       if (h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
-               goto error;
+       /* Prepend target_ntpath to our relative path, then change \??\ into \\?\  */
 
-       if (short_name_nchars) {
-               if (!SetFileShortName(h, short_name))
-                       goto error_close_handle;
-       } else if (running_on_windows_7_or_later()) {
-               if (!SetFileShortName(h, L""))
-                       goto error_close_handle;
-       }
+       memmove(ctx->pathbuf.Buffer +
+                       (ctx->target_ntpath.Length / sizeof(wchar_t)) + 1,
+               ctx->pathbuf.Buffer, ctx->pathbuf.Length);
+       memcpy(ctx->pathbuf.Buffer, ctx->target_ntpath.Buffer,
+               ctx->target_ntpath.Length);
+       ctx->pathbuf.Buffer[ctx->target_ntpath.Length / sizeof(wchar_t)] = L'\\';
+       ctx->pathbuf.Length += ctx->target_ntpath.Length + sizeof(wchar_t);
+       ctx->pathbuf.Buffer[ctx->pathbuf.Length / sizeof(wchar_t)] = L'\0';
 
-       if (!CloseHandle(h))
-               goto error;
+       wimlib_assert(ctx->pathbuf.Length >= 4 * sizeof(wchar_t) &&
+                     !wmemcmp(ctx->pathbuf.Buffer, L"\\??\\", 4));
 
-       return 0;
+       ctx->pathbuf.Buffer[1] = L'\\';
 
-error_close_handle:
-       err = GetLastError();
-       CloseHandle(h);
-       SetLastError(err);
-error:
-       set_errno_from_GetLastError();
-       return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE; /* XXX: need better error code */
 }
 
-static DWORD
-do_win32_set_security_descriptor(HANDLE h, const wchar_t *path,
-                                SECURITY_INFORMATION info,
-                                PSECURITY_DESCRIPTOR desc)
+/* Returns a "printable" representation of the last relative NT path that was
+ * constructed with build_extraction_path() or build_extraction_path_with_ads().
+ *
+ * This will be overwritten by the next call to this function.  */
+static const wchar_t *
+current_path(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-#ifdef WITH_NTDLL
-       if (func_NtSetSecurityObject) {
-               return (*func_RtlNtStatusToDosError)(
-                               (*func_NtSetSecurityObject)(h, info, desc));
-       }
-#endif
-       if (SetFileSecurity(path, info, desc))
-               return ERROR_SUCCESS;
-       else
-               return GetLastError();
+       wchar_t *p = ctx->print_buffer;
+
+       p = wmempcpy(p, ctx->common.target, ctx->common.target_nchars);
+       *p++ = L'\\';
+       p = wmempcpy(p, ctx->pathbuf.Buffer, ctx->pathbuf.Length / sizeof(wchar_t));
+       *p = L'\0';
+       return ctx->print_buffer;
 }
 
+/* Open handle to the target directory if it is not already open.  If the target
+ * directory does not exist, this creates it.  */
 static int
-win32_set_security_descriptor(const wchar_t *path, const u8 *desc,
-                             size_t desc_size, struct apply_ctx *ctx)
+open_target_directory(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       SECURITY_INFORMATION info;
-       HANDLE h;
-       DWORD err;
-       int ret;
+       NTSTATUS status;
 
-       info = OWNER_SECURITY_INFORMATION | GROUP_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
-              DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION  | SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
-       h = INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE;
-
-#ifdef WITH_NTDLL
-       if (func_NtSetSecurityObject) {
-               h = win32_open_existing_file(path, MAXIMUM_ALLOWED);
-               if (h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) {
-                       set_errno_from_GetLastError();
-                       ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Can't open %ls", path);
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_SET_SECURITY;
-               }
+       if (ctx->h_target)
+               return 0;
+
+       ctx->attr.Length = sizeof(ctx->attr);
+       ctx->attr.RootDirectory = NULL;
+       ctx->attr.ObjectName = &ctx->target_ntpath;
+       status = (*func_NtCreateFile)(&ctx->h_target,
+                                     FILE_TRAVERSE,
+                                     &ctx->attr,
+                                     &ctx->iosb,
+                                     NULL,
+                                     0,
+                                     FILE_SHARE_VALID_FLAGS,
+                                     FILE_OPEN_IF,
+                                     FILE_DIRECTORY_FILE |
+                                             FILE_OPEN_REPARSE_POINT |
+                                             FILE_OPEN_FOR_BACKUP_INTENT,
+                                     NULL,
+                                     0);
+       if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+               winnt_error(status, L"Can't open or create directory \"%ls\"",
+                           ctx->common.target);
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_OPENDIR;
        }
-#endif
+       ctx->attr.RootDirectory = ctx->h_target;
+       ctx->attr.ObjectName = &ctx->pathbuf;
+       return 0;
+}
 
-       for (;;) {
-               err = do_win32_set_security_descriptor(h, path, info,
-                                                      (PSECURITY_DESCRIPTOR)desc);
-               if (err == ERROR_SUCCESS) {
-                       ret = 0;
-                       break;
+static void
+close_target_directory(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       if (ctx->h_target) {
+               (*func_NtClose)(ctx->h_target);
+               ctx->h_target = NULL;
+               ctx->attr.RootDirectory = NULL;
+       }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Ensures the target directory exists and opens a handle to it, in preparation
+ * of using paths relative to it.
+ */
+static int
+prepare_target(struct list_head *dentry_list, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       int ret;
+       size_t path_max;
+
+       ret = win32_path_to_nt_path(ctx->common.target, &ctx->target_ntpath);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
+
+       ret = open_target_directory(ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
+
+       path_max = compute_path_max(dentry_list);
+       /* Add some extra for building Win32 paths for the file encryption APIs,
+        * and ensure we have at least enough to potentially use a 8.3 name for
+        * the last component.  */
+       path_max += max(2 + (ctx->target_ntpath.Length / sizeof(wchar_t)),
+                       8 + 1 + 3);
+
+       ctx->pathbuf.MaximumLength = path_max * sizeof(wchar_t);
+       ctx->pathbuf.Buffer = MALLOC(ctx->pathbuf.MaximumLength);
+       if (!ctx->pathbuf.Buffer)
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+
+       ctx->print_buffer = MALLOC((ctx->common.target_nchars + 1 + path_max + 1) *
+                                  sizeof(wchar_t));
+       if (!ctx->print_buffer)
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+/* When creating an inode that will have a short (DOS) name, we create it using
+ * the long name associated with the short name.  This ensures that the short
+ * name gets associated with the correct long name.  */
+static struct wim_dentry *
+first_extraction_alias(const struct wim_inode *inode)
+{
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+
+       inode_for_each_extraction_alias(dentry, inode)
+               if (dentry_has_short_name(dentry))
+                       return dentry;
+       return inode_first_extraction_dentry(inode);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Set or clear FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED if the inherited value is different
+ * from the desired value.
+ *
+ * Note that you can NOT override the inherited value of
+ * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED directly with NtCreateFile().
+ */
+static int
+adjust_compression_attribute(HANDLE h, const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                            struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       const bool compressed = (dentry->d_inode->i_attributes &
+                                FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED);
+
+       if (ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_ATTRIBUTES)
+               return 0;
+
+       if (!ctx->common.supported_features.compressed_files)
+               return 0;
+
+       FILE_BASIC_INFORMATION info;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       USHORT compression_state;
+
+       /* Get current attributes  */
+       status = (*func_NtQueryInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb,
+                                               &info, sizeof(info),
+                                               FileBasicInformation);
+       if (NT_SUCCESS(status) &&
+           compressed == !!(info.FileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED))
+       {
+               /* Nothing needs to be done.  */
+               return 0;
+       }
+
+       /* Set the new compression state  */
+
+       if (compressed)
+               compression_state = COMPRESSION_FORMAT_DEFAULT;
+       else
+               compression_state = COMPRESSION_FORMAT_NONE;
+
+       status = (*func_NtFsControlFile)(h,
+                                        NULL,
+                                        NULL,
+                                        NULL,
+                                        &ctx->iosb,
+                                        FSCTL_SET_COMPRESSION,
+                                        &compression_state,
+                                        sizeof(USHORT),
+                                        NULL,
+                                        0);
+       if (NT_SUCCESS(status))
+               return 0;
+
+       winnt_error(status, L"Can't %s compression attribute on \"%ls\"",
+                   (compressed ? "set" : "clear"), current_path(ctx));
+       return WIMLIB_ERR_SET_ATTRIBUTES;
+}
+
+/* Try to enable short name support on the target volume.  If successful, return
+ * true.  If unsuccessful, issue a warning and return false.  */
+static bool
+try_to_enable_short_names(const wchar_t *volume)
+{
+       HANDLE h;
+       FILE_FS_PERSISTENT_VOLUME_INFORMATION info;
+       BOOL bret;
+       DWORD bytesReturned;
+
+       h = CreateFile(volume, GENERIC_WRITE,
+                      FILE_SHARE_VALID_FLAGS, NULL, OPEN_EXISTING,
+                      FILE_FLAG_BACKUP_SEMANTICS, NULL);
+       if (h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
+               goto fail;
+
+       info.VolumeFlags = 0;
+       info.FlagMask = PERSISTENT_VOLUME_STATE_SHORT_NAME_CREATION_DISABLED;
+       info.Version = 1;
+       info.Reserved = 0;
+
+       bret = DeviceIoControl(h, FSCTL_SET_PERSISTENT_VOLUME_STATE,
+                              &info, sizeof(info), NULL, 0,
+                              &bytesReturned, NULL);
+
+       CloseHandle(h);
+
+       if (!bret)
+               goto fail;
+       return true;
+
+fail:
+       win32_warning(GetLastError(),
+                     L"Failed to enable short name support on %ls",
+                     volume + 4);
+       return false;
+}
+
+static NTSTATUS
+remove_conflicting_short_name(const struct wim_dentry *dentry, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       wchar_t *name;
+       wchar_t *end;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       HANDLE h;
+       size_t bufsize = offsetof(FILE_NAME_INFORMATION, FileName) +
+                        (13 * sizeof(wchar_t));
+       u8 buf[bufsize] _aligned_attribute(8);
+       bool retried = false;
+       FILE_NAME_INFORMATION *info = (FILE_NAME_INFORMATION *)buf;
+
+       memset(buf, 0, bufsize);
+
+       /* Build the path with the short name.  */
+       name = &ctx->pathbuf.Buffer[ctx->pathbuf.Length / sizeof(wchar_t)];
+       while (name != ctx->pathbuf.Buffer && *(name - 1) != L'\\')
+               name--;
+       end = mempcpy(name, dentry->d_short_name, dentry->d_short_name_nbytes);
+       ctx->pathbuf.Length = ((u8 *)end - (u8 *)ctx->pathbuf.Buffer);
+
+       /* Open the conflicting file (by short name).  */
+       status = (*func_NtOpenFile)(&h, GENERIC_WRITE | DELETE,
+                                   &ctx->attr, &ctx->iosb,
+                                   FILE_SHARE_VALID_FLAGS,
+                                   FILE_OPEN_REPARSE_POINT | FILE_OPEN_FOR_BACKUP_INTENT);
+       if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+               winnt_warning(status, L"Can't open \"%ls\"", current_path(ctx));
+               goto out;
+       }
+
+#if 0
+       WARNING("Overriding conflicting short name; path=\"%ls\"",
+               current_path(ctx));
+#endif
+
+       /* Try to remove the short name on the conflicting file.  */
+
+retry:
+       status = (*func_NtSetInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb, info, bufsize,
+                                             FileShortNameInformation);
+
+       if (status == STATUS_INVALID_PARAMETER && !retried) {
+
+               /* Microsoft forgot to make it possible to remove short names
+                * until Windows 7.  Oops.  Use a random short name instead.  */
+
+               info->FileNameLength = 12 * sizeof(wchar_t);
+               for (int i = 0; i < 8; i++)
+                       info->FileName[i] = 'A' + (rand() % 26);
+               info->FileName[8] = L'.';
+               info->FileName[9] = L'W';
+               info->FileName[10] = L'L';
+               info->FileName[11] = L'B';
+               info->FileName[12] = L'\0';
+               retried = true;
+               goto retry;
+       }
+       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+out:
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+       return status;
+}
+
+/* Set the short name on the open file @h which has been created at the location
+ * indicated by @dentry.
+ *
+ * Note that this may add, change, or remove the short name.
+ *
+ * @h must be opened with DELETE access.
+ *
+ * Returns 0 or WIMLIB_ERR_SET_SHORT_NAME.  The latter only happens in
+ * STRICT_SHORT_NAMES mode.
+ */
+static int
+set_short_name(HANDLE h, const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+              struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+
+       if (!ctx->common.supported_features.short_names)
+               return 0;
+
+       /*
+        * Note: The size of the FILE_NAME_INFORMATION buffer must be such that
+        * FileName contains at least 2 wide characters (4 bytes).  Otherwise,
+        * NtSetInformationFile() will return STATUS_INFO_LENGTH_MISMATCH.  This
+        * is despite the fact that FileNameLength can validly be 0 or 2 bytes,
+        * with the former case being removing the existing short name if
+        * present, rather than setting one.
+        *
+        * The null terminator is seemingly optional, but to be safe we include
+        * space for it and zero all unused space.
+        */
+
+       size_t bufsize = offsetof(FILE_NAME_INFORMATION, FileName) +
+                        max(dentry->d_short_name_nbytes, sizeof(wchar_t)) +
+                        sizeof(wchar_t);
+       u8 buf[bufsize] _aligned_attribute(8);
+       FILE_NAME_INFORMATION *info = (FILE_NAME_INFORMATION *)buf;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       bool tried_to_remove_existing = false;
+
+       memset(buf, 0, bufsize);
+
+       info->FileNameLength = dentry->d_short_name_nbytes;
+       memcpy(info->FileName, dentry->d_short_name, dentry->d_short_name_nbytes);
+
+retry:
+       status = (*func_NtSetInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb, info, bufsize,
+                                             FileShortNameInformation);
+       if (NT_SUCCESS(status))
+               return 0;
+
+       if (status == STATUS_SHORT_NAMES_NOT_ENABLED_ON_VOLUME) {
+               if (dentry->d_short_name_nbytes == 0)
+                       return 0;
+               if (!ctx->tried_to_enable_short_names) {
+                       wchar_t volume[7];
+                       int ret;
+
+                       ctx->tried_to_enable_short_names = true;
+
+                       ret = win32_get_drive_path(ctx->common.target,
+                                                  volume);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+                       if (try_to_enable_short_names(volume))
+                               goto retry;
+               }
+       }
+
+       /*
+        * Short names can conflict in several cases:
+        *
+        * - a file being extracted has a short name conflicting with an
+        *   existing file
+        *
+        * - a file being extracted has a short name conflicting with another
+        *   file being extracted (possible, but shouldn't happen)
+        *
+        * - a file being extracted has a short name that conflicts with the
+        *   automatically generated short name of a file we previously
+        *   extracted, but failed to set the short name for.  Sounds unlikely,
+        *   but this actually does happen fairly often on versions of Windows
+        *   prior to Windows 7 because they do not support removing short names
+        *   from files.
+        */
+       if (unlikely(status == STATUS_OBJECT_NAME_COLLISION) &&
+           dentry->d_short_name_nbytes && !tried_to_remove_existing)
+       {
+               tried_to_remove_existing = true;
+               status = remove_conflicting_short_name(dentry, ctx);
+               if (NT_SUCCESS(status))
+                       goto retry;
+       }
+
+       /* By default, failure to set short names is not an error (since short
+        * names aren't too important anymore...).  */
+       if (!(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_SHORT_NAMES)) {
+               if (dentry->d_short_name_nbytes)
+                       ctx->num_set_short_name_failures++;
+               else
+                       ctx->num_remove_short_name_failures++;
+               return 0;
+       }
+
+       winnt_error(status, L"Can't set short name on \"%ls\"", current_path(ctx));
+       return WIMLIB_ERR_SET_SHORT_NAME;
+}
+
+/*
+ * A wrapper around NtCreateFile() to make it slightly more usable...
+ * This uses the path currently constructed in ctx->pathbuf.
+ *
+ * Also, we always specify FILE_OPEN_FOR_BACKUP_INTENT and
+ * FILE_OPEN_REPARSE_POINT.
+ */
+static NTSTATUS
+do_create_file(PHANDLE FileHandle,
+              ACCESS_MASK DesiredAccess,
+              PLARGE_INTEGER AllocationSize,
+              ULONG FileAttributes,
+              ULONG CreateDisposition,
+              ULONG CreateOptions,
+              struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       return (*func_NtCreateFile)(FileHandle,
+                                   DesiredAccess,
+                                   &ctx->attr,
+                                   &ctx->iosb,
+                                   AllocationSize,
+                                   FileAttributes,
+                                   FILE_SHARE_VALID_FLAGS,
+                                   CreateDisposition,
+                                   CreateOptions |
+                                       FILE_OPEN_FOR_BACKUP_INTENT |
+                                       FILE_OPEN_REPARSE_POINT,
+                                   NULL,
+                                   0);
+}
+
+/* Like do_create_file(), but builds the extraction path of the @dentry first.
+ */
+static NTSTATUS
+create_file(PHANDLE FileHandle,
+           ACCESS_MASK DesiredAccess,
+           PLARGE_INTEGER AllocationSize,
+           ULONG FileAttributes,
+           ULONG CreateDisposition,
+           ULONG CreateOptions,
+           const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+           struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+       return do_create_file(FileHandle,
+                             DesiredAccess,
+                             AllocationSize,
+                             FileAttributes,
+                             CreateDisposition,
+                             CreateOptions,
+                             ctx);
+}
+
+static int
+delete_file_or_stream(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       HANDLE h;
+       FILE_DISPOSITION_INFORMATION disposition_info;
+       FILE_BASIC_INFORMATION basic_info;
+       bool retried = false;
+
+       status = do_create_file(&h,
+                               DELETE,
+                               NULL,
+                               0,
+                               FILE_OPEN,
+                               FILE_NON_DIRECTORY_FILE,
+                               ctx);
+       if (unlikely(!NT_SUCCESS(status))) {
+               winnt_error(status, L"Can't open \"%ls\" for deletion",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
+       }
+
+retry:
+       disposition_info.DoDeleteFile = TRUE;
+       status = (*func_NtSetInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb,
+                                             &disposition_info,
+                                             sizeof(disposition_info),
+                                             FileDispositionInformation);
+       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+       if (likely(NT_SUCCESS(status)))
+               return 0;
+
+       if (status == STATUS_CANNOT_DELETE && !retried) {
+               /* Clear file attributes and try again.  This is necessary for
+                * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY files.  */
+               status = do_create_file(&h,
+                                       FILE_WRITE_ATTRIBUTES | DELETE,
+                                       NULL,
+                                       0,
+                                       FILE_OPEN,
+                                       FILE_NON_DIRECTORY_FILE,
+                                       ctx);
+               if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+                       winnt_error(status,
+                                   L"Can't open \"%ls\" to reset attributes",
+                                   current_path(ctx));
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
+               }
+               memset(&basic_info, 0, sizeof(basic_info));
+               basic_info.FileAttributes = FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL;
+               status = (*func_NtSetInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb,
+                                                     &basic_info,
+                                                     sizeof(basic_info),
+                                                     FileBasicInformation);
+               if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+                       winnt_error(status,
+                                   L"Can't reset file attributes on \"%ls\"",
+                                   current_path(ctx));
+                       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_SET_ATTRIBUTES;
+               }
+               retried = true;
+               goto retry;
+       }
+       winnt_error(status, L"Can't delete \"%ls\"", current_path(ctx));
+       return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Create a nondirectory file or named data stream at the current path,
+ * superseding any that already exists at that path.  If successful, return an
+ * open handle to the file or named data stream.
+ */
+static int
+supersede_file_or_stream(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx, HANDLE *h_ret)
+{
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       bool retried = false;
+
+       /* FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM is needed to ensure that
+        * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED doesn't get set before we want it to be.  */
+retry:
+       status = do_create_file(h_ret,
+                               GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE | DELETE,
+                               NULL,
+                               FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM,
+                               FILE_CREATE,
+                               FILE_NON_DIRECTORY_FILE,
+                               ctx);
+       if (likely(NT_SUCCESS(status)))
+               return 0;
+
+       /* STATUS_OBJECT_NAME_COLLISION means that the file or stream already
+        * exists.  Delete the existing file or stream, then try again.
+        *
+        * Note: we don't use FILE_OVERWRITE_IF or FILE_SUPERSEDE because of
+        * problems with certain file attributes, especially
+        * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED.  FILE_SUPERSEDE is also broken in the
+        * Windows PE ramdisk.  */
+       if (status == STATUS_OBJECT_NAME_COLLISION && !retried) {
+               int ret = delete_file_or_stream(ctx);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+               retried = true;
+               goto retry;
+       }
+       winnt_error(status, L"Can't create \"%ls\"", current_path(ctx));
+       return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
+}
+
+/* Set the reparse point @rpbuf of length @rpbuflen on the extracted file
+ * corresponding to the WIM dentry @dentry.  */
+static int
+do_set_reparse_point(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                    const struct reparse_buffer_disk *rpbuf, u16 rpbuflen,
+                    struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       HANDLE h;
+
+       status = create_file(&h, GENERIC_WRITE, NULL,
+                            0, FILE_OPEN, 0, dentry, ctx);
+       if (!NT_SUCCESS(status))
+               goto fail;
+
+       status = (*func_NtFsControlFile)(h, NULL, NULL, NULL,
+                                        &ctx->iosb, FSCTL_SET_REPARSE_POINT,
+                                        (void *)rpbuf, rpbuflen,
+                                        NULL, 0);
+       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+
+       if (NT_SUCCESS(status))
+               return 0;
+
+       /* On Windows, by default only the Administrator can create symbolic
+        * links for some reason.  By default we just issue a warning if this
+        * appears to be the problem.  Use WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_SYMLINKS
+        * to get a hard error.  */
+       if (!(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_SYMLINKS)
+           && (status == STATUS_PRIVILEGE_NOT_HELD ||
+               status == STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED)
+           && (dentry->d_inode->i_reparse_tag == WIM_IO_REPARSE_TAG_SYMLINK ||
+               dentry->d_inode->i_reparse_tag == WIM_IO_REPARSE_TAG_MOUNT_POINT))
+       {
+               WARNING("Can't create symbolic link \"%ls\"!              \n"
+                       "          (Need Administrator rights, or at least "
+                       "the\n"
+                       "          SeCreateSymbolicLink privilege.)",
+                       current_path(ctx));
+               return 0;
+       }
+
+fail:
+       winnt_error(status, L"Can't set reparse data on \"%ls\"",
+                   current_path(ctx));
+       return WIMLIB_ERR_SET_REPARSE_DATA;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Create empty named data streams and potentially a reparse point for the
+ * specified file, if any.
+ *
+ * Since these won't have blob descriptors, they won't show up in the call to
+ * extract_blob_list().  Hence the need for the special case.
+ */
+static int
+create_empty_streams(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                    struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       const struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       int ret;
+
+       for (unsigned i = 0; i < inode->i_num_streams; i++) {
+               const struct wim_inode_stream *strm = &inode->i_streams[i];
+
+               if (stream_blob_resolved(strm) != NULL)
+                       continue;
+
+               if (strm->stream_type == STREAM_TYPE_REPARSE_POINT &&
+                   ctx->common.supported_features.reparse_points)
+               {
+                       u8 buf[REPARSE_DATA_OFFSET] _aligned_attribute(8);
+                       struct reparse_buffer_disk *rpbuf =
+                               (struct reparse_buffer_disk *)buf;
+                       complete_reparse_point(rpbuf, inode, 0);
+                       ret = do_set_reparse_point(dentry, rpbuf,
+                                                  REPARSE_DATA_OFFSET, ctx);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+               } else if (stream_is_named_data_stream(strm) &&
+                          ctx->common.supported_features.named_data_streams)
+               {
+                       HANDLE h;
+
+                       build_extraction_path_with_ads(dentry, ctx,
+                                                      strm->stream_name,
+                                                      utf16le_len_chars(strm->stream_name));
+                       ret = supersede_file_or_stream(ctx, &h);
+
+                       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+                       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+               }
+       }
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Creates the directory named by @dentry, or uses an existing directory at that
+ * location.  If necessary, sets the short name and/or fixes compression and
+ * encryption attributes.
+ *
+ * Returns 0, WIMLIB_ERR_MKDIR, or WIMLIB_ERR_SET_SHORT_NAME.
+ */
+static int
+create_directory(const struct wim_dentry *dentry, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       DWORD perms;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       HANDLE h;
+       int ret;
+
+       /* DELETE is needed for set_short_name(); GENERIC_READ and GENERIC_WRITE
+        * are needed for adjust_compression_attribute().  */
+       perms = GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE;
+       if (!dentry_is_root(dentry))
+               perms |= DELETE;
+
+       /* FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM is needed to ensure that
+        * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED doesn't get set before we want it to be.  */
+       status = create_file(&h, perms, NULL, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM,
+                            FILE_OPEN_IF, FILE_DIRECTORY_FILE, dentry, ctx);
+       if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+               winnt_error(status, L"Can't create directory \"%ls\"",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_MKDIR;
+       }
+
+       if (ctx->iosb.Information == FILE_OPENED) {
+               /* If we opened an existing directory, try to clear its file
+                * attributes.  As far as I know, this only actually makes a
+                * difference in the case where a FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY
+                * directory has a named data stream which needs to be
+                * extracted.  You cannot create a named data stream of such a
+                * directory, even though this contradicts Microsoft's
+                * documentation for FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY which states it is
+                * not honored for directories!  */
+               FILE_BASIC_INFORMATION basic_info = { .FileAttributes = FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL };
+               (*func_NtSetInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb, &basic_info,
+                                            sizeof(basic_info), FileBasicInformation);
+       }
+
+       if (!dentry_is_root(dentry)) {
+               ret = set_short_name(h, dentry, ctx);
+               if (ret)
+                       goto out;
+       }
+
+       ret = adjust_compression_attribute(h, dentry, ctx);
+out:
+       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+       return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Create all the directories being extracted, other than the target directory
+ * itself.
+ *
+ * Note: we don't honor directory hard links.  However, we don't allow them to
+ * exist in WIM images anyway (see inode_fixup.c).
+ */
+static int
+create_directories(struct list_head *dentry_list,
+                  struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       const struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       int ret;
+
+       list_for_each_entry(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node) {
+
+               if (!(dentry->d_inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY))
+                       continue;
+
+               /* Note: Here we include files with
+                * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY|FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT, but we
+                * wait until later to actually set the reparse data.  */
+
+               ret = create_directory(dentry, ctx);
+
+               if (!ret)
+                       ret = create_empty_streams(dentry, ctx);
+
+               ret = check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+
+               ret = report_file_created(&ctx->common);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+       }
+       return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Creates the nondirectory file named by @dentry.
+ *
+ * On success, returns an open handle to the file in @h_ret, with GENERIC_READ,
+ * GENERIC_WRITE, and DELETE access.  Also, the path to the file will be saved
+ * in ctx->pathbuf.  On failure, returns an error code.
+ */
+static int
+create_nondirectory_inode(HANDLE *h_ret, const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                         struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       int ret;
+       HANDLE h;
+
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+
+       ret = supersede_file_or_stream(ctx, &h);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       ret = adjust_compression_attribute(h, dentry, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out_close;
+
+       ret = create_empty_streams(dentry, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out_close;
+
+       *h_ret = h;
+       return 0;
+
+out_close:
+       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+out:
+       return ret;
+}
+
+/* Creates a hard link at the location named by @dentry to the file represented
+ * by the open handle @h.  Or, if the target volume does not support hard links,
+ * create a separate file instead.  */
+static int
+create_link(HANDLE h, const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+           struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       if (ctx->common.supported_features.hard_links) {
+
+               build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+
+               size_t bufsize = offsetof(FILE_LINK_INFORMATION, FileName) +
+                                ctx->pathbuf.Length + sizeof(wchar_t);
+               u8 buf[bufsize] _aligned_attribute(8);
+               FILE_LINK_INFORMATION *info = (FILE_LINK_INFORMATION *)buf;
+               NTSTATUS status;
+
+               info->ReplaceIfExists = TRUE;
+               info->RootDirectory = ctx->attr.RootDirectory;
+               info->FileNameLength = ctx->pathbuf.Length;
+               memcpy(info->FileName, ctx->pathbuf.Buffer, ctx->pathbuf.Length);
+               info->FileName[info->FileNameLength / 2] = L'\0';
+
+               /* Note: the null terminator isn't actually necessary,
+                * but if you don't add the extra character, you get
+                * STATUS_INFO_LENGTH_MISMATCH when FileNameLength
+                * happens to be 2  */
+
+               status = (*func_NtSetInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb,
+                                                     info, bufsize,
+                                                     FileLinkInformation);
+               if (NT_SUCCESS(status))
+                       return 0;
+               winnt_error(status, L"Failed to create link \"%ls\"",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_LINK;
+       } else {
+               HANDLE h2;
+               int ret;
+
+               ret = create_nondirectory_inode(&h2, dentry, ctx);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+
+               (*func_NtClose)(h2);
+               return 0;
+       }
+}
+
+/* Given an inode (represented by the open handle @h) for which one link has
+ * been created (named by @first_dentry), create the other links.
+ *
+ * Or, if the target volume does not support hard links, create separate files.
+ *
+ * Note: This uses ctx->pathbuf and does not reset it.
+ */
+static int
+create_links(HANDLE h, const struct wim_dentry *first_dentry,
+            struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       const struct wim_inode *inode = first_dentry->d_inode;
+       const struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       int ret;
+
+       inode_for_each_extraction_alias(dentry, inode) {
+               if (dentry != first_dentry) {
+                       ret = create_link(h, dentry, ctx);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+               }
+       }
+       return 0;
+}
+
+/* Create a nondirectory file, including all links.  */
+static int
+create_nondirectory(struct wim_inode *inode, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       struct wim_dentry *first_dentry;
+       HANDLE h;
+       int ret;
+
+       first_dentry = first_extraction_alias(inode);
+
+       /* Create first link.  */
+       ret = create_nondirectory_inode(&h, first_dentry, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
+
+       /* Set short name.  */
+       ret = set_short_name(h, first_dentry, ctx);
+
+       /* Create additional links, OR if hard links are not supported just
+        * create more files.  */
+       if (!ret)
+               ret = create_links(h, first_dentry, ctx);
+
+       /* "WIMBoot" extraction: set external backing by the WIM file if needed.  */
+       if (!ret && unlikely(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_WIMBOOT))
+               ret = set_backed_from_wim(h, inode, ctx);
+
+       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+       return ret;
+}
+
+/* Create all the nondirectory files being extracted, including all aliases
+ * (hard links).  */
+static int
+create_nondirectories(struct list_head *dentry_list, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       struct wim_inode *inode;
+       int ret;
+
+       list_for_each_entry(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node) {
+               inode = dentry->d_inode;
+               if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY)
+                       continue;
+               /* Call create_nondirectory() only once per inode  */
+               if (dentry == inode_first_extraction_dentry(inode)) {
+                       ret = create_nondirectory(inode, ctx);
+                       ret = check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+               }
+               ret = report_file_created(&ctx->common);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+       }
+       return 0;
+}
+
+static void
+close_handles(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       for (unsigned i = 0; i < ctx->num_open_handles; i++)
+               (*func_NtClose)(ctx->open_handles[i]);
+}
+
+/* Prepare to read the next blob, which has size @blob_size, into an in-memory
+ * buffer.  */
+static bool
+prepare_data_buffer(struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx, u64 blob_size)
+{
+       if (blob_size > ctx->data_buffer_size) {
+               /* Larger buffer needed.  */
+               void *new_buffer;
+               if ((size_t)blob_size != blob_size)
+                       return false;
+               new_buffer = REALLOC(ctx->data_buffer, blob_size);
+               if (!new_buffer)
+                       return false;
+               ctx->data_buffer = new_buffer;
+               ctx->data_buffer_size = blob_size;
+       }
+       /* On the first call this changes data_buffer_ptr from NULL, which tells
+        * extract_chunk() that the data buffer needs to be filled while reading
+        * the stream data.  */
+       ctx->data_buffer_ptr = ctx->data_buffer;
+       return true;
+}
+
+static int
+begin_extract_blob_instance(const struct blob_descriptor *blob,
+                           struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                           const struct wim_inode_stream *strm,
+                           struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       FILE_ALLOCATION_INFORMATION alloc_info;
+       HANDLE h;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+
+       if (unlikely(strm->stream_type == STREAM_TYPE_REPARSE_POINT)) {
+               /* We can't write the reparse point stream directly; we must set
+                * it with FSCTL_SET_REPARSE_POINT, which requires that all the
+                * data be available.  So, stage the data in a buffer.  */
+               if (!prepare_data_buffer(ctx, blob->size))
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+               list_add_tail(&dentry->d_tmp_list, &ctx->reparse_dentries);
+               return 0;
+       }
+
+       if (unlikely(strm->stream_type == STREAM_TYPE_EFSRPC_RAW_DATA)) {
+               /* We can't write encrypted files directly; we must use
+                * WriteEncryptedFileRaw(), which requires providing the data
+                * through a callback function.  This can't easily be combined
+                * with our own callback-based approach.
+                *
+                * The current workaround is to simply read the blob into memory
+                * and write the encrypted file from that.
+                *
+                * TODO: This isn't sufficient for extremely large encrypted
+                * files.  Perhaps we should create an extra thread to write
+                * such files...  */
+               if (!prepare_data_buffer(ctx, blob->size))
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+               list_add_tail(&dentry->d_tmp_list, &ctx->encrypted_dentries);
+               return 0;
+       }
+
+       /* It's a data stream (may be unnamed or named).  */
+       wimlib_assert(strm->stream_type == STREAM_TYPE_DATA);
+
+       if (ctx->num_open_handles == MAX_OPEN_FILES) {
+               /* XXX: Fix this.  But because of the checks in
+                * extract_blob_list(), this can now only happen on a filesystem
+                * that does not support hard links.  */
+               ERROR("Can't extract data: too many open files!");
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_UNSUPPORTED;
+       }
+
+
+       if (unlikely(stream_is_named(strm))) {
+               build_extraction_path_with_ads(dentry, ctx,
+                                              strm->stream_name,
+                                              utf16le_len_chars(strm->stream_name));
+       } else {
+               build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+       }
+
+
+       /* Open a new handle  */
+       status = do_create_file(&h,
+                               FILE_WRITE_DATA | SYNCHRONIZE,
+                               NULL, 0, FILE_OPEN_IF,
+                               FILE_SEQUENTIAL_ONLY |
+                                       FILE_SYNCHRONOUS_IO_NONALERT,
+                               ctx);
+       if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+               winnt_error(status, L"Can't open \"%ls\" for writing",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
+       }
+
+       ctx->open_handles[ctx->num_open_handles++] = h;
+
+       /* Allocate space for the data.  */
+       alloc_info.AllocationSize.QuadPart = blob->size;
+       (*func_NtSetInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb,
+                                    &alloc_info, sizeof(alloc_info),
+                                    FileAllocationInformation);
+       return 0;
+}
+
+/* Given a Windows NT namespace path, such as \??\e:\Windows\System32, return a
+ * pointer to the suffix of the path that begins with the device directly, such
+ * as e:\Windows\System32.  */
+static const wchar_t *
+skip_nt_toplevel_component(const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars)
+{
+       static const wchar_t * const dirs[] = {
+               L"\\??\\",
+               L"\\DosDevices\\",
+               L"\\Device\\",
+       };
+       const wchar_t * const end = path + path_nchars;
+
+       for (size_t i = 0; i < ARRAY_LEN(dirs); i++) {
+               size_t len = wcslen(dirs[i]);
+               if (len <= (end - path) && !wmemcmp(path, dirs[i], len)) {
+                       path += len;
+                       while (path != end && *path == L'\\')
+                               path++;
+                       return path;
+               }
+       }
+       return path;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Given a Windows NT namespace path, such as \??\e:\Windows\System32, return a
+ * pointer to the suffix of the path that is device-relative but possibly with
+ * leading slashes, such as \Windows\System32.
+ *
+ * The path has an explicit length and is not necessarily null terminated.
+ */
+static const wchar_t *
+get_device_relative_path(const wchar_t *path, size_t path_nchars)
+{
+       const wchar_t * const orig_path = path;
+       const wchar_t * const end = path + path_nchars;
+
+       path = skip_nt_toplevel_component(path, path_nchars);
+       if (path == orig_path)
+               return orig_path;
+
+       while (path != end && *path != L'\\')
+               path++;
+
+       return path;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Given a reparse point buffer for an inode for which the absolute link target
+ * was relativized when it was archived, de-relative the link target to be
+ * consistent with the actual extraction location.
+ */
+static void
+try_rpfix(struct reparse_buffer_disk *rpbuf, u16 *rpbuflen_p,
+         struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       struct link_reparse_point link;
+       size_t orig_subst_name_nchars;
+       const wchar_t *relpath;
+       size_t relpath_nchars;
+       size_t target_ntpath_nchars;
+       size_t fixed_subst_name_nchars;
+       const wchar_t *fixed_print_name;
+       size_t fixed_print_name_nchars;
+
+       /* Do nothing if the reparse data is invalid.  */
+       if (parse_link_reparse_point(rpbuf, *rpbuflen_p, &link))
+               return;
+
+       /* Do nothing if the reparse point is a relative symbolic link.  */
+       if (link_is_relative_symlink(&link))
+               return;
+
+       /* Build the new substitute name from the NT namespace path to the
+        * target directory, then a path separator, then the "device relative"
+        * part of the old substitute name.  */
+
+       orig_subst_name_nchars = link.substitute_name_nbytes / sizeof(wchar_t);
+
+       relpath = get_device_relative_path(link.substitute_name,
+                                          orig_subst_name_nchars);
+       relpath_nchars = orig_subst_name_nchars -
+                        (relpath - link.substitute_name);
+
+       target_ntpath_nchars = ctx->target_ntpath.Length / sizeof(wchar_t);
+
+       fixed_subst_name_nchars = target_ntpath_nchars + relpath_nchars;
+
+       wchar_t fixed_subst_name[fixed_subst_name_nchars];
+
+       wmemcpy(fixed_subst_name, ctx->target_ntpath.Buffer, target_ntpath_nchars);
+       wmemcpy(&fixed_subst_name[target_ntpath_nchars], relpath, relpath_nchars);
+       /* Doesn't need to be null-terminated.  */
+
+       /* Print name should be Win32, but not all NT names can even be
+        * translated to Win32 names.  But we can at least delete the top-level
+        * directory, such as \??\, and this will have the expected result in
+        * the usual case.  */
+       fixed_print_name = skip_nt_toplevel_component(fixed_subst_name,
+                                                     fixed_subst_name_nchars);
+       fixed_print_name_nchars = fixed_subst_name_nchars - (fixed_print_name -
+                                                            fixed_subst_name);
+
+       link.substitute_name = fixed_subst_name;
+       link.substitute_name_nbytes = fixed_subst_name_nchars * sizeof(wchar_t);
+       link.print_name = (wchar_t *)fixed_print_name;
+       link.print_name_nbytes = fixed_print_name_nchars * sizeof(wchar_t);
+       make_link_reparse_point(&link, rpbuf, rpbuflen_p);
+}
+
+/* Sets the reparse point on the specified file.  This handles "fixing" the
+ * targets of absolute symbolic links and junctions if WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_RPFIX
+ * was specified.  */
+static int
+set_reparse_point(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                 const struct reparse_buffer_disk *rpbuf, u16 rpbuflen,
+                 struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       if ((ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_RPFIX)
+           && !(dentry->d_inode->i_rp_flags & WIM_RP_FLAG_NOT_FIXED))
+       {
+               memcpy(&ctx->rpfixbuf, rpbuf, rpbuflen);
+               try_rpfix(&ctx->rpfixbuf, &rpbuflen, ctx);
+               rpbuf = &ctx->rpfixbuf;
+       }
+       return do_set_reparse_point(dentry, rpbuf, rpbuflen, ctx);
+
+}
+
+/* Import the next block of raw encrypted data  */
+static DWORD WINAPI
+import_encrypted_data(PBYTE pbData, PVOID pvCallbackContext, PULONG Length)
+{
+       struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx = pvCallbackContext;
+       ULONG copy_len;
+
+       copy_len = min(ctx->encrypted_size - ctx->encrypted_offset, *Length);
+       memcpy(pbData, &ctx->data_buffer[ctx->encrypted_offset], copy_len);
+       ctx->encrypted_offset += copy_len;
+       *Length = copy_len;
+       return ERROR_SUCCESS;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Write the raw encrypted data to the already-created file (or directory)
+ * corresponding to @dentry.
+ *
+ * The raw encrypted data is provided in ctx->data_buffer, and its size is
+ * ctx->encrypted_size.
+ *
+ * This function may close the target directory, in which case the caller needs
+ * to re-open it if needed.
+ */
+static int
+extract_encrypted_file(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                      struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       void *rawctx;
+       DWORD err;
+       ULONG flags;
+       bool retried;
+
+       /* Temporarily build a Win32 path for OpenEncryptedFileRaw()  */
+       build_win32_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+
+       flags = CREATE_FOR_IMPORT | OVERWRITE_HIDDEN;
+       if (dentry->d_inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY)
+               flags |= CREATE_FOR_DIR;
+
+       retried = false;
+retry:
+       err = OpenEncryptedFileRaw(ctx->pathbuf.Buffer, flags, &rawctx);
+       if (err == ERROR_SHARING_VIOLATION && !retried) {
+               /* This can be caused by the handle we have open to the target
+                * directory.  Try closing it temporarily.  */
+               close_target_directory(ctx);
+               retried = true;
+               goto retry;
+       }
+
+       /* Restore the NT namespace path  */
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+
+       if (err != ERROR_SUCCESS) {
+               win32_error(err, L"Can't open \"%ls\" for encrypted import",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
+       }
+
+       ctx->encrypted_offset = 0;
+
+       err = WriteEncryptedFileRaw(import_encrypted_data, ctx, rawctx);
+
+       CloseEncryptedFileRaw(rawctx);
+
+       if (err != ERROR_SUCCESS) {
+               win32_error(err, L"Can't import encrypted file \"%ls\"",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
+       }
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+/* Called when starting to read a blob for extraction on Windows  */
+static int
+begin_extract_blob(struct blob_descriptor *blob, void *_ctx)
+{
+       struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx = _ctx;
+       const struct blob_extraction_target *targets = blob_extraction_targets(blob);
+       int ret;
+
+       ctx->num_open_handles = 0;
+       ctx->data_buffer_ptr = NULL;
+       INIT_LIST_HEAD(&ctx->reparse_dentries);
+       INIT_LIST_HEAD(&ctx->encrypted_dentries);
+
+       for (u32 i = 0; i < blob->out_refcnt; i++) {
+               const struct wim_inode *inode = targets[i].inode;
+               const struct wim_inode_stream *strm = targets[i].stream;
+               struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+
+               /* A copy of the blob needs to be extracted to @inode.  */
+
+               if (ctx->common.supported_features.hard_links) {
+                       dentry = inode_first_extraction_dentry(inode);
+                       ret = begin_extract_blob_instance(blob, dentry, strm, ctx);
+                       ret = check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+                       if (ret)
+                               goto fail;
+               } else {
+                       /* Hard links not supported.  Extract the blob
+                        * separately to each alias of the inode.  */
+                       inode_for_each_extraction_alias(dentry, inode) {
+                               ret = begin_extract_blob_instance(blob, dentry, strm, ctx);
+                               ret = check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+                               if (ret)
+                                       goto fail;
+                       }
+               }
+       }
+
+       return 0;
+
+fail:
+       close_handles(ctx);
+       return ret;
+}
+
+/* Called when the next chunk of a blob has been read for extraction on Windows
+ */
+static int
+extract_chunk(const void *chunk, size_t size, void *_ctx)
+{
+       struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx = _ctx;
+
+       /* Write the data chunk to each open handle  */
+       for (unsigned i = 0; i < ctx->num_open_handles; i++) {
+               u8 *bufptr = (u8 *)chunk;
+               size_t bytes_remaining = size;
+               NTSTATUS status;
+               while (bytes_remaining) {
+                       ULONG count = min(0xFFFFFFFF, bytes_remaining);
+
+                       status = (*func_NtWriteFile)(ctx->open_handles[i],
+                                                    NULL, NULL, NULL,
+                                                    &ctx->iosb, bufptr, count,
+                                                    NULL, NULL);
+                       if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+                               winnt_error(status, L"Error writing data to target volume");
+                               return WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
+                       }
+                       bufptr += ctx->iosb.Information;
+                       bytes_remaining -= ctx->iosb.Information;
+               }
+       }
+
+       /* Copy the data chunk into the buffer (if needed)  */
+       if (ctx->data_buffer_ptr)
+               ctx->data_buffer_ptr = mempcpy(ctx->data_buffer_ptr,
+                                              chunk, size);
+       return 0;
+}
+
+static int
+get_system_compression_format(int extract_flags)
+{
+       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_COMPACT_XPRESS4K)
+               return FILE_PROVIDER_COMPRESSION_FORMAT_XPRESS4K;
+
+       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_COMPACT_XPRESS8K)
+               return FILE_PROVIDER_COMPRESSION_FORMAT_XPRESS8K;
+
+       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_COMPACT_XPRESS16K)
+               return FILE_PROVIDER_COMPRESSION_FORMAT_XPRESS16K;
+
+       return FILE_PROVIDER_COMPRESSION_FORMAT_LZX;
+}
+
+static DWORD
+set_system_compression(HANDLE h, int format)
+{
+       DWORD bytes_returned;
+       DWORD err;
+       struct {
+               struct wof_external_info wof_info;
+               struct file_provider_external_info file_info;
+       } in = {
+               .wof_info = {
+                       .version = WOF_CURRENT_VERSION,
+                       .provider = WOF_PROVIDER_FILE,
+               },
+               .file_info = {
+                       .version = FILE_PROVIDER_CURRENT_VERSION,
+                       .compression_format = format,
+               },
+       };
+
+       if (DeviceIoControl(h, FSCTL_SET_EXTERNAL_BACKING, &in, sizeof(in),
+                           NULL, 0, &bytes_returned, NULL))
+               return 0;
+
+       err = GetLastError();
+
+       if (err == 344) /* "Compressing this object would not save space."  */
+               return 0;
+
+       return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function is called when doing a "compact-mode" extraction and we just
+ * finished extracting a blob to one or more locations.  For each location that
+ * was the unnamed data stream of a file, this function compresses the
+ * corresponding file using System Compression, if allowed.
+ *
+ * Note: we're doing the compression immediately after extracting the data
+ * rather than during a separate compression pass.  This way should be faster
+ * since the operating system should still have the file's data cached.
+ *
+ * Note: we're having the operating system do the compression, which is not
+ * ideal because wimlib could create the compressed data faster and more
+ * efficiently (the compressed data format is identical to a WIM resource).  But
+ * we seemingly don't have a choice because WOF prevents applications from
+ * creating its reparse points.
+ */
+static void
+handle_system_compression(struct blob_descriptor *blob, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       const struct blob_extraction_target *targets = blob_extraction_targets(blob);
+
+       const int format = get_system_compression_format(ctx->common.extract_flags);
+
+       for (u32 i = 0; i < blob->out_refcnt; i++) {
+               struct wim_inode *inode = targets[i].inode;
+               struct wim_inode_stream *strm = targets[i].stream;
+               HANDLE h;
+               NTSTATUS status;
+               DWORD err;
+
+               if (!stream_is_unnamed_data_stream(strm))
+                       continue;
+
+               if (will_externally_back_inode(inode, ctx, NULL, false) != 0)
+                       continue;
+
+               status = create_file(&h, GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE, NULL,
+                                    0, FILE_OPEN, 0,
+                                    inode_first_extraction_dentry(inode), ctx);
+
+               if (NT_SUCCESS(status)) {
+                       err = set_system_compression(h, format);
+                       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+               } else {
+                       err = (*func_RtlNtStatusToDosError)(status);
+               }
+
+               if (err == ERROR_INVALID_FUNCTION) {
+                       WARNING(
+         "The request to compress the extracted files using System Compression\n"
+"          will not be honored because the operating system or target volume\n"
+"          does not support it.  System Compression is only supported on\n"
+"          Windows 10 and later, and only on NTFS volumes.");
+                       ctx->common.extract_flags &= ~COMPACT_FLAGS;
+                       return;
+               }
+
+               if (err) {
+                       ctx->num_system_compression_failures++;
+                       if (ctx->num_system_compression_failures < 10) {
+                               win32_warning(err, L"\"%ls\": Failed to compress "
+                                             "extracted file using System Compression",
+                                             current_path(ctx));
+                       } else if (ctx->num_system_compression_failures == 10) {
+                               WARNING("Suppressing further warnings about "
+                                       "System Compression failures.");
+                       }
+               }
+       }
+}
+
+/* Called when a blob has been fully read for extraction on Windows  */
+static int
+end_extract_blob(struct blob_descriptor *blob, int status, void *_ctx)
+{
+       struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx = _ctx;
+       int ret;
+       const struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+
+       close_handles(ctx);
+
+       if (status)
+               return status;
+
+       if (unlikely(ctx->common.extract_flags & COMPACT_FLAGS))
+               handle_system_compression(blob, ctx);
+
+       if (likely(!ctx->data_buffer_ptr))
+               return 0;
+
+       if (!list_empty(&ctx->reparse_dentries)) {
+               if (blob->size > REPARSE_DATA_MAX_SIZE) {
+                       dentry = list_first_entry(&ctx->reparse_dentries,
+                                                 struct wim_dentry, d_tmp_list);
+                       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+                       ERROR("Reparse data of \"%ls\" has size "
+                             "%"PRIu64" bytes (exceeds %u bytes)",
+                             current_path(ctx), blob->size,
+                             REPARSE_DATA_MAX_SIZE);
+                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_REPARSE_DATA;
+                       return check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+               }
+               /* Reparse data  */
+               memcpy(ctx->rpbuf.rpdata, ctx->data_buffer, blob->size);
+
+               list_for_each_entry(dentry, &ctx->reparse_dentries, d_tmp_list) {
+
+                       /* Reparse point header  */
+                       complete_reparse_point(&ctx->rpbuf, dentry->d_inode,
+                                              blob->size);
+
+                       ret = set_reparse_point(dentry, &ctx->rpbuf,
+                                               REPARSE_DATA_OFFSET + blob->size,
+                                               ctx);
+                       ret = check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
                }
-               if ((err == ERROR_PRIVILEGE_NOT_HELD ||
-                    err == ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED) &&
-                   !(ctx->extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS))
+       }
+
+       if (!list_empty(&ctx->encrypted_dentries)) {
+               ctx->encrypted_size = blob->size;
+               list_for_each_entry(dentry, &ctx->encrypted_dentries, d_tmp_list) {
+                       ret = extract_encrypted_file(dentry, ctx);
+                       ret = check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+                       /* Re-open the target directory if needed.  */
+                       ret = open_target_directory(ctx);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+               }
+       }
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+/* Attributes that can't be set directly  */
+#define SPECIAL_ATTRIBUTES                     \
+       (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT   |       \
+        FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY       |       \
+        FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED       |       \
+        FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE     |       \
+        FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED)
+
+/* Set the security descriptor @desc, of @desc_size bytes, on the file with open
+ * handle @h.  */
+static NTSTATUS
+set_security_descriptor(HANDLE h, const void *_desc,
+                       size_t desc_size, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       SECURITY_INFORMATION info;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR_RELATIVE *desc;
+
+       /*
+        * Ideally, we would just pass in the security descriptor buffer as-is.
+        * But it turns out that Windows can mess up the security descriptor
+        * even when using the low-level NtSetSecurityObject() function:
+        *
+        * - Windows will clear SE_DACL_AUTO_INHERITED if it is set in the
+        *   passed buffer.  To actually get Windows to set
+        *   SE_DACL_AUTO_INHERITED, the application must set the non-persistent
+        *   flag SE_DACL_AUTO_INHERIT_REQ.  As usual, Microsoft didn't bother
+        *   to properly document either of these flags.  It's unclear how
+        *   important SE_DACL_AUTO_INHERITED actually is, but to be safe we use
+        *   the SE_DACL_AUTO_INHERIT_REQ workaround to set it if needed.
+        *
+        * - The above also applies to the equivalent SACL flags,
+        *   SE_SACL_AUTO_INHERITED and SE_SACL_AUTO_INHERIT_REQ.
+        *
+        * - If the application says that it's setting
+        *   DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION, then Windows sets SE_DACL_PRESENT in the
+        *   resulting security descriptor, even if the security descriptor the
+        *   application provided did not have a DACL.  This seems to be
+        *   unavoidable, since omitting DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION would cause a
+        *   default DACL to remain.  Fortunately, this behavior seems harmless,
+        *   since the resulting DACL will still be "null" --- but it will be
+        *   "the other representation of null".
+        *
+        * - The above also applies to SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION and
+        *   SE_SACL_PRESENT.  Again, it's seemingly unavoidable but "harmless"
+        *   that Windows changes the representation of a "null SACL".
+        */
+       if (likely(desc_size <= STACK_MAX)) {
+               desc = alloca(desc_size);
+       } else {
+               desc = MALLOC(desc_size);
+               if (!desc)
+                       return STATUS_NO_MEMORY;
+       }
+
+       memcpy(desc, _desc, desc_size);
+
+       if (likely(desc_size >= 4)) {
+
+               if (desc->Control & SE_DACL_AUTO_INHERITED)
+                       desc->Control |= SE_DACL_AUTO_INHERIT_REQ;
+
+               if (desc->Control & SE_SACL_AUTO_INHERITED)
+                       desc->Control |= SE_SACL_AUTO_INHERIT_REQ;
+       }
+
+       /*
+        * More API insanity.  We want to set the entire security descriptor
+        * as-is.  But all available APIs require specifying the specific parts
+        * of the security descriptor being set.  Especially annoying is that
+        * mandatory integrity labels are part of the SACL, but they aren't set
+        * with SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION.  Instead, applications must also
+        * specify LABEL_SECURITY_INFORMATION (Windows Vista, Windows 7) or
+        * BACKUP_SECURITY_INFORMATION (Windows 8).  But at least older versions
+        * of Windows don't error out if you provide these newer flags...
+        *
+        * Also, if the process isn't running as Administrator, then it probably
+        * doesn't have SE_RESTORE_PRIVILEGE.  In this case, it will always get
+        * the STATUS_PRIVILEGE_NOT_HELD error by trying to set the SACL, even
+        * if the security descriptor it provided did not have a SACL.  By
+        * default, in this case we try to recover and set as much of the
+        * security descriptor as possible --- potentially excluding the DACL, and
+        * even the owner, as well as the SACL.
+        */
+
+       info = OWNER_SECURITY_INFORMATION | GROUP_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
+              DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION | SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
+              LABEL_SECURITY_INFORMATION | BACKUP_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
+
+
+       /*
+        * It's also worth noting that SetFileSecurity() is unusable because it
+        * doesn't request "backup semantics" when it opens the file internally.
+        * NtSetSecurityObject() seems to be the best function to use in backup
+        * applications.  (SetSecurityInfo() should also work, but it's harder
+        * to use and must call NtSetSecurityObject() internally anyway.
+        * BackupWrite() is theoretically usable as well, but it's inflexible
+        * and poorly documented.)
+        */
+
+retry:
+       status = (*func_NtSetSecurityObject)(h, info, desc);
+       if (NT_SUCCESS(status))
+               goto out_maybe_free_desc;
+
+       /* Failed to set the requested parts of the security descriptor.  If the
+        * error was permissions-related, try to set fewer parts of the security
+        * descriptor, unless WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS is enabled.  */
+       if ((status == STATUS_PRIVILEGE_NOT_HELD ||
+            status == STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED) &&
+           !(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS))
+       {
+               if (info & SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION) {
+                       info &= ~(SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
+                                 LABEL_SECURITY_INFORMATION |
+                                 BACKUP_SECURITY_INFORMATION);
+                       ctx->partial_security_descriptors++;
+                       goto retry;
+               }
+               if (info & DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION) {
+                       info &= ~DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
+                       goto retry;
+               }
+               if (info & OWNER_SECURITY_INFORMATION) {
+                       info &= ~OWNER_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
+                       goto retry;
+               }
+               /* Nothing left except GROUP, and if we removed it we
+                * wouldn't have anything at all.  */
+       }
+
+       /* No part of the security descriptor could be set, or
+        * WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS is enabled and the full security
+        * descriptor could not be set.  */
+       if (!(info & SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION))
+               ctx->partial_security_descriptors--;
+       ctx->no_security_descriptors++;
+
+out_maybe_free_desc:
+       if (unlikely(desc_size > STACK_MAX))
+               FREE(desc);
+       return status;
+}
+
+/* Set metadata on the open file @h from the WIM inode @inode.  */
+static int
+do_apply_metadata_to_file(HANDLE h, const struct wim_inode *inode,
+                         struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       FILE_BASIC_INFORMATION info;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+
+       /* Set security descriptor if present and not in NO_ACLS mode  */
+       if (inode_has_security_descriptor(inode) &&
+           !(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_ACLS))
+       {
+               const struct wim_security_data *sd;
+               const void *desc;
+               size_t desc_size;
+
+               sd = wim_get_current_security_data(ctx->common.wim);
+               desc = sd->descriptors[inode->i_security_id];
+               desc_size = sd->sizes[inode->i_security_id];
+
+               status = set_security_descriptor(h, desc, desc_size, ctx);
+               if (!NT_SUCCESS(status) &&
+                   (ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS))
+               {
+                       winnt_error(status,
+                                   L"Can't set security descriptor on \"%ls\"",
+                                   current_path(ctx));
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_SET_SECURITY;
+               }
+       }
+
+       /* Set attributes and timestamps  */
+       info.CreationTime.QuadPart = inode->i_creation_time;
+       info.LastAccessTime.QuadPart = inode->i_last_access_time;
+       info.LastWriteTime.QuadPart = inode->i_last_write_time;
+       info.ChangeTime.QuadPart = 0;
+       if (ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_ATTRIBUTES) {
+               info.FileAttributes = FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL;
+       } else {
+               info.FileAttributes = inode->i_attributes & ~SPECIAL_ATTRIBUTES;
+               if (info.FileAttributes == 0)
+                       info.FileAttributes = FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL;
+       }
+
+       status = (*func_NtSetInformationFile)(h, &ctx->iosb,
+                                             &info, sizeof(info),
+                                             FileBasicInformation);
+       /* On FAT volumes we get STATUS_INVALID_PARAMETER if we try to set
+        * attributes on the root directory.  (Apparently because FAT doesn't
+        * actually have a place to store those attributes!)  */
+       if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)
+           && !(status == STATUS_INVALID_PARAMETER &&
+                dentry_is_root(inode_first_extraction_dentry(inode))))
+       {
+               winnt_error(status, L"Can't set basic metadata on \"%ls\"",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_SET_ATTRIBUTES;
+       }
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+static int
+apply_metadata_to_file(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                      struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       const struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       DWORD perms;
+       HANDLE h;
+       NTSTATUS status;
+       int ret;
+
+       perms = FILE_WRITE_ATTRIBUTES | WRITE_DAC |
+               WRITE_OWNER | ACCESS_SYSTEM_SECURITY;
+
+       build_extraction_path(dentry, ctx);
+
+       /* Open a handle with as many relevant permissions as possible.  */
+       while (!NT_SUCCESS(status = do_create_file(&h, perms, NULL,
+                                                  0, FILE_OPEN, 0, ctx)))
+       {
+               if (status == STATUS_PRIVILEGE_NOT_HELD ||
+                   status == STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED)
                {
-                       if (info & SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION) {
-                               info &= ~SACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
-                               ctx->partial_security_descriptors++;
+                       if (perms & ACCESS_SYSTEM_SECURITY) {
+                               perms &= ~ACCESS_SYSTEM_SECURITY;
                                continue;
                        }
-                       if (info & DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION) {
-                               info &= ~DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
+                       if (perms & WRITE_DAC) {
+                               perms &= ~WRITE_DAC;
                                continue;
                        }
-                       if (info & OWNER_SECURITY_INFORMATION) {
-                               info &= ~OWNER_SECURITY_INFORMATION;
+                       if (perms & WRITE_OWNER) {
+                               perms &= ~WRITE_OWNER;
                                continue;
                        }
-                       ctx->partial_security_descriptors--;
-                       ctx->no_security_descriptors++;
-                       ret = 0;
-                       break;
                }
-               set_errno_from_win32_error(err);
-               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_SET_SECURITY;
-               break;
+               winnt_error(status, L"Can't open \"%ls\" to set metadata",
+                           current_path(ctx));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
        }
-#ifdef WITH_NTDLL
-       if (func_NtSetSecurityObject)
-               CloseHandle(h);
-#endif
+
+       ret = do_apply_metadata_to_file(h, inode, ctx);
+
+       (*func_NtClose)(h);
+
        return ret;
 }
 
 static int
-win32_set_timestamps(const wchar_t *path, u64 creation_time,
-                    u64 last_write_time, u64 last_access_time,
-                    struct apply_ctx *ctx)
+apply_metadata(struct list_head *dentry_list, struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       HANDLE h;
-       DWORD err;
-       FILETIME creationTime = {.dwLowDateTime = creation_time & 0xffffffff,
-                                .dwHighDateTime = creation_time >> 32};
-       FILETIME lastAccessTime = {.dwLowDateTime = last_access_time & 0xffffffff,
-                                 .dwHighDateTime = last_access_time >> 32};
-       FILETIME lastWriteTime = {.dwLowDateTime = last_write_time & 0xffffffff,
-                                 .dwHighDateTime = last_write_time >> 32};
-
-       h = win32_open_existing_file(path, FILE_WRITE_ATTRIBUTES);
-       if (h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
-               goto error;
+       const struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       int ret;
+
+       /* We go in reverse so that metadata is set on all a directory's
+        * children before the directory itself.  This avoids any potential
+        * problems with attributes, timestamps, or security descriptors.  */
+       list_for_each_entry_reverse(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node)
+       {
+               ret = apply_metadata_to_file(dentry, ctx);
+               ret = check_apply_error(dentry, ctx, ret);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+               ret = report_file_metadata_applied(&ctx->common);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+       }
+       return 0;
+}
+
+/* Issue warnings about problems during the extraction for which warnings were
+ * not already issued (due to the high number of potential warnings if we issued
+ * them per-file).  */
+static void
+do_warnings(const struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       if (ctx->partial_security_descriptors == 0
+           && ctx->no_security_descriptors == 0
+           && ctx->num_set_short_name_failures == 0
+       #if 0
+           && ctx->num_remove_short_name_failures == 0
+       #endif
+           )
+               return;
+
+       WARNING("Extraction to \"%ls\" complete, but with one or more warnings:",
+               ctx->common.target);
+       if (ctx->num_set_short_name_failures) {
+               WARNING("- Could not set short names on %lu files or directories",
+                       ctx->num_set_short_name_failures);
+       }
+#if 0
+       if (ctx->num_remove_short_name_failures) {
+               WARNING("- Could not remove short names on %lu files or directories"
+                       "          (This is expected on Vista and earlier)",
+                       ctx->num_remove_short_name_failures);
+       }
+#endif
+       if (ctx->partial_security_descriptors) {
+               WARNING("- Could only partially set the security descriptor\n"
+                       "            on %lu files or directories.",
+                       ctx->partial_security_descriptors);
+       }
+       if (ctx->no_security_descriptors) {
+               WARNING("- Could not set security descriptor at all\n"
+                       "            on %lu files or directories.",
+                       ctx->no_security_descriptors);
+       }
+       if (ctx->partial_security_descriptors || ctx->no_security_descriptors) {
+               WARNING("To fully restore all security descriptors, run the program\n"
+                       "          with Administrator rights.");
+       }
+}
 
-       if (!SetFileTime(h, &creationTime, &lastAccessTime, &lastWriteTime))
-               goto error_close_handle;
+static u64
+count_dentries(const struct list_head *dentry_list)
+{
+       const struct list_head *cur;
+       u64 count = 0;
 
-       if (!CloseHandle(h))
-               goto error;
+       list_for_each(cur, dentry_list)
+               count++;
 
-       return 0;
+       return count;
+}
 
-error_close_handle:
-       err = GetLastError();
-       CloseHandle(h);
-       SetLastError(err);
-error:
-       set_errno_from_GetLastError();
-       return WIMLIB_ERR_SET_TIMESTAMPS;
+/* Extract files from a WIM image to a directory on Windows  */
+static int
+win32_extract(struct list_head *dentry_list, struct apply_ctx *_ctx)
+{
+       int ret;
+       struct win32_apply_ctx *ctx = (struct win32_apply_ctx *)_ctx;
+       u64 dentry_count;
+
+       ret = prepare_target(dentry_list, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       if (unlikely(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_WIMBOOT)) {
+               ret = start_wimboot_extraction(dentry_list, ctx);
+               if (ret)
+                       goto out;
+       }
+
+       dentry_count = count_dentries(dentry_list);
+
+       ret = start_file_structure_phase(&ctx->common, dentry_count);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       ret = create_directories(dentry_list, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       ret = create_nondirectories(dentry_list, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       ret = end_file_structure_phase(&ctx->common);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       struct read_blob_callbacks cbs = {
+               .begin_blob     = begin_extract_blob,
+               .consume_chunk  = extract_chunk,
+               .end_blob       = end_extract_blob,
+               .ctx            = ctx,
+       };
+       ret = extract_blob_list(&ctx->common, &cbs);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       ret = start_file_metadata_phase(&ctx->common, dentry_count);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       ret = apply_metadata(dentry_list, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       ret = end_file_metadata_phase(&ctx->common);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       if (unlikely(ctx->common.extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_WIMBOOT)) {
+               ret = end_wimboot_extraction(ctx);
+               if (ret)
+                       goto out;
+       }
+
+       do_warnings(ctx);
+out:
+       close_target_directory(ctx);
+       if (ctx->target_ntpath.Buffer)
+               HeapFree(GetProcessHeap(), 0, ctx->target_ntpath.Buffer);
+       FREE(ctx->pathbuf.Buffer);
+       FREE(ctx->print_buffer);
+       FREE(ctx->wimboot.wims);
+       if (ctx->prepopulate_pats) {
+               FREE(ctx->prepopulate_pats->strings);
+               FREE(ctx->prepopulate_pats);
+       }
+       FREE(ctx->mem_prepopulate_pats);
+       FREE(ctx->data_buffer);
+       return ret;
 }
 
 const struct apply_operations win32_apply_ops = {
-       .name = L"Win32",
-
-       .target_is_root           = win32_path_is_root_of_drive,
-       .start_extract            = win32_start_extract,
-       .create_file              = win32_create_file,
-       .create_directory         = win32_create_directory,
-       .create_hardlink          = win32_create_hardlink,
-       .create_symlink           = win32_create_symlink,
-       .extract_unnamed_stream   = win32_extract_unnamed_stream,
-       .extract_named_stream     = win32_extract_named_stream,
-       .extract_encrypted_stream = win32_extract_encrypted_stream,
-       .set_file_attributes      = win32_set_file_attributes,
-       .set_reparse_data         = win32_set_reparse_data,
-       .set_short_name           = win32_set_short_name,
-       .set_security_descriptor  = win32_set_security_descriptor,
-       .set_timestamps           = win32_set_timestamps,
-
-       .path_prefix = L"\\\\?\\",
-       .path_prefix_nchars = 4,
-       .path_separator = L'\\',
-       .path_max = 32768,
-
-       .requires_realtarget_in_paths = 1,
-       .realpath_works_on_nonexisting_files = 1,
-       .root_directory_is_special = 1,
-       .requires_final_set_attributes_pass = 1,
-       .extract_encrypted_stream_creates_file = 1,
-       .requires_short_name_reordering = 1, /* TODO: check if this is really needed  */
+       .name                   = "Windows",
+       .get_supported_features = win32_get_supported_features,
+       .extract                = win32_extract,
+       .will_back_from_wim     = win32_will_back_from_wim,
+       .context_size           = sizeof(struct win32_apply_ctx),
 };
 
 #endif /* __WIN32__ */