Update progress functions
[wimlib] / src / extract.c
index b7a15c0..3adbca3 100644 (file)
@@ -1,17 +1,12 @@
 /*
  * extract.c
  *
- * Support for extracting WIM files.
- *
- * This code does NOT contain any filesystem-specific features.  In particular,
- * security information (i.e. file permissions) and alternate data streams are
- * ignored, except possibly to read an alternate data stream that contains
- * symbolic link data.
+ * Support for extracting WIM images, or files or directories contained in a WIM
+ * image.
  */
 
 /*
- * Copyright (C) 2010 Carl Thijssen
- * Copyright (C) 2012 Eric Biggers
+ * Copyright (C) 2012, 2013, 2014 Eric Biggers
  *
  * This file is part of wimlib, a library for working with WIM files.
  *
  * along with wimlib; if not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
  */
 
+/*
+ * This file provides the API functions wimlib_extract_image(),
+ * wimlib_extract_image_from_pipe(), wimlib_extract_paths(), and
+ * wimlib_extract_pathlist().  Internally, all end up calling
+ * do_wimlib_extract_paths() and extract_trees().
+ *
+ * Although wimlib supports multiple extraction modes/backends (NTFS-3g, UNIX,
+ * Win32), this file does not itself have code to extract files or directories
+ * to any specific target; instead, it handles generic functionality and relies
+ * on lower-level callback functions declared in `struct apply_operations' to do
+ * the actual extraction.
+ */
+
+#ifdef HAVE_CONFIG_H
+#  include "config.h"
+#endif
 
-#include "config.h"
+#include "wimlib/apply.h"
+#include "wimlib/dentry.h"
+#include "wimlib/encoding.h"
+#include "wimlib/endianness.h"
+#include "wimlib/error.h"
+#include "wimlib/lookup_table.h"
+#include "wimlib/metadata.h"
+#include "wimlib/pathlist.h"
+#include "wimlib/paths.h"
+#include "wimlib/reparse.h"
+#include "wimlib/resource.h"
+#include "wimlib/security.h"
+#ifdef __WIN32__
+#  include "wimlib/win32.h" /* for realpath() equivalent */
+#endif
+#include "wimlib/xml.h"
+#include "wimlib/wildcard.h"
+#include "wimlib/wim.h"
 
-#include <dirent.h>
 #include <errno.h>
 #include <fcntl.h>
-#include <string.h>
-#include <sys/stat.h>
 #include <stdlib.h>
-#include <sys/time.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
 
-#ifdef HAVE_UTIME_H
-#include <utime.h>
-#endif
+#define WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_MULTI_IMAGE 0x80000000
+#define WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_FROM_PIPE   0x40000000
+#define WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_IMAGEMODE   0x20000000
+
+/* Keep in sync with wimlib.h  */
+#define WIMLIB_EXTRACT_MASK_PUBLIC                             \
+       (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NTFS                       |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_UNIX_DATA                  |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_ACLS                    |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS                |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_RPFIX                      |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NORPFIX                    |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_TO_STDOUT                  |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_REPLACE_INVALID_FILENAMES  |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_ALL_CASE_CONFLICTS         |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_TIMESTAMPS          |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_SHORT_NAMES         |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_SYMLINKS            |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_GLOB_PATHS                 |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_GLOB                |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_ATTRIBUTES              |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_PRESERVE_DIR_STRUCTURE  |       \
+        WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_WIMBOOT)
+
+/* Check whether the extraction of a dentry should be skipped completely.  */
+static bool
+dentry_is_supported(struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                   const struct wim_features *supported_features)
+{
+       struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
 
+       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT) {
+               return supported_features->reparse_points ||
+                       (inode_is_symlink(inode) &&
+                        supported_features->symlink_reparse_points);
+       }
+       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED) {
+               if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY)
+                       return supported_features->encrypted_directories != 0;
+               else
+                       return supported_features->encrypted_files != 0;
+       }
+       return true;
+}
 
-#include <unistd.h>
 
-#include "dentry.h"
-#include "lookup_table.h"
-#include "timestamp.h"
-#include "wimlib_internal.h"
-#include "xml.h"
+#define PWM_ALLOW_WIM_HDR 0x00001
+#define PWM_SILENT_EOF   0x00002
 
-#ifdef WITH_NTFS_3G
-#include <ntfs-3g/volume.h>
-#endif
+/* Read the header from a stream in a pipable WIM.  */
+static int
+read_pwm_stream_header(WIMStruct *pwm, struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte,
+                      struct wim_resource_spec *rspec,
+                      int flags, struct wim_header_disk *hdr_ret)
+{
+       union {
+               struct pwm_stream_hdr stream_hdr;
+               struct wim_header_disk pwm_hdr;
+       } buf;
+       struct wim_reshdr reshdr;
+       int ret;
 
-static int extract_regular_file_linked(struct dentry *dentry,
-                                      const char *output_path,
-                                      struct apply_args *args,
-                                      struct lookup_table_entry *lte)
-{
-       /* This mode overrides the normal hard-link extraction and
-        * instead either symlinks or hardlinks *all* identical files in
-        * the WIM, even if they are in a different image (in the case
-        * of a multi-image extraction) */
-
-       if (args->extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_HARDLINK) {
-               if (link(lte->extracted_file, output_path) != 0) {
-                       ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Failed to hard link "
-                                        "`%s' to `%s'",
-                                        output_path, lte->extracted_file);
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_LINK;
-               }
-       } else {
-               int num_path_components;
-               int num_output_dir_path_components;
-               size_t extracted_file_len;
-               char *p;
-               const char *p2;
-               size_t i;
-
-               num_path_components =
-                       get_num_path_components(dentry->full_path_utf8) - 1;
-               num_output_dir_path_components =
-                       get_num_path_components(args->target);
-
-               if (args->extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_MULTI_IMAGE) {
-                       num_path_components++;
-                       num_output_dir_path_components--;
-               }
-               extracted_file_len = strlen(lte->extracted_file);
+       ret = full_read(&pwm->in_fd, &buf.stream_hdr, sizeof(buf.stream_hdr));
+       if (ret)
+               goto read_error;
 
-               char buf[extracted_file_len + 3 * num_path_components + 1];
-               p = &buf[0];
+       if ((flags & PWM_ALLOW_WIM_HDR) && buf.stream_hdr.magic == PWM_MAGIC) {
+               BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(buf.pwm_hdr) < sizeof(buf.stream_hdr));
+               ret = full_read(&pwm->in_fd, &buf.stream_hdr + 1,
+                               sizeof(buf.pwm_hdr) - sizeof(buf.stream_hdr));
 
-               for (i = 0; i < num_path_components; i++) {
-                       *p++ = '.';
-                       *p++ = '.';
-                       *p++ = '/';
-               }
-               p2 = lte->extracted_file;
-               while (*p2 == '/')
-                       p2++;
-               while (num_output_dir_path_components--)
-                       p2 = path_next_part(p2, NULL);
-               strcpy(p, p2);
-               if (symlink(buf, output_path) != 0) {
-                       ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Failed to symlink `%s' to "
-                                        "`%s'",
-                                        buf, lte->extracted_file);
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_LINK;
-               }
+               if (ret)
+                       goto read_error;
+               lte->resource_location = RESOURCE_NONEXISTENT;
+               memcpy(hdr_ret, &buf.pwm_hdr, sizeof(buf.pwm_hdr));
+               return 0;
        }
+
+       if (le64_to_cpu(buf.stream_hdr.magic) != PWM_STREAM_MAGIC) {
+               ERROR("Data read on pipe is invalid (expected stream header).");
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_PIPABLE_WIM;
+       }
+
+       copy_hash(lte->hash, buf.stream_hdr.hash);
+
+       reshdr.size_in_wim = 0;
+       reshdr.flags = le32_to_cpu(buf.stream_hdr.flags);
+       reshdr.offset_in_wim = pwm->in_fd.offset;
+       reshdr.uncompressed_size = le64_to_cpu(buf.stream_hdr.uncompressed_size);
+       wim_res_hdr_to_spec(&reshdr, pwm, rspec);
+       lte_bind_wim_resource_spec(lte, rspec);
+       lte->flags = rspec->flags;
+       lte->size = rspec->uncompressed_size;
+       lte->offset_in_res = 0;
        return 0;
+
+read_error:
+       if (ret != WIMLIB_ERR_UNEXPECTED_END_OF_FILE || !(flags & PWM_SILENT_EOF))
+               ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Error reading pipable WIM from pipe");
+       return ret;
 }
 
-static int extract_regular_file_unlinked(struct dentry *dentry,
-                                        struct apply_args *args,
-                                        const char *output_path,
-                                        struct lookup_table_entry *lte)
+static int
+load_streams_from_pipe(struct apply_ctx *ctx,
+                      const struct read_stream_list_callbacks *cbs)
 {
-       /* Normal mode of extraction.  Regular files and hard links are
-        * extracted in the way that they appear in the WIM. */
-
-       int out_fd;
+       struct wim_lookup_table_entry *found_lte = NULL;
+       struct wim_resource_spec *rspec = NULL;
+       struct wim_lookup_table *lookup_table;
        int ret;
-       struct inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
 
-       if (!((args->extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_MULTI_IMAGE)
-               && (args->extract_flags & (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_SYMLINK |
-                                    WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_HARDLINK))))
-       {
-               /* If the dentry is one of a hard link set of at least 2
-                * dentries and one of the other dentries has already been
-                * extracted, make a hard link to the file corresponding to this
-                * already-extracted directory.  Otherwise, extract the file,
-                * and set the inode->extracted_file field so that other
-                * dentries in the hard link group can link to it. */
-               if (inode->link_count > 1) {
-                       if (inode->extracted_file) {
-                               DEBUG("Extracting hard link `%s' => `%s'",
-                                     output_path, inode->extracted_file);
-                               if (link(inode->extracted_file, output_path) != 0) {
-                                       ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Failed to hard link "
-                                                        "`%s' to `%s'",
-                                                        output_path,
-                                                        inode->extracted_file);
-                                       return WIMLIB_ERR_LINK;
-                               }
-                               return 0;
+       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+       found_lte = new_lookup_table_entry();
+       if (!found_lte)
+               goto out;
+
+       rspec = MALLOC(sizeof(struct wim_resource_spec));
+       if (!rspec)
+               goto out;
+
+       lookup_table = ctx->wim->lookup_table;
+       memcpy(ctx->progress.extract.guid, ctx->wim->hdr.guid, WIM_GUID_LEN);
+       ctx->progress.extract.part_number = ctx->wim->hdr.part_number;
+       ctx->progress.extract.total_parts = ctx->wim->hdr.total_parts;
+       ret = extract_progress(ctx, WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_EXTRACT_SPWM_PART_BEGIN);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out;
+
+       while (ctx->num_streams_remaining) {
+               struct wim_header_disk pwm_hdr;
+               struct wim_lookup_table_entry *needed_lte;
+
+               if (found_lte->resource_location != RESOURCE_NONEXISTENT)
+                       lte_unbind_wim_resource_spec(found_lte);
+               ret = read_pwm_stream_header(ctx->wim, found_lte, rspec,
+                                            PWM_ALLOW_WIM_HDR, &pwm_hdr);
+               if (ret)
+                       goto out;
+
+               if ((found_lte->resource_location != RESOURCE_NONEXISTENT)
+                   && !(found_lte->flags & WIM_RESHDR_FLAG_METADATA)
+                   && (needed_lte = lookup_stream(lookup_table, found_lte->hash))
+                   && (needed_lte->out_refcnt))
+               {
+                       needed_lte->offset_in_res = found_lte->offset_in_res;
+                       needed_lte->flags = found_lte->flags;
+                       needed_lte->size = found_lte->size;
+
+                       lte_unbind_wim_resource_spec(found_lte);
+                       lte_bind_wim_resource_spec(needed_lte, rspec);
+
+                       ret = (*cbs->begin_stream)(needed_lte, 0,
+                                                  cbs->begin_stream_ctx);
+                       if (ret) {
+                               lte_unbind_wim_resource_spec(needed_lte);
+                               goto out;
                        }
-                       FREE(inode->extracted_file);
-                       inode->extracted_file = STRDUP(output_path);
-                       if (!inode->extracted_file) {
-                               ERROR("Failed to allocate memory for filename");
-                               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+
+                       ret = extract_stream(needed_lte, needed_lte->size,
+                                            cbs->consume_chunk,
+                                            cbs->consume_chunk_ctx);
+
+                       ret = (*cbs->end_stream)(needed_lte, ret,
+                                                cbs->end_stream_ctx);
+                       lte_unbind_wim_resource_spec(needed_lte);
+                       if (ret)
+                               goto out;
+                       ctx->num_streams_remaining--;
+               } else if (found_lte->resource_location != RESOURCE_NONEXISTENT) {
+                       ret = skip_wim_stream(found_lte);
+                       if (ret)
+                               goto out;
+               } else {
+                       u16 part_number = le16_to_cpu(pwm_hdr.part_number);
+                       u16 total_parts = le16_to_cpu(pwm_hdr.total_parts);
+
+                       if (part_number != ctx->progress.extract.part_number ||
+                           total_parts != ctx->progress.extract.total_parts ||
+                           memcmp(pwm_hdr.guid, ctx->progress.extract.guid,
+                                  WIM_GUID_LEN))
+                       {
+                               ctx->progress.extract.part_number = part_number;
+                               ctx->progress.extract.total_parts = total_parts;
+                               memcpy(ctx->progress.extract.guid,
+                                      pwm_hdr.guid, WIM_GUID_LEN);
+                               ret = extract_progress(ctx,
+                                                      WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_EXTRACT_SPWM_PART_BEGIN);
+                               if (ret)
+                                       goto out;
                        }
                }
        }
+       ret = 0;
+out:
+       if (found_lte->resource_location != RESOURCE_IN_WIM)
+               FREE(rspec);
+       free_lookup_table_entry(found_lte);
+       return ret;
+}
 
-       /* Extract the contents of the file to @output_path. */
+static int
+begin_extract_stream_with_progress(struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte,
+                                  u32 flags, void *_ctx)
+{
+       struct apply_ctx *ctx = _ctx;
 
-       out_fd = open(output_path, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC, 0644);
-       if (out_fd == -1) {
-               ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Failed to open the file `%s' for writing",
-                                output_path);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_OPEN;
-       }
+       ctx->cur_stream = lte;
 
-       if (!lte) {
-               /* Empty file with no lookup table entry */
-               DEBUG("Empty file `%s'.", output_path);
-               ret = 0;
-               goto out;
-       }
+       return (*ctx->saved_cbs->begin_stream)(lte, flags,
+                                              ctx->saved_cbs->begin_stream_ctx);
+}
 
-       ret = extract_full_wim_resource_to_fd(lte, out_fd);
-       if (ret != 0) {
-               ERROR("Failed to extract resource to `%s'", output_path);
-               goto out;
+static int
+consume_chunk_with_progress(const void *chunk, size_t size, void *_ctx)
+{
+       struct apply_ctx *ctx = _ctx;
+       union wimlib_progress_info *progress = &ctx->progress;
+       int ret;
+
+       if (likely(ctx->supported_features.hard_links)) {
+               progress->extract.completed_bytes +=
+                       (u64)size * ctx->cur_stream->out_refcnt;
+       } else {
+               const struct stream_owner *owners = stream_owners(ctx->cur_stream);
+               for (u32 i = 0; i < ctx->cur_stream->out_refcnt; i++) {
+                       const struct wim_inode *inode = owners[i].inode;
+                       const struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+
+                       list_for_each_entry(dentry,
+                                           &inode->i_extraction_aliases,
+                                           d_extraction_alias_node)
+                       {
+                               progress->extract.completed_bytes += size;
+                       }
+               }
        }
-       args->progress.extract.completed_bytes += wim_resource_size(lte);
-out:
-       if (close(out_fd) != 0) {
-               ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Failed to close file `%s'", output_path);
-               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_WRITE;
+       if (progress->extract.completed_bytes >= ctx->next_progress) {
+
+               ret = extract_progress(ctx, WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_EXTRACT_STREAMS);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+
+               if (progress->extract.completed_bytes >=
+                   progress->extract.total_bytes)
+               {
+                       ctx->next_progress = UINT64_MAX;
+               } else {
+                       ctx->next_progress += progress->extract.total_bytes / 128;
+                       if (ctx->next_progress > progress->extract.total_bytes)
+                               ctx->next_progress = progress->extract.total_bytes;
+               }
        }
-       return ret;
+       return (*ctx->saved_cbs->consume_chunk)(chunk, size,
+                                               ctx->saved_cbs->consume_chunk_ctx);
 }
 
 /*
- * Extracts a regular file from the WIM archive.
+ * Read the list of single-instance streams to extract and feed their data into
+ * the specified callback functions.
+ *
+ * This handles checksumming each stream.
+ *
+ * This also handles sending WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_EXTRACT_STREAMS.
+ *
+ * This also works if the WIM is being read from a pipe, whereas attempting to
+ * read streams directly (e.g. with read_full_stream_into_buf()) will not.
  */
-static int extract_regular_file(struct dentry *dentry,
-                               struct apply_args *args,
-                               const char *output_path)
+int
+extract_stream_list(struct apply_ctx *ctx,
+                   const struct read_stream_list_callbacks *cbs)
 {
-       struct lookup_table_entry *lte;
-       const struct inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       struct read_stream_list_callbacks wrapper_cbs = {
+               .begin_stream      = begin_extract_stream_with_progress,
+               .begin_stream_ctx  = ctx,
+               .consume_chunk     = consume_chunk_with_progress,
+               .consume_chunk_ctx = ctx,
+               .end_stream        = cbs->end_stream,
+               .end_stream_ctx    = cbs->end_stream_ctx,
+       };
+       if (ctx->progfunc) {
+               ctx->saved_cbs = cbs;
+               cbs = &wrapper_cbs;
+       }
+       if (ctx->extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_FROM_PIPE) {
+               return load_streams_from_pipe(ctx, cbs);
+       } else {
+               return read_stream_list(&ctx->stream_list,
+                                       offsetof(struct wim_lookup_table_entry,
+                                                extraction_list),
+                                       cbs, VERIFY_STREAM_HASHES);
+       }
+}
 
-       lte = inode_unnamed_lte_resolved(inode);
+/* Extract a WIM dentry to standard output.
+ *
+ * This obviously doesn't make sense in all cases.  We return an error if the
+ * dentry does not correspond to a regular file.  Otherwise we extract the
+ * unnamed data stream only.  */
+static int
+extract_dentry_to_stdout(struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                        const struct wim_lookup_table *lookup_table)
+{
+       struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte;
+       struct filedes _stdout;
 
-       if (lte && (args->extract_flags & (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_SYMLINK |
-                                          WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_HARDLINK)))
+       if (inode->i_attributes & (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT |
+                                  FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY))
        {
-               if (lte->extracted_file) {
-                       return extract_regular_file_linked(dentry, output_path, args, lte);
-               } else {
-                       lte->extracted_file = STRDUP(output_path);
-                       if (!lte->extracted_file)
-                               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
-               }
+               ERROR("\"%"TS"\" is not a regular file and therefore cannot be "
+                     "extracted to standard output", dentry_full_path(dentry));
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOT_A_REGULAR_FILE;
        }
-       return extract_regular_file_unlinked(dentry, args, output_path, lte);
+
+       lte = inode_unnamed_lte(inode, lookup_table);
+       if (!lte) {
+               const u8 *hash = inode_unnamed_stream_hash(inode);
+               if (!is_zero_hash(hash))
+                       return stream_not_found_error(inode, hash);
+               return 0;
+       }
+
+       filedes_init(&_stdout, STDOUT_FILENO);
+       return extract_full_stream_to_fd(lte, &_stdout);
 }
 
-static int extract_symlink(struct dentry *dentry,
-                          struct apply_args *args,
-                          const char *output_path)
+static int
+extract_dentries_to_stdout(struct wim_dentry **dentries, size_t num_dentries,
+                          const struct wim_lookup_table *lookup_table)
 {
-       char target[4096];
-       ssize_t ret = inode_readlink(dentry->d_inode, target,
-                                    sizeof(target), args->w, 0);
-       struct lookup_table_entry *lte;
+       for (size_t i = 0; i < num_dentries; i++) {
+               int ret = extract_dentry_to_stdout(dentries[i], lookup_table);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+       }
+       return 0;
+}
 
-       if (ret <= 0) {
-               ERROR("Could not read the symbolic link from dentry `%s'",
-                     dentry->full_path_utf8);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_DENTRY;
+/**********************************************************************/
+
+/*
+ * Removes duplicate dentries from the array.
+ *
+ * Returns the new number of dentries, packed at the front of the array.
+ */
+static size_t
+remove_duplicate_trees(struct wim_dentry **trees, size_t num_trees)
+{
+       size_t i, j = 0;
+       for (i = 0; i < num_trees; i++) {
+               if (!trees[i]->tmp_flag) {
+                       /* Found distinct dentry.  */
+                       trees[i]->tmp_flag = 1;
+                       trees[j++] = trees[i];
+               }
        }
-       ret = symlink(target, output_path);
-       if (ret != 0) {
-               ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Failed to symlink `%s' to `%s'",
-                                output_path, target);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_LINK;
+       for (i = 0; i < j; i++)
+               trees[i]->tmp_flag = 0;
+       return j;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Remove dentries that are descendants of other dentries in the array.
+ *
+ * Returns the new number of dentries, packed at the front of the array.
+ */
+static size_t
+remove_contained_trees(struct wim_dentry **trees, size_t num_trees)
+{
+       size_t i, j = 0;
+       for (i = 0; i < num_trees; i++)
+               trees[i]->tmp_flag = 1;
+       for (i = 0; i < num_trees; i++) {
+               struct wim_dentry *d = trees[i];
+               while (!dentry_is_root(d)) {
+                       d = d->parent;
+                       if (d->tmp_flag)
+                               goto tree_contained;
+               }
+               trees[j++] = trees[i];
+               continue;
+
+       tree_contained:
+               trees[i]->tmp_flag = 0;
        }
-       lte = inode_unnamed_lte_resolved(dentry->d_inode);
-       args->progress.extract.completed_bytes += wim_resource_size(lte);
+
+       for (i = 0; i < j; i++)
+               trees[i]->tmp_flag = 0;
+       return j;
+}
+
+static int
+dentry_append_to_list(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *_dentry_list)
+{
+       struct list_head *dentry_list = _dentry_list;
+       list_add_tail(&dentry->d_extraction_list_node, dentry_list);
+       return 0;
+}
+
+static void
+dentry_reset_extraction_list_node(struct wim_dentry *dentry)
+{
+       dentry->d_extraction_list_node = (struct list_head){NULL, NULL};
+}
+
+static int
+dentry_delete_from_list(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *_ignore)
+{
+       list_del(&dentry->d_extraction_list_node);
+       dentry_reset_extraction_list_node(dentry);
        return 0;
 }
 
 /*
- * Extracts a directory from the WIM archive.
+ * Build the preliminary list of dentries to be extracted.
  *
- * @dentry:            The directory entry for the directory.
- * @output_path:       The path to which the directory is to be extracted to.
- * @return:            True on success, false on failure.
+ * The list maintains the invariant that if d1 and d2 are in the list and d1 is
+ * an ancestor of d2, then d1 appears before d2 in the list.
  */
-static int extract_directory(const char *output_path, bool is_root)
+static void
+build_dentry_list(struct list_head *dentry_list, struct wim_dentry **trees,
+                 size_t num_trees, bool add_ancestors)
+{
+       INIT_LIST_HEAD(dentry_list);
+
+       /* Add the trees recursively.  */
+       for (size_t i = 0; i < num_trees; i++)
+               for_dentry_in_tree(trees[i], dentry_append_to_list, dentry_list);
+
+       /* If requested, add ancestors of the trees.  */
+       if (add_ancestors) {
+               for (size_t i = 0; i < num_trees; i++) {
+                       struct wim_dentry *dentry = trees[i];
+                       struct wim_dentry *ancestor;
+                       struct list_head *place_after;
+
+                       if (dentry_is_root(dentry))
+                               continue;
+
+                       place_after = dentry_list;
+                       ancestor = dentry;
+                       do {
+                               ancestor = ancestor->parent;
+                               if (will_extract_dentry(ancestor)) {
+                                       place_after = &ancestor->d_extraction_list_node;
+                                       break;
+                               }
+                       } while (!dentry_is_root(ancestor));
+
+                       ancestor = dentry;
+                       do {
+                               ancestor = ancestor->parent;
+                               if (will_extract_dentry(ancestor))
+                                       break;
+                               list_add(&ancestor->d_extraction_list_node, place_after);
+                       } while (!dentry_is_root(ancestor));
+               }
+       }
+}
+
+static void
+destroy_dentry_list(struct list_head *dentry_list)
+{
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry, *tmp;
+       struct wim_inode *inode;
+
+       list_for_each_entry_safe(dentry, tmp, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node) {
+               inode = dentry->d_inode;
+               dentry_reset_extraction_list_node(dentry);
+               inode->i_visited = 0;
+               if ((void *)dentry->d_extraction_name != (void *)dentry->file_name)
+                       FREE(dentry->d_extraction_name);
+               dentry->d_extraction_name = NULL;
+               dentry->d_extraction_name_nchars = 0;
+       }
+}
+
+static void
+destroy_stream_list(struct list_head *stream_list)
+{
+       struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte;
+
+       list_for_each_entry(lte, stream_list, extraction_list)
+               if (lte->out_refcnt > ARRAY_LEN(lte->inline_stream_owners))
+                       FREE(lte->stream_owners);
+}
+
+#ifdef __WIN32__
+static const utf16lechar replacement_char = cpu_to_le16(0xfffd);
+#else
+static const utf16lechar replacement_char = cpu_to_le16('?');
+#endif
+
+static bool
+file_name_valid(utf16lechar *name, size_t num_chars, bool fix)
+{
+       size_t i;
+
+       if (num_chars == 0)
+               return true;
+       for (i = 0; i < num_chars; i++) {
+               switch (name[i]) {
+       #ifdef __WIN32__
+               case cpu_to_le16('\\'):
+               case cpu_to_le16(':'):
+               case cpu_to_le16('*'):
+               case cpu_to_le16('?'):
+               case cpu_to_le16('"'):
+               case cpu_to_le16('<'):
+               case cpu_to_le16('>'):
+               case cpu_to_le16('|'):
+       #endif
+               case cpu_to_le16('/'):
+               case cpu_to_le16('\0'):
+                       if (fix)
+                               name[i] = replacement_char;
+                       else
+                               return false;
+               }
+       }
+
+#ifdef __WIN32__
+       if (name[num_chars - 1] == cpu_to_le16(' ') ||
+           name[num_chars - 1] == cpu_to_le16('.'))
+       {
+               if (fix)
+                       name[num_chars - 1] = replacement_char;
+               else
+                       return false;
+       }
+#endif
+       return true;
+}
+
+static int
+dentry_calculate_extraction_name(struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                                struct apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
        int ret;
-       struct stat stbuf;
-       ret = stat(output_path, &stbuf);
-       if (ret == 0) {
-               if (S_ISDIR(stbuf.st_mode)) {
-                       /*if (!is_root)*/
-                               /*WARNING("`%s' already exists", output_path);*/
-                       return 0;
-               } else {
-                       ERROR("`%s' is not a directory", output_path);
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_MKDIR;
+
+       if (!dentry_is_supported(dentry, &ctx->supported_features))
+               goto skip_dentry;
+
+       if (dentry_is_root(dentry))
+               return 0;
+
+       if (ctx->extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NTFS) {
+               dentry->d_extraction_name = dentry->file_name;
+               dentry->d_extraction_name_nchars = dentry->file_name_nbytes /
+                                                  sizeof(utf16lechar);
+               return 0;
+       }
+
+       if (!ctx->supported_features.case_sensitive_filenames) {
+               struct wim_dentry *other;
+               list_for_each_entry(other, &dentry->d_ci_conflict_list,
+                                   d_ci_conflict_list)
+               {
+                       if (will_extract_dentry(other)) {
+                               if (ctx->extract_flags &
+                                   WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_ALL_CASE_CONFLICTS) {
+                                       WARNING("\"%"TS"\" has the same "
+                                               "case-insensitive name as "
+                                               "\"%"TS"\"; extracting "
+                                               "dummy name instead",
+                                               dentry_full_path(dentry),
+                                               dentry_full_path(other));
+                                       goto out_replace;
+                               } else {
+                                       WARNING("Not extracting \"%"TS"\": "
+                                               "has same case-insensitive "
+                                               "name as \"%"TS"\"",
+                                               dentry_full_path(dentry),
+                                               dentry_full_path(other));
+                                       goto skip_dentry;
+                               }
+                       }
                }
+       }
+
+       if (file_name_valid(dentry->file_name, dentry->file_name_nbytes / 2, false)) {
+               ret = utf16le_get_tstr(dentry->file_name,
+                                      dentry->file_name_nbytes,
+                                      (const tchar **)&dentry->d_extraction_name,
+                                      &dentry->d_extraction_name_nchars);
+               dentry->d_extraction_name_nchars /= sizeof(tchar);
+               return ret;
        } else {
-               if (errno != ENOENT) {
-                       ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Failed to stat `%s'", output_path);
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_STAT;
+               if (ctx->extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_REPLACE_INVALID_FILENAMES)
+               {
+                       WARNING("\"%"TS"\" has an invalid filename "
+                               "that is not supported on this platform; "
+                               "extracting dummy name instead",
+                               dentry_full_path(dentry));
+                       goto out_replace;
+               } else {
+                       WARNING("Not extracting \"%"TS"\": has an invalid filename "
+                               "that is not supported on this platform",
+                               dentry_full_path(dentry));
+                       goto skip_dentry;
                }
        }
-       /* Compute the output path directory to the directory. */
-       if (mkdir(output_path, S_IRWXU | S_IRGRP | S_IXGRP |
-                              S_IROTH | S_IXOTH) != 0) {
-               ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Cannot create directory `%s'",
-                                output_path);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_MKDIR;
+
+out_replace:
+       {
+               utf16lechar utf16_name_copy[dentry->file_name_nbytes / 2];
+
+               memcpy(utf16_name_copy, dentry->file_name, dentry->file_name_nbytes);
+               file_name_valid(utf16_name_copy, dentry->file_name_nbytes / 2, true);
+
+               const tchar *tchar_name;
+               size_t tchar_nchars;
+
+               ret = utf16le_get_tstr(utf16_name_copy,
+                                      dentry->file_name_nbytes,
+                                      &tchar_name, &tchar_nchars);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+
+               tchar_nchars /= sizeof(tchar);
+
+               size_t fixed_name_num_chars = tchar_nchars;
+               tchar fixed_name[tchar_nchars + 50];
+
+               tmemcpy(fixed_name, tchar_name, tchar_nchars);
+               fixed_name_num_chars += tsprintf(fixed_name + tchar_nchars,
+                                                T(" (invalid filename #%lu)"),
+                                                ++ctx->invalid_sequence);
+
+               utf16le_put_tstr(tchar_name);
+
+               dentry->d_extraction_name = memdup(fixed_name,
+                                                  2 * fixed_name_num_chars + 2);
+               if (!dentry->d_extraction_name)
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+               dentry->d_extraction_name_nchars = fixed_name_num_chars;
        }
        return 0;
+
+skip_dentry:
+       for_dentry_in_tree(dentry, dentry_delete_from_list, NULL);
+       return 0;
 }
 
 /*
- * Extracts a file, directory, or symbolic link from the WIM archive.  For use
- * in for_dentry_in_tree().
+ * Calculate the actual filename component at which each WIM dentry will be
+ * extracted, with special handling for dentries that are unsupported by the
+ * extraction backend or have invalid names.
+ *
+ * ctx->supported_features must be filled in.
+ *
+ * Possible error codes: WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM, WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_UTF16_STRING
  */
-static int apply_dentry_normal(struct dentry *dentry, void *arg)
+static int
+dentry_list_calculate_extraction_names(struct list_head *dentry_list,
+                                      struct apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       struct apply_args *args = arg;
-       int extract_flags = args->extract_flags;
-       struct inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
-       size_t len;
-       int ret;
+       struct list_head *prev, *cur;
 
-       if (dentry->is_extracted)
-               return 0;
+       /* Can't use list_for_each_entry() because a call to
+        * dentry_calculate_extraction_name() may delete the current dentry and
+        * its children from the list.  */
 
-       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_STREAMS)
-               if (inode_unnamed_lte_resolved(inode))
-                       return 0;
+       prev = dentry_list;
+       for (;;) {
+               struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+               int ret;
 
-       if ((extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_VERBOSE) &&
-            args->progress_func)
-       {
-               args->progress.extract.cur_path = dentry->full_path_utf8;
-               args->progress_func(WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_EXTRACT_DENTRY,
-                                   &args->progress);
-       }
+               cur = prev->next;
+               if (cur == dentry_list)
+                       break;
 
-       len = strlen(args->target);
-       char output_path[len + dentry->full_path_utf8_len + 1];
-       memcpy(output_path, args->target, len);
-       memcpy(output_path + len, dentry->full_path_utf8, dentry->full_path_utf8_len);
-       output_path[len + dentry->full_path_utf8_len] = '\0';
+               dentry = list_entry(cur, struct wim_dentry, d_extraction_list_node);
 
-       if (inode_is_symlink(inode))
-               ret = extract_symlink(dentry, args, output_path);
-       else if (inode_is_directory(inode))
-               ret = extract_directory(output_path, false);
-       else
-               ret = extract_regular_file(dentry, args, output_path);
-       if (ret == 0)
-               dentry->is_extracted = 1;
-       return ret;
+               ret = dentry_calculate_extraction_name(dentry, ctx);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+
+               if (prev->next == cur)
+                       prev = cur;
+               else
+                       ; /* Current dentry and its children (which follow in
+                            the list) were deleted.  prev stays the same.  */
+       }
+       return 0;
 }
 
-/* Apply timestamp to extracted file */
-static int apply_dentry_timestamps_normal(struct dentry *dentry, void *arg)
+static int
+dentry_resolve_streams(struct wim_dentry *dentry, int extract_flags,
+                      struct wim_lookup_table *lookup_table)
 {
-       struct apply_args *args = arg;
-       size_t len = strlen(args->target);
-       char output_path[len + dentry->full_path_utf8_len + 1];
-       const struct inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte;
        int ret;
+       bool force = false;
+
+       /* Special case:  when extracting from a pipe, the WIM lookup table is
+        * initially empty, so "resolving" an inode's streams is initially not
+        * possible.  However, we still need to keep track of which streams,
+        * identified by SHA1 message digests, need to be extracted, so we
+        * "resolve" the inode's streams anyway by allocating new entries.  */
+       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_FROM_PIPE)
+               force = true;
+       ret = inode_resolve_streams(inode, lookup_table, force);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
+       for (u32 i = 0; i <= inode->i_num_ads; i++) {
+               lte = inode_stream_lte_resolved(inode, i);
+               if (lte)
+                       lte->out_refcnt = 0;
+       }
+       return 0;
+}
 
-       memcpy(output_path, args->target, len);
-       memcpy(output_path + len, dentry->full_path_utf8, dentry->full_path_utf8_len);
-       output_path[len + dentry->full_path_utf8_len] = '\0';
-
-       struct timeval tv[2];
-       wim_timestamp_to_timeval(inode->last_access_time, &tv[0]);
-       wim_timestamp_to_timeval(inode->last_write_time, &tv[1]);
-       #ifdef HAVE_LUTIMES
-       ret = lutimes(output_path, tv);
-       #else
-       ret = -1;
-       errno = ENOSYS;
-       #endif
-       if (ret != 0) {
-               #ifdef HAVE_UTIME
-               if (errno == ENOSYS) {
-                       struct utimbuf buf;
-                       buf.actime = wim_timestamp_to_unix(inode->last_access_time);
-                       buf.modtime = wim_timestamp_to_unix(inode->last_write_time);
-                       if (utime(output_path, &buf) == 0)
-                               return 0;
+/*
+ * For each dentry to be extracted, resolve all streams in the corresponding
+ * inode and set 'out_refcnt' in each to 0.
+ *
+ * Possible error codes: WIMLIB_ERR_RESOURCE_NOT_FOUND, WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM.
+ */
+static int
+dentry_list_resolve_streams(struct list_head *dentry_list,
+                           struct apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       int ret;
+
+       list_for_each_entry(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node) {
+               ret = dentry_resolve_streams(dentry,
+                                            ctx->extract_flags,
+                                            ctx->wim->lookup_table);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+       }
+       return 0;
+}
+
+static int
+ref_stream(struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte, u32 stream_idx,
+          struct wim_dentry *dentry, struct apply_ctx *ctx)
+{
+       struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       struct stream_owner *stream_owners;
+
+       if (!lte)
+               return 0;
+
+       /* Tally the size only for each extraction of the stream (not hard
+        * links).  */
+       if (inode->i_visited && ctx->supported_features.hard_links)
+               return 0;
+
+       ctx->progress.extract.total_bytes += lte->size;
+       ctx->progress.extract.num_streams++;
+
+       if (inode->i_visited)
+               return 0;
+
+       /* Add stream to the dentry_list only one time, even if it's going
+        * to be extracted to multiple inodes.  */
+       if (lte->out_refcnt == 0) {
+               list_add_tail(&lte->extraction_list, &ctx->stream_list);
+               ctx->num_streams_remaining++;
+       }
+
+       /* If inode not yet been visited, append it to the stream_owners array.  */
+       if (lte->out_refcnt < ARRAY_LEN(lte->inline_stream_owners)) {
+               stream_owners = lte->inline_stream_owners;
+       } else {
+               struct stream_owner *prev_stream_owners;
+               size_t alloc_stream_owners;
+
+               if (lte->out_refcnt == ARRAY_LEN(lte->inline_stream_owners)) {
+                       prev_stream_owners = NULL;
+                       alloc_stream_owners = ARRAY_LEN(lte->inline_stream_owners);
+               } else {
+                       prev_stream_owners = lte->stream_owners;
+                       alloc_stream_owners = lte->alloc_stream_owners;
                }
-               #endif
-               if (errno != ENOSYS || args->num_lutimes_warnings < 10) {
-                       /*WARNING("Failed to set timestamp on file `%s': %s",*/
-                               /*output_path, strerror(errno));*/
-                       args->num_lutimes_warnings++;
+
+               if (lte->out_refcnt == alloc_stream_owners) {
+                       alloc_stream_owners *= 2;
+                       stream_owners = REALLOC(prev_stream_owners,
+                                              alloc_stream_owners *
+                                               sizeof(stream_owners[0]));
+                       if (!stream_owners)
+                               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+                       if (!prev_stream_owners) {
+                               memcpy(stream_owners,
+                                      lte->inline_stream_owners,
+                                      sizeof(lte->inline_stream_owners));
+                       }
+                       lte->stream_owners = stream_owners;
+                       lte->alloc_stream_owners = alloc_stream_owners;
                }
+               stream_owners = lte->stream_owners;
        }
+       stream_owners[lte->out_refcnt].inode = inode;
+       if (stream_idx == 0) {
+               stream_owners[lte->out_refcnt].stream_name = NULL;
+       } else {
+               stream_owners[lte->out_refcnt].stream_name =
+                       inode->i_ads_entries[stream_idx - 1].stream_name;
+       }
+       lte->out_refcnt++;
        return 0;
 }
 
-static int cmp_streams_by_wim_position(const void *p1, const void *p2)
+static int
+dentry_ref_streams(struct wim_dentry *dentry, struct apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       const struct lookup_table_entry *lte1, *lte2;
-       lte1 = *(const struct lookup_table_entry**)p1;
-       lte2 = *(const struct lookup_table_entry**)p2;
-       if (lte1->resource_entry.offset < lte2->resource_entry.offset)
-               return -1;
-       else if (lte1->resource_entry.offset > lte2->resource_entry.offset)
-               return 1;
-       else
-               return 0;
+       struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       int ret;
+
+       /* The unnamed data stream will always be extracted, except in an
+        * unlikely case.  */
+       if (!inode_is_encrypted_directory(inode)) {
+               u16 stream_idx;
+               struct wim_lookup_table_entry *stream;
+
+               stream = inode_unnamed_stream_resolved(inode, &stream_idx);
+               ret = ref_stream(stream, stream_idx, dentry, ctx);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+       }
+
+       /* Named data streams will be extracted only if supported in the current
+        * extraction mode and volume, and to avoid complications, if not doing
+        * a linked extraction.  */
+       if (ctx->supported_features.named_data_streams) {
+               for (u16 i = 0; i < inode->i_num_ads; i++) {
+                       if (!ads_entry_is_named_stream(&inode->i_ads_entries[i]))
+                               continue;
+                       ret = ref_stream(inode->i_ads_entries[i].lte, i + 1,
+                                        dentry, ctx);
+                       if (ret)
+                               return ret;
+               }
+       }
+       inode->i_visited = 1;
+       return 0;
 }
 
-static int sort_stream_list_by_wim_position(struct list_head *stream_list)
+/*
+ * For each dentry to be extracted, iterate through the data streams of the
+ * corresponding inode.  For each such stream that is not to be ignored due to
+ * the supported features or extraction flags, add it to the list of streams to
+ * be extracted (ctx->stream_list) if not already done so.
+ *
+ * Also builds a mapping from each stream to the inodes referencing it.
+ *
+ * This also initializes the extract progress info with byte and stream
+ * information.
+ *
+ * ctx->supported_features must be filled in.
+ *
+ * Possible error codes: WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM.
+ */
+static int
+dentry_list_ref_streams(struct list_head *dentry_list, struct apply_ctx *ctx)
 {
-       struct list_head *cur;
-       size_t num_streams;
-       struct lookup_table_entry **array;
-       size_t i;
-       size_t array_size;
-
-       num_streams = 0;
-       list_for_each(cur, stream_list)
-               num_streams++;
-       array_size = num_streams * sizeof(array[0]);
-       array = MALLOC(array_size);
-       if (!array) {
-               ERROR("Failed to allocate %zu bytes to sort stream entries",
-                     array_size);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
-       }
-       cur = stream_list->next;
-       for (i = 0; i < num_streams; i++) {
-               array[i] = container_of(cur, struct lookup_table_entry, staging_list);
-               cur = cur->next;
-       }
-
-       qsort(array, num_streams, sizeof(array[0]), cmp_streams_by_wim_position);
-
-       INIT_LIST_HEAD(stream_list);
-       for (i = 0; i < num_streams; i++)
-               list_add_tail(&array[i]->staging_list, stream_list);
-       FREE(array);
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       int ret;
+
+       list_for_each_entry(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node) {
+               ret = dentry_ref_streams(dentry, ctx);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+       }
+       list_for_each_entry(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node)
+               dentry->d_inode->i_visited = 0;
        return 0;
 }
 
-static void calculate_bytes_to_extract(struct list_head *stream_list,
-                                      int extract_flags,
-                                      union wimlib_progress_info *progress)
+static void
+dentry_list_build_inode_alias_lists(struct list_head *dentry_list)
 {
-       struct lookup_table_entry *lte;
-       struct inode *inode;
-       u64 total_bytes = 0;
-       u64 num_streams = 0;
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       struct wim_inode *inode;
+
+       list_for_each_entry(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node) {
+               inode = dentry->d_inode;
+               if (!inode->i_visited)
+                       INIT_LIST_HEAD(&inode->i_extraction_aliases);
+               list_add_tail(&dentry->d_extraction_alias_node,
+                             &inode->i_extraction_aliases);
+               inode->i_visited = 1;
+       }
+       list_for_each_entry(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node)
+               dentry->d_inode->i_visited = 0;
+}
 
-       /* For each stream to be extracted... */
-       list_for_each_entry(lte, stream_list, staging_list) {
-               if (extract_flags &
-                   (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_SYMLINK | WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_HARDLINK))
-               {
-                       /* In the symlink or hard link extraction mode, each
-                        * stream will be extracted one time regardless of how
-                        * many dentries share the stream. */
-                       wimlib_assert(!(extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NTFS));
-                       if (!lte->extracted_file) {
-                               num_streams++;
-                               total_bytes += wim_resource_size(lte);
-                       }
-               } else {
-                       num_streams += lte->out_refcnt;
-                       total_bytes += lte->out_refcnt * wim_resource_size(lte);
-               }
+static void
+inode_tally_features(const struct wim_inode *inode,
+                    struct wim_features *features)
+{
+       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ARCHIVE)
+               features->archive_files++;
+       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_HIDDEN)
+               features->hidden_files++;
+       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM)
+               features->system_files++;
+       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED)
+               features->compressed_files++;
+       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED) {
+               if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY)
+                       features->encrypted_directories++;
+               else
+                       features->encrypted_files++;
+       }
+       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NOT_CONTENT_INDEXED)
+               features->not_context_indexed_files++;
+       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE)
+               features->sparse_files++;
+       if (inode_has_named_stream(inode))
+               features->named_data_streams++;
+       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT) {
+               features->reparse_points++;
+               if (inode_is_symlink(inode))
+                       features->symlink_reparse_points++;
+               else
+                       features->other_reparse_points++;
        }
-       progress->extract.num_streams = num_streams;
-       progress->extract.total_bytes = total_bytes;
-       progress->extract.completed_bytes = 0;
+       if (inode->i_security_id != -1)
+               features->security_descriptors++;
+       if (inode_has_unix_data(inode))
+               features->unix_data++;
 }
 
-static void maybe_add_stream_for_extraction(struct lookup_table_entry *lte,
-                                           struct list_head *stream_list)
+/* Tally features necessary to extract a dentry and the corresponding inode.  */
+static void
+dentry_tally_features(struct wim_dentry *dentry, struct wim_features *features)
 {
-       if (++lte->out_refcnt == 1) {
-               INIT_LIST_HEAD(&lte->inode_list);
-               list_add_tail(&lte->staging_list, stream_list);
+       struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+
+       if (dentry_has_short_name(dentry))
+               features->short_names++;
+
+       if (inode->i_visited) {
+               features->hard_links++;
+       } else {
+               inode_tally_features(inode, features);
+               inode->i_visited = 1;
        }
 }
 
-static void inode_find_streams_for_extraction(struct inode *inode,
-                                             struct list_head *stream_list,
-                                             int extract_flags)
+/* Tally the features necessary to extract the specified dentries.  */
+static void
+dentry_list_get_features(struct list_head *dentry_list,
+                        struct wim_features *features)
 {
-       struct lookup_table_entry *lte;
-       bool inode_added = false;
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
 
-       lte = inode_unnamed_lte_resolved(inode);
+       list_for_each_entry(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node)
+               dentry_tally_features(dentry, features);
 
-       if (lte) {
-               maybe_add_stream_for_extraction(lte, stream_list);
-               list_add_tail(&inode->lte_inode_list, &lte->inode_list);
-               inode_added = true;
+       list_for_each_entry(dentry, dentry_list, d_extraction_list_node)
+               dentry->d_inode->i_visited = 0;
+}
+
+static int
+do_feature_check(const struct wim_features *required_features,
+                const struct wim_features *supported_features,
+                int extract_flags)
+{
+       /* File attributes.  */
+       if (!(extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_ATTRIBUTES)) {
+               /* Note: Don't bother the user about FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ARCHIVE.
+                * We're an archive program, so theoretically we can do what we
+                * want with it.  */
+
+               if (required_features->hidden_files &&
+                   !supported_features->hidden_files)
+                       WARNING("Ignoring FILE_ATTRIBUTE_HIDDEN of %lu files",
+                               required_features->hidden_files);
+
+               if (required_features->system_files &&
+                   !supported_features->system_files)
+                       WARNING("Ignoring FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM of %lu files",
+                               required_features->system_files);
+
+               if (required_features->compressed_files &&
+                   !supported_features->compressed_files)
+                       WARNING("Ignoring FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED of %lu files",
+                               required_features->compressed_files);
+
+               if (required_features->not_context_indexed_files &&
+                   !supported_features->not_context_indexed_files)
+                       WARNING("Ignoring FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NOT_CONTENT_INDEXED of %lu files",
+                               required_features->not_context_indexed_files);
+
+               if (required_features->sparse_files &&
+                   !supported_features->sparse_files)
+                       WARNING("Ignoring FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE of %lu files",
+                               required_features->sparse_files);
+
+               if (required_features->encrypted_directories &&
+                   !supported_features->encrypted_directories)
+                       WARNING("Ignoring FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED of %lu directories",
+                               required_features->encrypted_directories);
        }
-#ifdef WITH_NTFS_3G
-       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NTFS) {
-               for (unsigned i = 0; i < inode->num_ads; i++) {
-                       if (inode->ads_entries[i].stream_name_len != 0) {
-                               lte = inode->ads_entries[i].lte;
-                               if (lte) {
-                                       maybe_add_stream_for_extraction(lte,
-                                                                       stream_list);
-                                       if (!inode_added) {
-                                               list_add_tail(&inode->lte_inode_list,
-                                                             &lte->inode_list);
-                                               inode_added = true;
-                                       }
-                               }
+
+       /* Encrypted files.  */
+       if (required_features->encrypted_files &&
+           !supported_features->encrypted_files)
+               WARNING("Ignoring %lu encrypted files",
+                       required_features->encrypted_files);
+
+       /* Named data streams.  */
+       if (required_features->named_data_streams &&
+           (!supported_features->named_data_streams))
+               WARNING("Ignoring named data streams of %lu files",
+                       required_features->named_data_streams);
+
+       /* Hard links.  */
+       if (required_features->hard_links && !supported_features->hard_links)
+               WARNING("Extracting %lu hard links as independent files",
+                       required_features->hard_links);
+
+       /* Symbolic links and reparse points.  */
+       if ((extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_SYMLINKS) &&
+           required_features->symlink_reparse_points &&
+           !supported_features->symlink_reparse_points &&
+           !supported_features->reparse_points)
+       {
+               ERROR("Extraction backend does not support symbolic links!");
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_UNSUPPORTED;
+       }
+       if (required_features->reparse_points &&
+           !supported_features->reparse_points)
+       {
+               if (supported_features->symlink_reparse_points) {
+                       if (required_features->other_reparse_points) {
+                               WARNING("Ignoring %lu non-symlink/junction "
+                                       "reparse point files",
+                                       required_features->other_reparse_points);
                        }
+               } else {
+                       WARNING("Ignoring %lu reparse point files",
+                               required_features->reparse_points);
                }
        }
+
+       /* Security descriptors.  */
+       if (((extract_flags & (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS |
+                              WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_UNIX_DATA))
+            == WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS) &&
+           required_features->security_descriptors &&
+           !supported_features->security_descriptors)
+       {
+               ERROR("Extraction backend does not support security descriptors!");
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_UNSUPPORTED;
+       }
+       if (!(extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_ACLS) &&
+           required_features->security_descriptors &&
+           !supported_features->security_descriptors)
+               WARNING("Ignoring Windows NT security descriptors of %lu files",
+                       required_features->security_descriptors);
+
+       /* UNIX data.  */
+       if ((extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_UNIX_DATA) &&
+           required_features->unix_data && !supported_features->unix_data)
+       {
+               ERROR("Extraction backend does not support UNIX data!");
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_UNSUPPORTED;
+       }
+
+       /* DOS Names.  */
+       if (required_features->short_names &&
+           !supported_features->short_names)
+       {
+               if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_SHORT_NAMES) {
+                       ERROR("Extraction backend does not support DOS names!");
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_UNSUPPORTED;
+               }
+               WARNING("Ignoring DOS names of %lu files",
+                       required_features->short_names);
+       }
+
+       /* Timestamps.  */
+       if ((extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_TIMESTAMPS) &&
+           !supported_features->timestamps)
+       {
+               ERROR("Extraction backend does not support timestamps!");
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_UNSUPPORTED;
+       }
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+static const struct apply_operations *
+select_apply_operations(int extract_flags)
+{
+#ifdef WITH_NTFS_3G
+       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NTFS)
+               return &ntfs_3g_apply_ops;
+#endif
+#ifdef __WIN32__
+       return &win32_apply_ops;
+#else
+       return &unix_apply_ops;
 #endif
 }
 
-static void find_streams_for_extraction(struct hlist_head *inode_list,
-                                       struct list_head *stream_list,
-                                       struct lookup_table *lookup_table,
-                                       int extract_flags)
+static int
+extract_trees(WIMStruct *wim, struct wim_dentry **trees, size_t num_trees,
+             const tchar *target, int extract_flags)
 {
-       struct inode *inode;
-       struct hlist_node *cur;
-       struct dentry *dentry;
+       const struct apply_operations *ops;
+       struct apply_ctx *ctx;
+       int ret;
+       LIST_HEAD(dentry_list);
 
-       for_lookup_table_entry(lookup_table, lte_zero_out_refcnt, NULL);
-       INIT_LIST_HEAD(stream_list);
-       hlist_for_each_entry(inode, cur, inode_list, hlist) {
-               if (!inode->resolved)
-                       inode_resolve_ltes(inode, lookup_table);
-               inode_for_each_dentry(dentry, inode)
-                       dentry->is_extracted = 0;
-               inode_find_streams_for_extraction(inode, stream_list,
-                                                 extract_flags);
+       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_TO_STDOUT) {
+               ret = extract_dentries_to_stdout(trees, num_trees,
+                                                wim->lookup_table);
+               goto out;
        }
-}
 
-struct apply_operations {
-       int (*apply_dentry)(struct dentry *dentry, void *arg);
-       int (*apply_dentry_timestamps)(struct dentry *dentry, void *arg);
-};
+       num_trees = remove_duplicate_trees(trees, num_trees);
+       num_trees = remove_contained_trees(trees, num_trees);
 
-static const struct apply_operations normal_apply_operations = {
-       .apply_dentry = apply_dentry_normal,
-       .apply_dentry_timestamps = apply_dentry_timestamps_normal,
-};
+       ops = select_apply_operations(extract_flags);
 
-#ifdef WITH_NTFS_3G
-static const struct apply_operations ntfs_apply_operations = {
-       .apply_dentry = apply_dentry_ntfs,
-       .apply_dentry_timestamps = apply_dentry_timestamps_ntfs,
-};
-#endif
+       if (num_trees > 1 && ops->single_tree_only) {
+               ERROR("Extracting multiple directory trees "
+                     "at once is not supported in %s extraction mode!",
+                     ops->name);
+               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_UNSUPPORTED;
+               goto out;
+       }
 
-static int apply_stream_list(struct list_head *stream_list,
-                            struct apply_args *args,
-                            const struct apply_operations *ops,
-                            wimlib_progress_func_t progress_func)
-{
-       uint64_t bytes_per_progress = args->progress.extract.total_bytes / 100;
-       uint64_t next_progress = bytes_per_progress;
-       struct lookup_table_entry *lte;
-       struct inode *inode;
-       struct dentry *dentry;
-       int ret = 0;
-
-       /* This complicated loop is actually just looping through the dentries
-        * (as for_dentry_in_tree() does), but the outer loop is actually over
-        * the distinct streams to be extracted so that sequential reading of
-        * the WIM can be implemented. */
-
-       /* For each distinct stream to be extracted */
-       list_for_each_entry(lte, stream_list, staging_list) {
-               /* For each inode that contains the stream */
-               list_for_each_entry(inode, &lte->inode_list, lte_inode_list) {
-                       /* For each dentry that points to the inode */
-                       inode_for_each_dentry(dentry, inode) {
-                               ret = ops->apply_dentry(dentry, args);
-                               if (ret != 0)
-                                       goto out;
-                               if (args->progress.extract.completed_bytes >= next_progress
-                                   && args->progress.extract.total_bytes != 0)
-                               {
-                                       progress_func(WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_EXTRACT_STREAMS,
-                                                     &args->progress);
-                                       next_progress += bytes_per_progress;
-                               }
-                       }
+       ctx = CALLOC(1, ops->context_size);
+       if (!ctx) {
+               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+               goto out;
+       }
+
+       ctx->wim = wim;
+       ctx->target = target;
+       ctx->target_nchars = tstrlen(target);
+       ctx->extract_flags = extract_flags;
+       if (ctx->wim->progfunc) {
+               ctx->progfunc = ctx->wim->progfunc;
+               ctx->progctx = ctx->wim->progctx;
+               ctx->progress.extract.image = wim->current_image;
+               ctx->progress.extract.extract_flags = (extract_flags &
+                                                      WIMLIB_EXTRACT_MASK_PUBLIC);
+               ctx->progress.extract.wimfile_name = wim->filename;
+               ctx->progress.extract.image_name = wimlib_get_image_name(wim,
+                                                                        wim->current_image);
+               ctx->progress.extract.target = target;
+       }
+       INIT_LIST_HEAD(&ctx->stream_list);
+
+       ret = (*ops->get_supported_features)(target, &ctx->supported_features);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out_cleanup;
+
+       build_dentry_list(&dentry_list, trees, num_trees,
+                         !(extract_flags &
+                           WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_PRESERVE_DIR_STRUCTURE));
+
+       dentry_list_get_features(&dentry_list, &ctx->required_features);
+
+       ret = do_feature_check(&ctx->required_features, &ctx->supported_features,
+                              ctx->extract_flags);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out_cleanup;
+
+       ret = dentry_list_calculate_extraction_names(&dentry_list, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out_cleanup;
+
+       ret = dentry_list_resolve_streams(&dentry_list, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out_cleanup;
+
+       ret = dentry_list_ref_streams(&dentry_list, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out_cleanup;
+
+       dentry_list_build_inode_alias_lists(&dentry_list);
+
+       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_FROM_PIPE) {
+               /* When extracting from a pipe, the number of bytes of data to
+                * extract can't be determined in the normal way (examining the
+                * lookup table), since at this point all we have is a set of
+                * SHA1 message digests of streams that need to be extracted.
+                * However, we can get a reasonably accurate estimate by taking
+                * <TOTALBYTES> from the corresponding <IMAGE> in the WIM XML
+                * data.  This does assume that a full image is being extracted,
+                * but currently there is no API for doing otherwise.  (Also,
+                * subtract <HARDLINKBYTES> from this if hard links are
+                * supported by the extraction mode.)  */
+               ctx->progress.extract.total_bytes =
+                       wim_info_get_image_total_bytes(wim->wim_info,
+                                                      wim->current_image);
+               if (ctx->supported_features.hard_links) {
+                       ctx->progress.extract.total_bytes -=
+                               wim_info_get_image_hard_link_bytes(wim->wim_info,
+                                                                  wim->current_image);
                }
        }
+
+       ret = extract_progress(ctx,
+                              ((extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_IMAGEMODE) ?
+                                      WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_EXTRACT_IMAGE_BEGIN :
+                                      WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_EXTRACT_TREE_BEGIN));
+       if (ret)
+               goto out_cleanup;
+
+       ret = (*ops->extract)(&dentry_list, ctx);
+       if (ret)
+               goto out_cleanup;
+
+       if (ctx->progress.extract.completed_bytes <
+           ctx->progress.extract.total_bytes)
+       {
+               ctx->progress.extract.completed_bytes =
+                       ctx->progress.extract.total_bytes;
+               ret = extract_progress(ctx, WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_EXTRACT_STREAMS);
+               if (ret)
+                       goto out_cleanup;
+       }
+
+       ret = extract_progress(ctx,
+                              ((extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_IMAGEMODE) ?
+                                      WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_EXTRACT_IMAGE_END :
+                                      WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_EXTRACT_TREE_END));
+out_cleanup:
+       destroy_stream_list(&ctx->stream_list);
+       destroy_dentry_list(&dentry_list);
+       FREE(ctx);
 out:
        return ret;
 }
 
-static int extract_single_image(WIMStruct *w, int image,
-                               const char *target, int extract_flags,
-                               wimlib_progress_func_t progress_func)
+static int
+mkdir_if_needed(const tchar *target)
 {
-       int ret;
-       struct list_head stream_list;
-       struct hlist_head *inode_list;
+       struct stat stbuf;
+       if (tstat(target, &stbuf)) {
+               if (errno == ENOENT) {
+                       if (tmkdir(target, 0755)) {
+                               ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Failed to create directory "
+                                                "\"%"TS"\"", target);
+                               return WIMLIB_ERR_MKDIR;
+                       }
+               } else {
+                       ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Failed to stat \"%"TS"\"", target);
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_STAT;
+               }
+       } else if (!S_ISDIR(stbuf.st_mode)) {
+               ERROR("\"%"TS"\" is not a directory", target);
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOTDIR;
+       }
+       return 0;
+}
 
-       struct apply_args args;
-       const struct apply_operations *ops;
+/* Make sure the extraction flags make sense, and update them if needed.  */
+static int
+check_extract_flags(const WIMStruct *wim, int *extract_flags_p)
+{
+       int extract_flags = *extract_flags_p;
 
-       args.w                    = w;
-       args.target               = target;
-       args.extract_flags        = extract_flags;
-       args.num_lutimes_warnings = 0;
-       args.target               = target;
-       args.stream_list          = &stream_list;
-       args.progress_func        = progress_func;
+       /* Check for invalid flag combinations  */
 
-       if (progress_func) {
-               args.progress.extract.image      = image;
-               args.progress.extract.image_name = wimlib_get_image_name(w, image);
-               args.progress.extract.target     = target;
-       }
+       if ((extract_flags &
+            (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_ACLS |
+             WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS)) == (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_ACLS |
+                                                   WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_ACLS))
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_PARAM;
 
-#ifdef WITH_NTFS_3G
+       if ((extract_flags &
+            (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_RPFIX |
+             WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NORPFIX)) == (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_RPFIX |
+                                               WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NORPFIX))
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_PARAM;
+
+#ifndef WITH_NTFS_3G
        if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NTFS) {
-               args.vol = ntfs_mount(target, 0);
-               if (!args.vol) {
-                       ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Failed to mount NTFS volume `%s'", target);
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_NTFS_3G;
-               }
-               ops = &ntfs_apply_operations;
-       } else
+               ERROR("wimlib was compiled without support for NTFS-3g, so\n"
+                     "        it cannot apply a WIM image directly to an NTFS volume.");
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_UNSUPPORTED;
+       }
 #endif
-               ops = &normal_apply_operations;
 
-       ret = select_wim_image(w, image);
-       if (ret != 0)
-               goto out;
+#ifndef __WIN32__
+       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_WIMBOOT) {
+               ERROR("WIMBoot extraction is only supported on Windows!");
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_UNSUPPORTED;
+       }
+#endif
 
-       inode_list = &w->image_metadata[image - 1].inode_list;
+       if ((extract_flags & (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_RPFIX |
+                             WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NORPFIX |
+                             WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_IMAGEMODE)) ==
+                                       WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_IMAGEMODE)
+       {
+               /* For full-image extraction, do reparse point fixups by default
+                * if the WIM header says they are enabled.  */
+               if (wim->hdr.flags & WIM_HDR_FLAG_RP_FIX)
+                       extract_flags |= WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_RPFIX;
+       }
 
-       find_streams_for_extraction(inode_list, &stream_list,
-                                   w->lookup_table, extract_flags);
+       *extract_flags_p = extract_flags;
+       return 0;
+}
 
-       calculate_bytes_to_extract(&stream_list, extract_flags,
-                                  &args.progress);
+static u32
+get_wildcard_flags(int extract_flags)
+{
+       u32 wildcard_flags = 0;
 
-       if (progress_func) {
-               progress_func(WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_EXTRACT_IMAGE_BEGIN,
-                             &args.progress);
-       }
+       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_STRICT_GLOB)
+               wildcard_flags |= WILDCARD_FLAG_ERROR_IF_NO_MATCH;
+       else
+               wildcard_flags |= WILDCARD_FLAG_WARN_IF_NO_MATCH;
 
-       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_SEQUENTIAL) {
-               ret = sort_stream_list_by_wim_position(&stream_list);
-               if (ret != 0) {
-                       WARNING("Falling back to non-sequential extraction");
-                       extract_flags &= ~WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_SEQUENTIAL;
-               }
-       }
+       if (default_ignore_case)
+               wildcard_flags |= WILDCARD_FLAG_CASE_INSENSITIVE;
 
-       if (progress_func) {
-               progress_func(WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_EXTRACT_DIR_STRUCTURE_BEGIN,
-                             &args.progress);
-       }
+       return wildcard_flags;
+}
 
-       args.extract_flags |= WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_STREAMS;
-       ret = for_dentry_in_tree(wim_root_dentry(w), ops->apply_dentry, &args);
-       args.extract_flags &= ~WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_STREAMS;
-       if (ret != 0)
-               goto out;
+struct append_dentry_ctx {
+       struct wim_dentry **dentries;
+       size_t num_dentries;
+       size_t num_alloc_dentries;
+};
 
-       if (progress_func) {
-               progress_func(WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_EXTRACT_DIR_STRUCTURE_END,
-                             &args.progress);
+static int
+append_dentry_cb(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *_ctx)
+{
+       struct append_dentry_ctx *ctx = _ctx;
+
+       if (ctx->num_dentries == ctx->num_alloc_dentries) {
+               struct wim_dentry **new_dentries;
+               size_t new_length;
+
+               new_length = max(ctx->num_alloc_dentries + 8,
+                                ctx->num_alloc_dentries * 3 / 2);
+               new_dentries = REALLOC(ctx->dentries,
+                                      new_length * sizeof(ctx->dentries[0]));
+               if (new_dentries == NULL)
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+               ctx->dentries = new_dentries;
+               ctx->num_alloc_dentries = new_length;
        }
+       ctx->dentries[ctx->num_dentries++] = dentry;
+       return 0;
+}
 
-       ret = apply_stream_list(&stream_list, &args, ops, progress_func);
-       if (ret != 0)
-               goto out;
+static int
+do_wimlib_extract_paths(WIMStruct *wim, int image, const tchar *target,
+                       const tchar * const *paths, size_t num_paths,
+                       int extract_flags)
+{
+       int ret;
+       struct wim_dentry **trees;
+       size_t num_trees;
 
-       if (progress_func)
-               progress_func(WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_APPLY_TIMESTAMPS, NULL);
+       if (wim == NULL || target == NULL || target[0] == T('\0') ||
+           (num_paths != 0 && paths == NULL))
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_PARAM;
 
-       ret = for_dentry_in_tree_depth(wim_root_dentry(w),
-                                      ops->apply_dentry_timestamps, &args);
-       if (ret != 0)
-               goto out;
+       ret = check_extract_flags(wim, &extract_flags);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
+
+       ret = select_wim_image(wim, image);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
 
-       if (progress_func) {
-               progress_func(WIMLIB_PROGRESS_MSG_EXTRACT_IMAGE_END,
-                             &args.progress);
+       ret = wim_checksum_unhashed_streams(wim);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
+
+       if ((extract_flags & (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NTFS |
+                             WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_PRESERVE_DIR_STRUCTURE)) ==
+           (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_PRESERVE_DIR_STRUCTURE))
+       {
+               ret = mkdir_if_needed(target);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
        }
-out:
-#ifdef WITH_NTFS_3G
-       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NTFS) {
-               if (ntfs_umount(args.vol, FALSE) != 0) {
-                       ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Failed to unmount NTFS volume `%s'", args.target);
-                       if (ret == 0)
-                               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_NTFS_3G;
+
+       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_GLOB_PATHS) {
+
+               struct append_dentry_ctx append_dentry_ctx = {
+                       .dentries = NULL,
+                       .num_dentries = 0,
+                       .num_alloc_dentries = 0,
+               };
+
+               u32 wildcard_flags = get_wildcard_flags(extract_flags);
+
+               for (size_t i = 0; i < num_paths; i++) {
+                       tchar *path = canonicalize_wim_path(paths[i]);
+                       if (path == NULL) {
+                               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+                               trees = append_dentry_ctx.dentries;
+                               goto out_free_trees;
+                       }
+                       ret = expand_wildcard(wim, path,
+                                             append_dentry_cb,
+                                             &append_dentry_ctx,
+                                             wildcard_flags);
+                       FREE(path);
+                       if (ret) {
+                               trees = append_dentry_ctx.dentries;
+                               goto out_free_trees;
+                       }
+               }
+               trees = append_dentry_ctx.dentries;
+               num_trees = append_dentry_ctx.num_dentries;
+       } else {
+               trees = MALLOC(num_paths * sizeof(trees[0]));
+               if (trees == NULL)
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+
+               for (size_t i = 0; i < num_paths; i++) {
+
+                       tchar *path = canonicalize_wim_path(paths[i]);
+                       if (path == NULL) {
+                               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+                               goto out_free_trees;
+                       }
+
+                       trees[i] = get_dentry(wim, path,
+                                             WIMLIB_CASE_PLATFORM_DEFAULT);
+                       FREE(path);
+                       if (trees[i] == NULL) {
+                                 ERROR("Path \"%"TS"\" does not exist "
+                                       "in WIM image %d",
+                                       paths[i], wim->current_image);
+                                 ret = WIMLIB_ERR_PATH_DOES_NOT_EXIST;
+                                 goto out_free_trees;
+                       }
                }
+               num_trees = num_paths;
        }
-#endif
+
+       if (num_trees == 0) {
+               ret = 0;
+               goto out_free_trees;
+       }
+
+       ret = extract_trees(wim, trees, num_trees, target, extract_flags);
+out_free_trees:
+       FREE(trees);
        return ret;
 }
 
+static int
+extract_single_image(WIMStruct *wim, int image,
+                    const tchar *target, int extract_flags)
+{
+       const tchar *path = WIMLIB_WIM_ROOT_PATH;
+       extract_flags |= WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_IMAGEMODE;
+       return do_wimlib_extract_paths(wim, image, target, &path, 1, extract_flags);
+}
 
-/* Extracts all images from the WIM to @output_dir, with the images placed in
- * subdirectories named by their image names. */
-static int extract_all_images(WIMStruct *w, const char *target,
-                             int extract_flags,
-                             wimlib_progress_func_t progress_func)
+static const tchar * const filename_forbidden_chars =
+T(
+#ifdef __WIN32__
+"<>:\"/\\|?*"
+#else
+"/"
+#endif
+);
+
+/* This function checks if it is okay to use a WIM image's name as a directory
+ * name.  */
+static bool
+image_name_ok_as_dir(const tchar *image_name)
+{
+       return image_name && *image_name &&
+               !tstrpbrk(image_name, filename_forbidden_chars) &&
+               tstrcmp(image_name, T(".")) &&
+               tstrcmp(image_name, T(".."));
+}
+
+/* Extracts all images from the WIM to the directory @target, with the images
+ * placed in subdirectories named by their image names. */
+static int
+extract_all_images(WIMStruct *wim, const tchar *target, int extract_flags)
 {
-       size_t image_name_max_len = max(xml_get_max_image_name_len(w), 20);
-       size_t output_path_len = strlen(target);
-       char buf[output_path_len + 1 + image_name_max_len + 1];
+       size_t image_name_max_len = max(xml_get_max_image_name_len(wim), 20);
+       size_t output_path_len = tstrlen(target);
+       tchar buf[output_path_len + 1 + image_name_max_len + 1];
        int ret;
        int image;
-       const char *image_name;
+       const tchar *image_name;
 
-       ret = extract_directory(target, true);
-       if (ret != 0)
-               return ret;
+       extract_flags |= WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_MULTI_IMAGE;
+
+       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NTFS) {
+               ERROR("Cannot extract multiple images in NTFS extraction mode.");
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_PARAM;
+       }
 
-       memcpy(buf, target, output_path_len);
-       buf[output_path_len] = '/';
-       for (image = 1; image <= w->hdr.image_count; image++) {
-               image_name = wimlib_get_image_name(w, image);
-               if (image_name && *image_name) {
-                       strcpy(buf + output_path_len + 1, image_name);
+       ret = mkdir_if_needed(target);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
+       tmemcpy(buf, target, output_path_len);
+       buf[output_path_len] = OS_PREFERRED_PATH_SEPARATOR;
+       for (image = 1; image <= wim->hdr.image_count; image++) {
+               image_name = wimlib_get_image_name(wim, image);
+               if (image_name_ok_as_dir(image_name)) {
+                       tstrcpy(buf + output_path_len + 1, image_name);
                } else {
-                       /* Image name is empty. Use image number instead */
-                       sprintf(buf + output_path_len + 1, "%d", image);
+                       /* Image name is empty or contains forbidden characters.
+                        * Use image number instead. */
+                       tsprintf(buf + output_path_len + 1, T("%d"), image);
                }
-               ret = extract_single_image(w, image, buf, extract_flags,
-                                          progress_func);
-               if (ret != 0)
+               ret = extract_single_image(wim, image, buf, extract_flags);
+               if (ret)
                        return ret;
        }
        return 0;
 }
 
-/* Extracts a single image or all images from a WIM file. */
-WIMLIBAPI int wimlib_extract_image(WIMStruct *w, int image,
-                                  const char *target,
-                                  int extract_flags,
-                                  WIMStruct **additional_swms,
-                                  unsigned num_additional_swms,
-                                  wimlib_progress_func_t progress_func)
+static int
+do_wimlib_extract_image(WIMStruct *wim, int image, const tchar *target,
+                       int extract_flags)
 {
-       struct lookup_table *joined_tab, *w_tab_save;
-       int ret;
-
-       if (!w || !target)
+       if (extract_flags & (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NO_PRESERVE_DIR_STRUCTURE |
+                            WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_TO_STDOUT |
+                            WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_GLOB_PATHS))
                return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_PARAM;
 
-       extract_flags &= WIMLIB_EXTRACT_MASK_PUBLIC;
+       if (image == WIMLIB_ALL_IMAGES)
+               return extract_all_images(wim, target, extract_flags);
+       else
+               return extract_single_image(wim, image, target, extract_flags);
+}
 
-       if ((extract_flags & (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_SYMLINK | WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_HARDLINK))
-                       == (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_SYMLINK | WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_HARDLINK))
+
+/****************************************************************************
+ *                          Extraction API                                  *
+ ****************************************************************************/
+
+WIMLIBAPI int
+wimlib_extract_paths(WIMStruct *wim, int image, const tchar *target,
+                    const tchar * const *paths, size_t num_paths,
+                    int extract_flags)
+{
+       if (extract_flags & ~WIMLIB_EXTRACT_MASK_PUBLIC)
                return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_PARAM;
 
-       if (extract_flags & WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_NTFS) {
-#ifdef WITH_NTFS_3G
-               if ((extract_flags & (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_SYMLINK | WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_HARDLINK))) {
-                       ERROR("Cannot specify symlink or hardlink flags when applying\n"
-                             "        directly to a NTFS volume");
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_PARAM;
-               }
-               if (image == WIMLIB_ALL_IMAGES) {
-                       ERROR("Can only apply a single image when applying "
-                             "directly to a NTFS volume");
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_PARAM;
-               }
-#else
-               ERROR("wimlib was compiled without support for NTFS-3g, so");
-               ERROR("we cannot apply a WIM image directly to a NTFS volume");
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_UNSUPPORTED;
-#endif
+       return do_wimlib_extract_paths(wim, image, target, paths, num_paths,
+                                      extract_flags);
+}
+
+WIMLIBAPI int
+wimlib_extract_pathlist(WIMStruct *wim, int image, const tchar *target,
+                       const tchar *path_list_file, int extract_flags)
+{
+       int ret;
+       tchar **paths;
+       size_t num_paths;
+       void *mem;
+
+       ret = read_path_list_file(path_list_file, &paths, &num_paths, &mem);
+       if (ret) {
+               ERROR("Failed to read path list file \"%"TS"\"",
+                     path_list_file);
+               return ret;
        }
 
-       ret = verify_swm_set(w, additional_swms, num_additional_swms);
-       if (ret != 0)
+       ret = wimlib_extract_paths(wim, image, target,
+                                  (const tchar * const *)paths, num_paths,
+                                  extract_flags);
+       FREE(paths);
+       FREE(mem);
+       return ret;
+}
+
+WIMLIBAPI int
+wimlib_extract_image_from_pipe_with_progress(int pipe_fd,
+                                            const tchar *image_num_or_name,
+                                            const tchar *target,
+                                            int extract_flags,
+                                            wimlib_progress_func_t progfunc,
+                                            void *progctx)
+{
+       int ret;
+       WIMStruct *pwm;
+       struct filedes *in_fd;
+       int image;
+       unsigned i;
+
+       if (extract_flags & ~WIMLIB_EXTRACT_MASK_PUBLIC)
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_PARAM;
+
+       /* Read the WIM header from the pipe and get a WIMStruct to represent
+        * the pipable WIM.  Caveats:  Unlike getting a WIMStruct with
+        * wimlib_open_wim(), getting a WIMStruct in this way will result in
+        * an empty lookup table, no XML data read, and no filename set.  */
+       ret = open_wim_as_WIMStruct(&pipe_fd, WIMLIB_OPEN_FLAG_FROM_PIPE, &pwm,
+                                   progfunc, progctx);
+       if (ret)
                return ret;
 
-       if (num_additional_swms) {
-               ret = new_joined_lookup_table(w, additional_swms,
-                                             num_additional_swms, &joined_tab);
-               if (ret != 0)
-                       return ret;
-               w_tab_save = w->lookup_table;
-               w->lookup_table = joined_tab;
+       /* Sanity check to make sure this is a pipable WIM.  */
+       if (pwm->hdr.magic != PWM_MAGIC) {
+               ERROR("The WIM being read from file descriptor %d "
+                     "is not pipable!", pipe_fd);
+               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_NOT_PIPABLE;
+               goto out_wimlib_free;
        }
 
-       if (image == WIMLIB_ALL_IMAGES) {
-               extract_flags |= WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_MULTI_IMAGE;
-               ret = extract_all_images(w, target, extract_flags,
-                                        progress_func);
-       } else {
-               extract_flags &= ~WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_MULTI_IMAGE;
-               ret = extract_single_image(w, image, target, extract_flags,
-                                          progress_func);
+       /* Sanity check to make sure the first part of a pipable split WIM is
+        * sent over the pipe first.  */
+       if (pwm->hdr.part_number != 1) {
+               ERROR("The first part of the split WIM must be "
+                     "sent over the pipe first.");
+               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_PIPABLE_WIM;
+               goto out_wimlib_free;
        }
 
-       if (extract_flags & (WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_SYMLINK |
-                            WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_HARDLINK))
+       in_fd = &pwm->in_fd;
+       wimlib_assert(in_fd->offset == WIM_HEADER_DISK_SIZE);
+
+       /* As mentioned, the WIMStruct we created from the pipe does not have
+        * XML data yet.  Fix this by reading the extra copy of the XML data
+        * that directly follows the header in pipable WIMs.  (Note: see
+        * write_pipable_wim() for more details about the format of pipable
+        * WIMs.)  */
        {
-               for_lookup_table_entry(w->lookup_table,
-                                      lte_free_extracted_file,
-                                      NULL);
+               struct wim_lookup_table_entry xml_lte;
+               struct wim_resource_spec xml_rspec;
+               ret = read_pwm_stream_header(pwm, &xml_lte, &xml_rspec, 0, NULL);
+               if (ret)
+                       goto out_wimlib_free;
+
+               if (!(xml_lte.flags & WIM_RESHDR_FLAG_METADATA))
+               {
+                       ERROR("Expected XML data, but found non-metadata "
+                             "stream.");
+                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_PIPABLE_WIM;
+                       goto out_wimlib_free;
+               }
+
+               wim_res_spec_to_hdr(&xml_rspec, &pwm->hdr.xml_data_reshdr);
+
+               ret = read_wim_xml_data(pwm);
+               if (ret)
+                       goto out_wimlib_free;
+
+               if (wim_info_get_num_images(pwm->wim_info) != pwm->hdr.image_count) {
+                       ERROR("Image count in XML data is not the same as in WIM header.");
+                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_IMAGE_COUNT;
+                       goto out_wimlib_free;
+               }
+       }
+
+       /* Get image index (this may use the XML data that was just read to
+        * resolve an image name).  */
+       if (image_num_or_name) {
+               image = wimlib_resolve_image(pwm, image_num_or_name);
+               if (image == WIMLIB_NO_IMAGE) {
+                       ERROR("\"%"TS"\" is not a valid image in the pipable WIM!",
+                             image_num_or_name);
+                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_IMAGE;
+                       goto out_wimlib_free;
+               } else if (image == WIMLIB_ALL_IMAGES) {
+                       ERROR("Applying all images from a pipe is not supported!");
+                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_IMAGE;
+                       goto out_wimlib_free;
+               }
+       } else {
+               if (pwm->hdr.image_count != 1) {
+                       ERROR("No image was specified, but the pipable WIM "
+                             "did not contain exactly 1 image");
+                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_IMAGE;
+                       goto out_wimlib_free;
+               }
+               image = 1;
        }
 
-       if (num_additional_swms) {
-               free_lookup_table(w->lookup_table);
-               w->lookup_table = w_tab_save;
+       /* Load the needed metadata resource.  */
+       for (i = 1; i <= pwm->hdr.image_count; i++) {
+               struct wim_lookup_table_entry *metadata_lte;
+               struct wim_image_metadata *imd;
+               struct wim_resource_spec *metadata_rspec;
+
+               metadata_lte = new_lookup_table_entry();
+               if (metadata_lte == NULL) {
+                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+                       goto out_wimlib_free;
+               }
+               metadata_rspec = MALLOC(sizeof(struct wim_resource_spec));
+               if (metadata_rspec == NULL) {
+                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+                       free_lookup_table_entry(metadata_lte);
+                       goto out_wimlib_free;
+               }
+
+               ret = read_pwm_stream_header(pwm, metadata_lte, metadata_rspec, 0, NULL);
+               imd = pwm->image_metadata[i - 1];
+               imd->metadata_lte = metadata_lte;
+               if (ret) {
+                       FREE(metadata_rspec);
+                       goto out_wimlib_free;
+               }
+
+               if (!(metadata_lte->flags & WIM_RESHDR_FLAG_METADATA)) {
+                       ERROR("Expected metadata resource, but found "
+                             "non-metadata stream.");
+                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_PIPABLE_WIM;
+                       goto out_wimlib_free;
+               }
+
+               if (i == image) {
+                       /* Metadata resource is for the image being extracted.
+                        * Parse it and save the metadata in memory.  */
+                       ret = read_metadata_resource(pwm, imd);
+                       if (ret)
+                               goto out_wimlib_free;
+                       imd->modified = 1;
+               } else {
+                       /* Metadata resource is not for the image being
+                        * extracted.  Skip over it.  */
+                       ret = skip_wim_stream(metadata_lte);
+                       if (ret)
+                               goto out_wimlib_free;
+               }
        }
+       /* Extract the image.  */
+       extract_flags |= WIMLIB_EXTRACT_FLAG_FROM_PIPE;
+       ret = do_wimlib_extract_image(pwm, image, target, extract_flags);
+       /* Clean up and return.  */
+out_wimlib_free:
+       wimlib_free(pwm);
        return ret;
 }
+
+
+WIMLIBAPI int
+wimlib_extract_image_from_pipe(int pipe_fd, const tchar *image_num_or_name,
+                              const tchar *target, int extract_flags)
+{
+       return wimlib_extract_image_from_pipe_with_progress(pipe_fd,
+                                                           image_num_or_name,
+                                                           target,
+                                                           extract_flags,
+                                                           NULL,
+                                                           NULL);
+}
+
+WIMLIBAPI int
+wimlib_extract_image(WIMStruct *wim, int image, const tchar *target,
+                    int extract_flags)
+{
+       if (extract_flags & ~WIMLIB_EXTRACT_MASK_PUBLIC)
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_PARAM;
+       return do_wimlib_extract_image(wim, image, target, extract_flags);
+}