Remove dentry_get_file_type_string()
[wimlib] / src / dentry.c
index f986f9d..a909346 100644 (file)
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
  */
 
 /*
- * Copyright (C) 2012, 2013 Eric Biggers
+ * Copyright (C) 2012, 2013, 2014 Eric Biggers
  *
  * This file is part of wimlib, a library for working with WIM files.
  *
 #endif
 
 #include "wimlib.h"
+#include "wimlib/case.h"
 #include "wimlib/dentry.h"
 #include "wimlib/encoding.h"
 #include "wimlib/endianness.h"
 #include "wimlib/error.h"
 #include "wimlib/lookup_table.h"
 #include "wimlib/metadata.h"
+#include "wimlib/paths.h"
 #include "wimlib/resource.h"
+#include "wimlib/security.h"
 #include "wimlib/sha1.h"
 #include "wimlib/timestamp.h"
 
 #include <errno.h>
 
-/* WIM alternate data stream entry (on-disk format) */
-struct wim_ads_entry_on_disk {
-       /*  Length of the entry, in bytes.  This apparently includes all
-        *  fixed-length fields, plus the stream name and null terminator if
-        *  present, and the padding up to an 8 byte boundary.  wimlib is a
-        *  little less strict when reading the entries, and only requires that
-        *  the number of bytes from this field is at least as large as the size
-        *  of the fixed length fields and stream name without null terminator.
-        *  */
-       le64  length;
-
-       le64  reserved;
-
-       /* SHA1 message digest of the uncompressed stream; or, alternatively,
-        * can be all zeroes if the stream has zero length. */
-       u8 hash[SHA1_HASH_SIZE];
-
-       /* Length of the stream name, in bytes.  0 if the stream is unnamed.  */
-       le16 stream_name_nbytes;
-
-       /* Stream name in UTF-16LE.  It is @stream_name_nbytes bytes long,
-        * excluding the the null terminator.  There is a null terminator
-        * character if @stream_name_nbytes != 0; i.e., if this stream is named.
-        * */
-       utf16lechar stream_name[];
-} _packed_attribute;
-
-#define WIM_ADS_ENTRY_DISK_SIZE 38
-
-/* WIM directory entry (on-disk format) */
+/* On-disk format of a WIM dentry (directory entry), located in the metadata
+ * resource for a WIM image.  */
 struct wim_dentry_on_disk {
+
+       /* Length of this directory entry in bytes, not including any alternate
+        * data stream entries.  Should be a multiple of 8 so that the following
+        * dentry or alternate data stream entry is aligned on an 8-byte
+        * boundary.  (If not, wimlib will round it up.)  It must be at least as
+        * long as the fixed-length fields of the dentry (WIM_DENTRY_DISK_SIZE),
+        * plus the lengths of the file name and/or short name if present.
+        *
+        * It is also possible for this field to be 0.  This situation, which is
+        * undocumented, indicates the end of a list of sibling nodes in a
+        * directory.  It also means the real length is 8, because the dentry
+        * included only the length field, but that takes up 8 bytes.  */
        le64 length;
+
+       /* Attributes of the file or directory.  This is a bitwise OR of the
+        * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_* constants and should correspond to the value
+        * retrieved by GetFileAttributes() on Windows. */
        le32 attributes;
+
+       /* A value that specifies the security descriptor for this file or
+        * directory.  If -1, the file or directory has no security descriptor.
+        * Otherwise, it is a 0-based index into the WIM image's table of
+        * security descriptors (see: `struct wim_security_data') */
        sle32 security_id;
+
+       /* Offset, in bytes, from the start of the uncompressed metadata
+        * resource of this directory's child directory entries, or 0 if this
+        * directory entry does not correspond to a directory or otherwise does
+        * not have any children. */
        le64 subdir_offset;
+
+       /* Reserved fields */
        le64 unused_1;
        le64 unused_2;
+
+
+       /* Creation time, last access time, and last write time, in
+        * 100-nanosecond intervals since 12:00 a.m UTC January 1, 1601.  They
+        * should correspond to the times gotten by calling GetFileTime() on
+        * Windows. */
        le64 creation_time;
        le64 last_access_time;
        le64 last_write_time;
+
+       /* Vaguely, the SHA-1 message digest ("hash") of the file's contents.
+        * More specifically, this is for the "unnamed data stream" rather than
+        * any "alternate data streams".  This hash value is used to look up the
+        * corresponding entry in the WIM's stream lookup table to actually find
+        * the file contents within the WIM.
+        *
+        * If the file has no unnamed data stream (e.g. is a directory), then
+        * this field will be all zeroes.  If the unnamed data stream is empty
+        * (i.e. an "empty file"), then this field is also expected to be all
+        * zeroes.  (It will be if wimlib created the WIM image, at least;
+        * otherwise it can't be ruled out that the SHA-1 message digest of 0
+        * bytes of data is given explicitly.)
+        *
+        * If the file has reparse data, then this field will instead specify
+        * the SHA-1 message digest of the reparse data.  If it is somehow
+        * possible for a file to have both an unnamed data stream and reparse
+        * data, then this is not handled by wimlib.
+        *
+        * As a further special case, if this field is all zeroes but there is
+        * an alternate data stream entry with no name and a nonzero SHA-1
+        * message digest field, then that hash must be used instead of this
+        * one.  In fact, when named data streams are present, some versions of
+        * Windows PE contain a bug where they only look in the alternate data
+        * stream entries for the unnamed data stream, not here.
+        */
        u8 unnamed_stream_hash[SHA1_HASH_SIZE];
+
+       /* The format of the following data is not yet completely known and they
+        * do not correspond to Microsoft's documentation.
+        *
+        * If this directory entry is for a reparse point (has
+        * FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT set in the attributes field), then the
+        * version of the following fields containing the reparse tag is valid.
+        * Furthermore, the field notated as not_rpfixed, as far as I can tell,
+        * is supposed to be set to 1 if reparse point fixups (a.k.a. fixing the
+        * targets of absolute symbolic links) were *not* done, and otherwise 0.
+        *
+        * If this directory entry is not for a reparse point, then the version
+        * of the following fields containing the hard_link_group_id is valid.
+        * All MS says about this field is that "If this file is part of a hard
+        * link set, all the directory entries in the set will share the same
+        * value in this field.".  However, more specifically I have observed
+        * the following:
+        *    - If the file is part of a hard link set of size 1, then the
+        *    hard_link_group_id should be set to either 0, which is treated
+        *    specially as indicating "not hardlinked", or any unique value.
+        *    - The specific nonzero values used to identity hard link sets do
+        *    not matter, as long as they are unique.
+        *    - However, due to bugs in Microsoft's software, it is actually NOT
+        *    guaranteed that directory entries that share the same hard link
+        *    group ID are actually hard linked to each either.  We have to
+        *    handle this by using special code to use distinguishing features
+        *    (which is possible because some information about the underlying
+        *    inode is repeated in each dentry) to split up these fake hard link
+        *    groups into what they actually are supposed to be.
+        */
        union {
                struct {
                        le32 rp_unknown_1;
@@ -96,24 +161,36 @@ struct wim_dentry_on_disk {
                        le64 hard_link_group_id;
                } _packed_attribute nonreparse;
        };
+
+       /* Number of alternate data stream entries that directly follow this
+        * dentry on-disk. */
        le16 num_alternate_data_streams;
+
+       /* Length of this file's UTF-16LE encoded short name (8.3 DOS-compatible
+        * name), if present, in bytes, excluding the null terminator.  If this
+        * file has no short name, then this field should be 0.  */
        le16 short_name_nbytes;
+
+       /* Length of this file's UTF-16LE encoded "long" name, excluding the
+        * null terminator.  If this file has no short name, then this field
+        * should be 0.  It's expected that only the root dentry has this field
+        * set to 0.  */
        le16 file_name_nbytes;
 
-       /* Follewed by variable length file name, if file_name_nbytes != 0 */
-       utf16lechar file_name[];
+       /* Followed by variable length file name, in UTF16-LE, if
+        * file_name_nbytes != 0.  Includes null terminator. */
+       /*utf16lechar file_name[];*/
 
-       /* Followed by variable length short name, if short_name_nbytes != 0 */
+       /* Followed by variable length short name, in UTF16-LE, if
+        * short_name_nbytes != 0.  Includes null terminator. */
        /*utf16lechar short_name[];*/
 } _packed_attribute;
 
-#define WIM_DENTRY_DISK_SIZE 102
-
 /* Calculates the unaligned length, in bytes, of an on-disk WIM dentry that has
  * a file name and short name that take the specified numbers of bytes.  This
  * excludes any alternate data stream entries that may follow the dentry. */
 static u64
-_dentry_correct_length_unaligned(u16 file_name_nbytes, u16 short_name_nbytes)
+dentry_correct_length_unaligned(u16 file_name_nbytes, u16 short_name_nbytes)
 {
        u64 length = sizeof(struct wim_dentry_on_disk);
        if (file_name_nbytes)
@@ -128,75 +205,69 @@ _dentry_correct_length_unaligned(u16 file_name_nbytes, u16 short_name_nbytes)
  * ignored; also, this excludes any alternate data stream entries that may
  * follow the dentry. */
 static u64
-dentry_correct_length_unaligned(const struct wim_dentry *dentry)
+dentry_correct_length_aligned(const struct wim_dentry *dentry)
 {
-       return _dentry_correct_length_unaligned(dentry->file_name_nbytes,
-                                               dentry->short_name_nbytes);
+       u64 len;
+
+       len = dentry_correct_length_unaligned(dentry->file_name_nbytes,
+                                             dentry->short_name_nbytes);
+       return (len + 7) & ~7;
 }
 
-/* Return %true iff the alternate data stream entry @entry has the UTF-16LE
- * stream name @name that has length @name_nbytes bytes. */
-static inline bool
-ads_entry_has_name(const struct wim_ads_entry *entry,
-                  const utf16lechar *name, size_t name_nbytes)
+static int
+dentry_clear_short_name(struct wim_dentry *dentry)
 {
-       return entry->stream_name_nbytes == name_nbytes &&
-              memcmp(entry->stream_name, name, name_nbytes) == 0;
+       if (dentry_has_short_name(dentry)) {
+               FREE(dentry->short_name);
+               dentry->short_name = NULL;
+               dentry->short_name_nbytes = 0;
+       }
+       return 0;
 }
 
-/* Duplicates a string of system-dependent encoding into a UTF-16LE string and
- * returns the string and its length, in bytes, in the pointer arguments.  Frees
- * any existing string at the return location before overwriting it. */
-static int
-get_utf16le_name(const tchar *name, utf16lechar **name_utf16le_ret,
-                u16 *name_utf16le_nbytes_ret)
+/* Sets the name of a WIM dentry from a multibyte string.
+ * Only use this on dentries not inserted into the tree.  Use rename_wim_path()
+ * to do a real rename.  */
+int
+dentry_set_name(struct wim_dentry *dentry, const tchar *new_name)
 {
-       utf16lechar *name_utf16le;
-       size_t name_utf16le_nbytes;
        int ret;
-#if TCHAR_IS_UTF16LE
-       name_utf16le_nbytes = tstrlen(name) * sizeof(utf16lechar);
-       name_utf16le = MALLOC(name_utf16le_nbytes + sizeof(utf16lechar));
-       if (!name_utf16le)
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
-       memcpy(name_utf16le, name, name_utf16le_nbytes + sizeof(utf16lechar));
-       ret = 0;
-#else
 
-       ret = tstr_to_utf16le(name, tstrlen(name), &name_utf16le,
-                             &name_utf16le_nbytes);
-       if (ret == 0) {
-               if (name_utf16le_nbytes > 0xffff) {
-                       FREE(name_utf16le);
-                       ERROR("Multibyte string \"%"TS"\" is too long!", name);
-                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_UTF8_STRING;
-               }
-       }
-#endif
-       if (ret == 0) {
-               FREE(*name_utf16le_ret);
-               *name_utf16le_ret = name_utf16le;
-               *name_utf16le_nbytes_ret = name_utf16le_nbytes;
-       }
-       return ret;
+       ret = get_utf16le_string(new_name, &dentry->file_name,
+                                &dentry->file_name_nbytes);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
+
+       return dentry_clear_short_name(dentry);
 }
 
-/* Sets the name of a WIM dentry from a multibyte string. */
+/* Sets the name of a WIM dentry from a UTF-16LE string.
+ * Only use this on dentries not inserted into the tree.  Use rename_wim_path()
+ * to do a real rename.  */
 int
-set_dentry_name(struct wim_dentry *dentry, const tchar *new_name)
+dentry_set_name_utf16le(struct wim_dentry *dentry, const utf16lechar *new_name)
 {
-       int ret;
-       ret = get_utf16le_name(new_name, &dentry->file_name,
-                              &dentry->file_name_nbytes);
-       if (ret == 0) {
-               /* Clear the short name and recalculate the dentry length */
-               if (dentry_has_short_name(dentry)) {
-                       FREE(dentry->short_name);
-                       dentry->short_name = NULL;
-                       dentry->short_name_nbytes = 0;
-               }
+       utf16lechar *name = NULL;
+       size_t name_nbytes = 0;
+
+       if (new_name && *new_name) {
+               const utf16lechar *tmp;
+
+               tmp = new_name;
+               do {
+                       name_nbytes += sizeof(utf16lechar);
+               } while (*++tmp);
+
+               name = memdup(new_name, name_nbytes + sizeof(utf16lechar));
+               if (!name)
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
        }
-       return ret;
+
+       FREE(dentry->file_name);
+       dentry->file_name = name;
+       dentry->file_name_nbytes = name_nbytes;
+
+       return dentry_clear_short_name(dentry);
 }
 
 /* Returns the total length of a WIM alternate data stream entry on-disk,
@@ -211,102 +282,94 @@ ads_entry_total_length(const struct wim_ads_entry *entry)
        return (len + 7) & ~7;
 }
 
+/*
+ * Determine whether to include a "dummy" stream when writing a WIM dentry:
+ *
+ * Some versions of Microsoft's WIM software (the boot driver(s) in WinPE 3.0,
+ * for example) contain a bug where they assume the first alternate data stream
+ * (ADS) entry of a dentry with a nonzero ADS count specifies the unnamed
+ * stream, even if it has a name and the unnamed stream is already specified in
+ * the hash field of the dentry itself.
+ *
+ * wimlib has to work around this behavior by carefully emulating the behavior
+ * of (most versions of) ImageX/WIMGAPI, which move the unnamed stream reference
+ * into the alternate stream entries whenever there are named data streams, even
+ * though there is already a field in the dentry itself for the unnamed stream
+ * reference, which then goes to waste.
+ */
+static inline bool
+inode_needs_dummy_stream(const struct wim_inode *inode)
+{
+       return (inode->i_num_ads > 0 &&
+               inode->i_num_ads < 0xffff && /* overflow check */
+               inode->i_canonical_streams); /* assume the dentry is okay if it
+                                               already had an unnamed ADS entry
+                                               when it was read in  */
+}
 
-static u64
-_dentry_total_length(const struct wim_dentry *dentry, u64 length)
+/* Calculate the total number of bytes that will be consumed when a WIM dentry
+ * is written.  This includes base dentry and name fields as well as all
+ * alternate data stream entries and alignment bytes.  */
+u64
+dentry_out_total_length(const struct wim_dentry *dentry)
 {
+       u64 length = dentry_correct_length_aligned(dentry);
        const struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+
+       if (inode_needs_dummy_stream(inode))
+               length += ads_entry_total_length(&(struct wim_ads_entry){});
+
        for (u16 i = 0; i < inode->i_num_ads; i++)
                length += ads_entry_total_length(&inode->i_ads_entries[i]);
-       return (length + 7) & ~7;
-}
 
-/* Calculate the aligned *total* length of an on-disk WIM dentry.  This includes
- * all alternate data streams. */
-u64
-dentry_correct_total_length(const struct wim_dentry *dentry)
-{
-       return _dentry_total_length(dentry,
-                                   dentry_correct_length_unaligned(dentry));
+       return length;
 }
 
-/* Like dentry_correct_total_length(), but use the existing dentry->length field
- * instead of calculating its "correct" value. */
+/* Calculate the aligned, total length of a dentry, including all alternate data
+ * stream entries.  Uses dentry->length.  */
 static u64
-dentry_total_length(const struct wim_dentry *dentry)
-{
-       return _dentry_total_length(dentry, dentry->length);
-}
-
-int
-for_dentry_in_rbtree(struct rb_node *root,
-                    int (*visitor)(struct wim_dentry *, void *),
-                    void *arg)
+dentry_in_total_length(const struct wim_dentry *dentry)
 {
-       int ret;
-       struct rb_node *node = root;
-       LIST_HEAD(stack);
-       while (1) {
-               if (node) {
-                       list_add(&rbnode_dentry(node)->tmp_list, &stack);
-                       node = node->rb_left;
-               } else {
-                       struct list_head *next;
-                       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
-
-                       next = stack.next;
-                       if (next == &stack)
-                               return 0;
-                       dentry = container_of(next, struct wim_dentry, tmp_list);
-                       list_del(next);
-                       ret = visitor(dentry, arg);
-                       if (ret != 0)
-                               return ret;
-                       node = dentry->rb_node.rb_right;
-               }
-       }
+       u64 length = dentry->length;
+       const struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       for (u16 i = 0; i < inode->i_num_ads; i++)
+               length += ads_entry_total_length(&inode->i_ads_entries[i]);
+       return (length + 7) & ~7;
 }
 
 static int
-for_dentry_tree_in_rbtree_depth(struct rb_node *node,
-                               int (*visitor)(struct wim_dentry*, void*),
-                               void *arg)
+do_for_dentry_in_tree(struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                     int (*visitor)(struct wim_dentry *, void *), void *arg)
 {
        int ret;
-       if (node) {
-               ret = for_dentry_tree_in_rbtree_depth(node->rb_left,
-                                                     visitor, arg);
-               if (ret != 0)
-                       return ret;
-               ret = for_dentry_tree_in_rbtree_depth(node->rb_right,
-                                                     visitor, arg);
-               if (ret != 0)
-                       return ret;
-               ret = for_dentry_in_tree_depth(rbnode_dentry(node), visitor, arg);
-               if (ret != 0)
+       struct wim_dentry *child;
+
+       ret = (*visitor)(dentry, arg);
+       if (unlikely(ret))
+               return ret;
+
+       for_dentry_child(child, dentry) {
+               ret = do_for_dentry_in_tree(child, visitor, arg);
+               if (unlikely(ret))
                        return ret;
        }
        return 0;
 }
 
+
 static int
-for_dentry_tree_in_rbtree(struct rb_node *node,
-                         int (*visitor)(struct wim_dentry*, void*),
-                         void *arg)
+do_for_dentry_in_tree_depth(struct wim_dentry *dentry,
+                           int (*visitor)(struct wim_dentry *, void *), void *arg)
 {
        int ret;
-       if (node) {
-               ret = for_dentry_tree_in_rbtree(node->rb_left, visitor, arg);
-               if (ret)
-                       return ret;
-               ret = for_dentry_in_tree(rbnode_dentry(node), visitor, arg);
-               if (ret)
-                       return ret;
-               ret = for_dentry_tree_in_rbtree(node->rb_right, visitor, arg);
-               if (ret)
+       struct wim_dentry *child;
+
+       for_dentry_child_postorder(child, dentry) {
+               ret = do_for_dentry_in_tree_depth(child, visitor, arg);
+               if (unlikely(ret))
                        return ret;
        }
-       return 0;
+       return unlikely((*visitor)(dentry, arg));
 }
 
 /* Calls a function on all directory entries in a WIM dentry tree.  Logically,
@@ -315,40 +378,26 @@ for_dentry_tree_in_rbtree(struct rb_node *node,
  * */
 int
 for_dentry_in_tree(struct wim_dentry *root,
-                  int (*visitor)(struct wim_dentry*, void*), void *arg)
+                  int (*visitor)(struct wim_dentry *, void *), void *arg)
 {
-       int ret;
-
-       if (!root)
+       if (unlikely(!root))
                return 0;
-       ret = (*visitor)(root, arg);
-       if (ret)
-               return ret;
-       return for_dentry_tree_in_rbtree(root->d_inode->i_children.rb_node,
-                                        visitor,
-                                        arg);
+       return do_for_dentry_in_tree(root, visitor, arg);
 }
 
 /* Like for_dentry_in_tree(), but the visitor function is always called on a
  * dentry's children before on itself. */
 int
 for_dentry_in_tree_depth(struct wim_dentry *root,
-                        int (*visitor)(struct wim_dentry*, void*), void *arg)
+                        int (*visitor)(struct wim_dentry *, void *), void *arg)
 {
-       int ret;
-
-       if (!root)
+       if (unlikely(!root))
                return 0;
-       ret = for_dentry_tree_in_rbtree_depth(root->d_inode->i_children.rb_node,
-                                             visitor, arg);
-       if (ret)
-               return ret;
-       return (*visitor)(root, arg);
+       return do_for_dentry_in_tree_depth(root, visitor, arg);
 }
 
-/* Calculate the full path of @dentry.  The full path of its parent must have
- * already been calculated, or it must be the root dentry. */
-static int
+/* Calculate the full path of @dentry.  */
+int
 calculate_dentry_full_path(struct wim_dentry *dentry)
 {
        tchar *full_path;
@@ -359,8 +408,9 @@ calculate_dentry_full_path(struct wim_dentry *dentry)
                return 0;
 
        if (dentry_is_root(dentry)) {
-               full_path = TSTRDUP(T("/"));
-               if (!full_path)
+               static const tchar _root_path[] = {WIM_PATH_SEPARATOR, T('\0')};
+               full_path = TSTRDUP(_root_path);
+               if (full_path == NULL)
                        return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
                full_path_nbytes = 1 * sizeof(tchar);
        } else {
@@ -374,7 +424,7 @@ calculate_dentry_full_path(struct wim_dentry *dentry)
                        parent_full_path = T("");
                        parent_full_path_nbytes = 0;
                } else {
-                       if (!parent->_full_path) {
+                       if (parent->_full_path == NULL) {
                                ret = calculate_dentry_full_path(parent);
                                if (ret)
                                        return ret;
@@ -400,10 +450,10 @@ calculate_dentry_full_path(struct wim_dentry *dentry)
                full_path_nbytes = parent_full_path_nbytes + sizeof(tchar) +
                                   filename_nbytes;
                full_path = MALLOC(full_path_nbytes + sizeof(tchar));
-               if (!full_path)
+               if (full_path == NULL)
                        return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
                memcpy(full_path, parent_full_path, parent_full_path_nbytes);
-               full_path[parent_full_path_nbytes / sizeof(tchar)] = T('/');
+               full_path[parent_full_path_nbytes / sizeof(tchar)] = WIM_PATH_SEPARATOR;
        #if TCHAR_IS_UTF16LE
                memcpy(&full_path[parent_full_path_nbytes / sizeof(tchar) + 1],
                       dentry->file_name,
@@ -420,18 +470,6 @@ calculate_dentry_full_path(struct wim_dentry *dentry)
        return 0;
 }
 
-static int
-do_calculate_dentry_full_path(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *_ignore)
-{
-       return calculate_dentry_full_path(dentry);
-}
-
-int
-calculate_dentry_tree_full_paths(struct wim_dentry *root)
-{
-       return for_dentry_in_tree(root, do_calculate_dentry_full_path, NULL);
-}
-
 tchar *
 dentry_full_path(struct wim_dentry *dentry)
 {
@@ -440,104 +478,192 @@ dentry_full_path(struct wim_dentry *dentry)
 }
 
 static int
-increment_subdir_offset(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *subdir_offset_p)
+dentry_calculate_subdir_offset(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *_subdir_offset_p)
 {
-       *(u64*)subdir_offset_p += dentry_correct_total_length(dentry);
-       return 0;
-}
 
-static int
-call_calculate_subdir_offsets(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *subdir_offset_p)
-{
-       calculate_subdir_offsets(dentry, subdir_offset_p);
+       if (dentry_is_directory(dentry)) {
+               u64 *subdir_offset_p = _subdir_offset_p;
+               struct wim_dentry *child;
+
+               /* Set offset of directory's child dentries  */
+               dentry->subdir_offset = *subdir_offset_p;
+
+               /* Account for child dentries  */
+               for_dentry_child(child, dentry)
+                       *subdir_offset_p += dentry_out_total_length(child);
+
+               /* Account for end-of-directory entry  */
+               *subdir_offset_p += 8;
+       } else {
+               /* Not a directory; set subdir_offset to 0  */
+               dentry->subdir_offset = 0;
+       }
        return 0;
 }
 
 /*
- * Recursively calculates the subdir offsets for a directory tree.
- *
- * @dentry:  The root of the directory tree.
- * @subdir_offset_p:  The current subdirectory offset; i.e., the subdirectory
- *                   offset for @dentry.
+ * Calculates the subdir offsets for a directory tree.
  */
 void
-calculate_subdir_offsets(struct wim_dentry *dentry, u64 *subdir_offset_p)
+calculate_subdir_offsets(struct wim_dentry *root, u64 *subdir_offset_p)
 {
-       struct rb_node *node;
-
-       dentry->subdir_offset = *subdir_offset_p;
-       node = dentry->d_inode->i_children.rb_node;
-       if (node) {
-               /* Advance the subdir offset by the amount of space the children
-                * of this dentry take up. */
-               for_dentry_in_rbtree(node, increment_subdir_offset, subdir_offset_p);
+       for_dentry_in_tree(root, dentry_calculate_subdir_offset, subdir_offset_p);
+}
 
-               /* End-of-directory dentry on disk. */
-               *subdir_offset_p += 8;
+/* Compare the UTF-16LE long filenames of two dentries case insensitively.  */
+static int
+dentry_compare_names_case_insensitive(const struct wim_dentry *d1,
+                                     const struct wim_dentry *d2)
+{
+       return cmp_utf16le_strings(d1->file_name,
+                                  d1->file_name_nbytes / 2,
+                                  d2->file_name,
+                                  d2->file_name_nbytes / 2,
+                                  true);
+}
 
-               /* Recursively call calculate_subdir_offsets() on all the
-                * children. */
-               for_dentry_in_rbtree(node, call_calculate_subdir_offsets, subdir_offset_p);
-       } else {
-               /* On disk, childless directories have a valid subdir_offset
-                * that points to an 8-byte end-of-directory dentry.  Regular
-                * files or reparse points have a subdir_offset of 0. */
-               if (dentry_is_directory(dentry))
-                       *subdir_offset_p += 8;
-               else
-                       dentry->subdir_offset = 0;
-       }
+/* Compare the UTF-16LE long filenames of two dentries case sensitively.  */
+static int
+dentry_compare_names_case_sensitive(const struct wim_dentry *d1,
+                                   const struct wim_dentry *d2)
+{
+       return cmp_utf16le_strings(d1->file_name,
+                                  d1->file_name_nbytes / 2,
+                                  d2->file_name,
+                                  d2->file_name_nbytes / 2,
+                                  false);
 }
 
 static int
-compare_utf16le_names(const utf16lechar *name1, size_t nbytes1,
-                     const utf16lechar *name2, size_t nbytes2)
+_avl_dentry_compare_names_ci(const struct avl_tree_node *n1,
+                            const struct avl_tree_node *n2)
 {
-       int result = memcmp(name1, name2, min(nbytes1, nbytes2));
-       if (result)
-               return result;
-       else
-               return (int)nbytes1 - (int)nbytes2;
+       const struct wim_dentry *d1, *d2;
+
+       d1 = avl_tree_entry(n1, struct wim_dentry, d_index_node_ci);
+       d2 = avl_tree_entry(n2, struct wim_dentry, d_index_node_ci);
+       return dentry_compare_names_case_insensitive(d1, d2);
 }
 
 static int
-dentry_compare_names(const struct wim_dentry *d1, const struct wim_dentry *d2)
+_avl_dentry_compare_names(const struct avl_tree_node *n1,
+                         const struct avl_tree_node *n2)
+{
+       const struct wim_dentry *d1, *d2;
+
+       d1 = avl_tree_entry(n1, struct wim_dentry, d_index_node);
+       d2 = avl_tree_entry(n2, struct wim_dentry, d_index_node);
+       return dentry_compare_names_case_sensitive(d1, d2);
+}
+
+/* Default case sensitivity behavior for searches with
+ * WIMLIB_CASE_PLATFORM_DEFAULT specified.  This can be modified by
+ * wimlib_global_init().  */
+bool default_ignore_case =
+#ifdef __WIN32__
+       true
+#else
+       false
+#endif
+;
+
+/* Case-sensitive dentry lookup.  Only @file_name and @file_name_nbytes of
+ * @dummy must be valid.  */
+static struct wim_dentry *
+dir_lookup(const struct wim_inode *dir, const struct wim_dentry *dummy)
 {
-       return compare_utf16le_names(d1->file_name, d1->file_name_nbytes,
-                                    d2->file_name, d2->file_name_nbytes);
+       struct avl_tree_node *node;
+
+       node = avl_tree_lookup_node(dir->i_children,
+                                   &dummy->d_index_node,
+                                   _avl_dentry_compare_names);
+       if (!node)
+               return NULL;
+       return avl_tree_entry(node, struct wim_dentry, d_index_node);
 }
 
+/* Case-insensitive dentry lookup.  Only @file_name and @file_name_nbytes of
+ * @dummy must be valid.  */
+static struct wim_dentry *
+dir_lookup_ci(const struct wim_inode *dir, const struct wim_dentry *dummy)
+{
+       struct avl_tree_node *node;
+
+       node = avl_tree_lookup_node(dir->i_children_ci,
+                                   &dummy->d_index_node_ci,
+                                   _avl_dentry_compare_names_ci);
+       if (!node)
+               return NULL;
+       return avl_tree_entry(node, struct wim_dentry, d_index_node_ci);
+}
 
+/* Given a UTF-16LE filename and a directory, look up the dentry for the file.
+ * Return it if found, otherwise NULL.  This is case-sensitive on UNIX and
+ * case-insensitive on Windows. */
 struct wim_dentry *
 get_dentry_child_with_utf16le_name(const struct wim_dentry *dentry,
                                   const utf16lechar *name,
-                                  size_t name_nbytes)
+                                  size_t name_nbytes,
+                                  CASE_SENSITIVITY_TYPE case_ctype)
 {
-       struct rb_node *node = dentry->d_inode->i_children.rb_node;
+       const struct wim_inode *dir = dentry->d_inode;
+       bool ignore_case = will_ignore_case(case_ctype);
+       struct wim_dentry dummy;
        struct wim_dentry *child;
-       while (node) {
-               child = rbnode_dentry(node);
-               int result = compare_utf16le_names(name, name_nbytes,
-                                                  child->file_name,
-                                                  child->file_name_nbytes);
-               if (result < 0)
-                       node = node->rb_left;
-               else if (result > 0)
-                       node = node->rb_right;
-               else
-                       return child;
-       }
-       return NULL;
+
+       dummy.file_name = (utf16lechar*)name;
+       dummy.file_name_nbytes = name_nbytes;
+
+       if (!ignore_case)
+               /* Case-sensitive lookup.  */
+               return dir_lookup(dir, &dummy);
+
+       /* Case-insensitive lookup.  */
+
+       child = dir_lookup_ci(dir, &dummy);
+       if (!child)
+               return NULL;
+
+       if (likely(list_empty(&child->d_ci_conflict_list)))
+               /* Only one dentry has this case-insensitive name; return it */
+               return child;
+
+       /* Multiple dentries have the same case-insensitive name.  Choose the
+        * dentry with the same case-sensitive name, if one exists; otherwise
+        * print a warning and choose one of the possible dentries arbitrarily.
+        */
+       struct wim_dentry *alt = child;
+       size_t num_alts = 0;
+
+       do {
+               num_alts++;
+               if (!dentry_compare_names_case_sensitive(&dummy, alt))
+                       return alt;
+               alt = list_entry(alt->d_ci_conflict_list.next,
+                                struct wim_dentry, d_ci_conflict_list);
+       } while (alt != child);
+
+       WARNING("Result of case-insensitive lookup is ambiguous\n"
+               "          (returning \"%"TS"\" of %zu "
+               "possible files, including \"%"TS"\")",
+               dentry_full_path(child),
+               num_alts,
+               dentry_full_path(list_entry(child->d_ci_conflict_list.next,
+                                           struct wim_dentry,
+                                           d_ci_conflict_list)));
+       return child;
 }
 
 /* Returns the child of @dentry that has the file name @name.  Returns NULL if
  * no child has the name. */
 struct wim_dentry *
-get_dentry_child_with_name(const struct wim_dentry *dentry, const tchar *name)
+get_dentry_child_with_name(const struct wim_dentry *dentry, const tchar *name,
+                          CASE_SENSITIVITY_TYPE case_type)
 {
 #if TCHAR_IS_UTF16LE
        return get_dentry_child_with_utf16le_name(dentry, name,
-                                                 tstrlen(name) * sizeof(tchar));
+                                                 tstrlen(name) * sizeof(tchar),
+                                                 case_type);
 #else
        utf16lechar *utf16le_name;
        size_t utf16le_name_nbytes;
@@ -551,7 +677,8 @@ get_dentry_child_with_name(const struct wim_dentry *dentry, const tchar *name)
        } else {
                child = get_dentry_child_with_utf16le_name(dentry,
                                                           utf16le_name,
-                                                          utf16le_name_nbytes);
+                                                          utf16le_name_nbytes,
+                                                          case_type);
                FREE(utf16le_name);
        }
        return child;
@@ -559,49 +686,111 @@ get_dentry_child_with_name(const struct wim_dentry *dentry, const tchar *name)
 }
 
 static struct wim_dentry *
-get_dentry_utf16le(WIMStruct *wim, const utf16lechar *path)
+get_dentry_utf16le(WIMStruct *wim, const utf16lechar *path,
+                  CASE_SENSITIVITY_TYPE case_type)
 {
-       struct wim_dentry *cur_dentry, *parent_dentry;
-       const utf16lechar *p, *pp;
+       struct wim_dentry *cur_dentry;
+       const utf16lechar *name_start, *name_end;
 
-       cur_dentry = parent_dentry = wim_root_dentry(wim);
-       if (!cur_dentry) {
-               errno = ENOENT;
-               return NULL;
-       }
-       p = path;
-       while (1) {
-               while (*p == cpu_to_le16('/'))
-                       p++;
-               if (*p == cpu_to_le16('\0'))
-                       break;
-               pp = p;
-               while (*pp != cpu_to_le16('/') && *pp != cpu_to_le16('\0'))
-                       pp++;
-
-               cur_dentry = get_dentry_child_with_utf16le_name(parent_dentry, p,
-                                                               (void*)pp - (void*)p);
-               if (cur_dentry == NULL)
-                       break;
-               p = pp;
-               parent_dentry = cur_dentry;
-       }
-       if (cur_dentry == NULL) {
-               if (dentry_is_directory(parent_dentry))
+       /* Start with the root directory of the image.  Note: this will be NULL
+        * if an image has been added directly with wimlib_add_empty_image() but
+        * no files have been added yet; in that case we fail with ENOENT.  */
+       cur_dentry = wim_root_dentry(wim);
+
+       name_start = path;
+       for (;;) {
+               if (cur_dentry == NULL) {
                        errno = ENOENT;
-               else
+                       return NULL;
+               }
+
+               if (*name_start && !dentry_is_directory(cur_dentry)) {
                        errno = ENOTDIR;
+                       return NULL;
+               }
+
+               while (*name_start == cpu_to_le16(WIM_PATH_SEPARATOR))
+                       name_start++;
+
+               if (!*name_start)
+                       return cur_dentry;
+
+               name_end = name_start;
+               do {
+                       ++name_end;
+               } while (*name_end != cpu_to_le16(WIM_PATH_SEPARATOR) && *name_end);
+
+               cur_dentry = get_dentry_child_with_utf16le_name(cur_dentry,
+                                                               name_start,
+                                                               (u8*)name_end - (u8*)name_start,
+                                                               case_type);
+               name_start = name_end;
        }
-       return cur_dentry;
 }
 
-/* Returns the dentry corresponding to the @path, or NULL if there is no such
- * dentry. */
+/*
+ * WIM path lookup: translate a path in the currently selected WIM image to the
+ * corresponding dentry, if it exists.
+ *
+ * @wim
+ *     The WIMStruct for the WIM.  The search takes place in the currently
+ *     selected image.
+ *
+ * @path
+ *     The path to look up, given relative to the root of the WIM image.
+ *     Characters with value WIM_PATH_SEPARATOR are taken to be path
+ *     separators.  Leading path separators are ignored, whereas one or more
+ *     trailing path separators cause the path to only match a directory.
+ *
+ * @case_type
+ *     The case-sensitivity behavior of this function, as one of the following
+ *     constants:
+ *
+ *    - WIMLIB_CASE_SENSITIVE:  Perform the search case sensitively.  This means
+ *     that names must match exactly.
+ *
+ *    - WIMLIB_CASE_INSENSITIVE:  Perform the search case insensitively.  This
+ *     means that names are considered to match if they are equal when
+ *     transformed to upper case.  If a path component matches multiple names
+ *     case-insensitively, the name that matches the path component
+ *     case-sensitively is chosen, if existent; otherwise one
+ *     case-insensitively matching name is chosen arbitrarily.
+ *
+ *    - WIMLIB_CASE_PLATFORM_DEFAULT:  Perform either case-sensitive or
+ *     case-insensitive search, depending on the value of the global variable
+ *     default_ignore_case.
+ *
+ *    In any case, no Unicode normalization is done before comparing strings.
+ *
+ * Returns a pointer to the dentry that is the result of the lookup, or NULL if
+ * no such dentry exists.  If NULL is returned, errno is set to one of the
+ * following values:
+ *
+ *     ENOTDIR if one of the path components used as a directory existed but
+ *     was not, in fact, a directory.
+ *
+ *     ENOENT otherwise.
+ *
+ * Additional notes:
+ *
+ *    - This function does not consider a reparse point to be a directory, even
+ *     if it has FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY set.
+ *
+ *    - This function does not dereference symbolic links or junction points
+ *     when performing the search.
+ *
+ *    - Since this function ignores leading slashes, the empty path is valid and
+ *     names the root directory of the WIM image.
+ *
+ *    - An image added with wimlib_add_empty_image() does not have a root
+ *     directory yet, and this function will fail with ENOENT for any path on
+ *     such an image.
+ */
 struct wim_dentry *
-get_dentry(WIMStruct *wim, const tchar *path)
+get_dentry(WIMStruct *wim, const tchar *path, CASE_SENSITIVITY_TYPE case_type)
 {
 #if TCHAR_IS_UTF16LE
-       return get_dentry_utf16le(wim, path);
+       return get_dentry_utf16le(wim, path, case_type);
 #else
        utf16lechar *path_utf16le;
        size_t path_utf16le_nbytes;
@@ -612,206 +801,110 @@ get_dentry(WIMStruct *wim, const tchar *path)
                              &path_utf16le, &path_utf16le_nbytes);
        if (ret)
                return NULL;
-       dentry = get_dentry_utf16le(wim, path_utf16le);
+       dentry = get_dentry_utf16le(wim, path_utf16le, case_type);
        FREE(path_utf16le);
        return dentry;
 #endif
 }
 
-struct wim_inode *
-wim_pathname_to_inode(WIMStruct *wim, const tchar *path)
-{
-       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
-       dentry = get_dentry(wim, path);
-       if (dentry)
-               return dentry->d_inode;
-       else
-               return NULL;
-}
-
 /* Takes in a path of length @len in @buf, and transforms it into a string for
  * the path of its parent directory. */
 static void
 to_parent_name(tchar *buf, size_t len)
 {
        ssize_t i = (ssize_t)len - 1;
-       while (i >= 0 && buf[i] == T('/'))
+       while (i >= 0 && buf[i] == WIM_PATH_SEPARATOR)
                i--;
-       while (i >= 0 && buf[i] != T('/'))
+       while (i >= 0 && buf[i] != WIM_PATH_SEPARATOR)
                i--;
-       while (i >= 0 && buf[i] == T('/'))
+       while (i >= 0 && buf[i] == WIM_PATH_SEPARATOR)
                i--;
        buf[i + 1] = T('\0');
 }
 
-/* Returns the dentry that corresponds to the parent directory of @path, or NULL
- * if the dentry is not found. */
+/* Similar to get_dentry(), but returns the dentry named by @path with the last
+ * component stripped off.
+ *
+ * Note: The returned dentry is NOT guaranteed to be a directory.  */
 struct wim_dentry *
-get_parent_dentry(WIMStruct *wim, const tchar *path)
+get_parent_dentry(WIMStruct *wim, const tchar *path,
+                 CASE_SENSITIVITY_TYPE case_type)
 {
        size_t path_len = tstrlen(path);
        tchar buf[path_len + 1];
 
        tmemcpy(buf, path, path_len + 1);
        to_parent_name(buf, path_len);
-       return get_dentry(wim, buf);
-}
-
-/* Prints the full path of a dentry. */
-int
-print_dentry_full_path(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *_ignore)
-{
-       int ret = calculate_dentry_full_path(dentry);
-       if (ret)
-               return ret;
-       tprintf(T("%"TS"\n"), dentry->_full_path);
-       return 0;
+       return get_dentry(wim, buf, case_type);
 }
 
-/* We want to be able to show the names of the file attribute flags that are
- * set. */
-struct file_attr_flag {
-       u32 flag;
-       const tchar *name;
-};
-struct file_attr_flag file_attr_flags[] = {
-       {FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY,           T("READONLY")},
-       {FILE_ATTRIBUTE_HIDDEN,             T("HIDDEN")},
-       {FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM,             T("SYSTEM")},
-       {FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY,          T("DIRECTORY")},
-       {FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ARCHIVE,            T("ARCHIVE")},
-       {FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DEVICE,             T("DEVICE")},
-       {FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL,             T("NORMAL")},
-       {FILE_ATTRIBUTE_TEMPORARY,          T("TEMPORARY")},
-       {FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE,        T("SPARSE_FILE")},
-       {FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT,      T("REPARSE_POINT")},
-       {FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED,         T("COMPRESSED")},
-       {FILE_ATTRIBUTE_OFFLINE,            T("OFFLINE")},
-       {FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NOT_CONTENT_INDEXED,T("NOT_CONTENT_INDEXED")},
-       {FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED,          T("ENCRYPTED")},
-       {FILE_ATTRIBUTE_VIRTUAL,            T("VIRTUAL")},
-};
-
-/* Prints a directory entry.  @lookup_table is a pointer to the lookup table, if
- * available.  If the dentry is unresolved and the lookup table is NULL, the
- * lookup table entries will not be printed.  Otherwise, they will be. */
+#ifdef WITH_FUSE
+/* Finds the dentry, lookup table entry, and stream index for a WIM file stream,
+ * given a path name.
+ *
+ * Currently, lookups of this type are only needed if FUSE is enabled.  */
 int
-print_dentry(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *lookup_table)
+wim_pathname_to_stream(WIMStruct *wim,
+                      const tchar *path,
+                      int lookup_flags,
+                      struct wim_dentry **dentry_ret,
+                      struct wim_lookup_table_entry **lte_ret,
+                      u16 *stream_idx_ret)
 {
-       const u8 *hash;
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
        struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte;
-       const struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
-       tchar buf[50];
-
-       tprintf(T("[DENTRY]\n"));
-       tprintf(T("Length            = %"PRIu64"\n"), dentry->length);
-       tprintf(T("Attributes        = 0x%x\n"), inode->i_attributes);
-       for (size_t i = 0; i < ARRAY_LEN(file_attr_flags); i++)
-               if (file_attr_flags[i].flag & inode->i_attributes)
-                       tprintf(T("    FILE_ATTRIBUTE_%"TS" is set\n"),
-                               file_attr_flags[i].name);
-       tprintf(T("Security ID       = %d\n"), inode->i_security_id);
-       tprintf(T("Subdir offset     = %"PRIu64"\n"), dentry->subdir_offset);
-
-       wim_timestamp_to_str(inode->i_creation_time, buf, sizeof(buf));
-       tprintf(T("Creation Time     = %"TS"\n"), buf);
-
-       wim_timestamp_to_str(inode->i_last_access_time, buf, sizeof(buf));
-       tprintf(T("Last Access Time  = %"TS"\n"), buf);
-
-       wim_timestamp_to_str(inode->i_last_write_time, buf, sizeof(buf));
-       tprintf(T("Last Write Time   = %"TS"\n"), buf);
-
-       if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT) {
-               tprintf(T("Reparse Tag       = 0x%"PRIx32"\n"), inode->i_reparse_tag);
-               tprintf(T("Reparse Point Flags = 0x%"PRIx16"\n"),
-                       inode->i_not_rpfixed);
-               tprintf(T("Reparse Point Unknown 2 = 0x%"PRIx32"\n"),
-                       inode->i_rp_unknown_2);
-       }
-       tprintf(T("Reparse Point Unknown 1 = 0x%"PRIx32"\n"),
-               inode->i_rp_unknown_1);
-       tprintf(T("Hard Link Group   = 0x%"PRIx64"\n"), inode->i_ino);
-       tprintf(T("Hard Link Group Size = %"PRIu32"\n"), inode->i_nlink);
-       tprintf(T("Number of Alternate Data Streams = %hu\n"), inode->i_num_ads);
-       if (dentry_has_long_name(dentry))
-               wimlib_printf(T("Filename = \"%"WS"\"\n"), dentry->file_name);
-       if (dentry_has_short_name(dentry))
-               wimlib_printf(T("Short Name \"%"WS"\"\n"), dentry->short_name);
-       if (dentry->_full_path)
-               tprintf(T("Full Path = \"%"TS"\"\n"), dentry->_full_path);
+       u16 stream_idx;
+       const tchar *stream_name = NULL;
+       struct wim_inode *inode;
+       tchar *p = NULL;
 
-       lte = inode_stream_lte(dentry->d_inode, 0, lookup_table);
-       if (lte) {
-               print_lookup_table_entry(lte, stdout);
-       } else {
-               hash = inode_stream_hash(inode, 0);
-               if (hash) {
-                       tprintf(T("Hash              = 0x"));
-                       print_hash(hash, stdout);
-                       tputchar(T('\n'));
-                       tputchar(T('\n'));
-               }
-       }
-       for (u16 i = 0; i < inode->i_num_ads; i++) {
-               tprintf(T("[Alternate Stream Entry %u]\n"), i);
-               wimlib_printf(T("Name = \"%"WS"\"\n"),
-                             inode->i_ads_entries[i].stream_name);
-               tprintf(T("Name Length (UTF16 bytes) = %hu\n"),
-                      inode->i_ads_entries[i].stream_name_nbytes);
-               hash = inode_stream_hash(inode, i + 1);
-               if (hash) {
-                       tprintf(T("Hash              = 0x"));
-                       print_hash(hash, stdout);
-                       tputchar(T('\n'));
+       if (lookup_flags & LOOKUP_FLAG_ADS_OK) {
+               stream_name = path_stream_name(path);
+               if (stream_name) {
+                       p = (tchar*)stream_name - 1;
+                       *p = T('\0');
                }
-               print_lookup_table_entry(inode_stream_lte(inode, i + 1, lookup_table),
-                                        stdout);
        }
-       return 0;
-}
-
-/* Initializations done on every `struct wim_dentry'. */
-static void
-dentry_common_init(struct wim_dentry *dentry)
-{
-       memset(dentry, 0, sizeof(struct wim_dentry));
-}
 
-struct wim_inode *
-new_timeless_inode(void)
-{
-       struct wim_inode *inode = CALLOC(1, sizeof(struct wim_inode));
-       if (inode) {
-               inode->i_security_id = -1;
-               inode->i_nlink = 1;
-               inode->i_next_stream_id = 1;
-               inode->i_not_rpfixed = 1;
-               INIT_LIST_HEAD(&inode->i_list);
-       #ifdef WITH_FUSE
-               if (pthread_mutex_init(&inode->i_mutex, NULL) != 0) {
-                       ERROR_WITH_ERRNO("Error initializing mutex");
-                       FREE(inode);
-                       return NULL;
+       dentry = get_dentry(wim, path, WIMLIB_CASE_SENSITIVE);
+       if (p)
+               *p = T(':');
+       if (!dentry)
+               return -errno;
+
+       inode = dentry->d_inode;
+
+       if (!inode->i_resolved)
+               if (inode_resolve_streams(inode, wim->lookup_table, false))
+                       return -EIO;
+
+       if (!(lookup_flags & LOOKUP_FLAG_DIRECTORY_OK)
+             && inode_is_directory(inode))
+               return -EISDIR;
+
+       if (stream_name) {
+               struct wim_ads_entry *ads_entry;
+               u16 ads_idx;
+               ads_entry = inode_get_ads_entry(inode, stream_name,
+                                               &ads_idx);
+               if (ads_entry) {
+                       stream_idx = ads_idx + 1;
+                       lte = ads_entry->lte;
+               } else {
+                       return -ENOENT;
                }
-       #endif
-               INIT_LIST_HEAD(&inode->i_dentry);
-       }
-       return inode;
-}
-
-static struct wim_inode *
-new_inode(void)
-{
-       struct wim_inode *inode = new_timeless_inode();
-       if (inode) {
-               u64 now = get_wim_timestamp();
-               inode->i_creation_time = now;
-               inode->i_last_access_time = now;
-               inode->i_last_write_time = now;
+       } else {
+               lte = inode_unnamed_stream_resolved(inode, &stream_idx);
        }
-       return inode;
+       if (dentry_ret)
+               *dentry_ret = dentry;
+       if (lte_ret)
+               *lte_ret = lte;
+       if (stream_idx_ret)
+               *stream_idx_ret = stream_idx;
+       return 0;
 }
+#endif /* WITH_FUSE  */
 
 /* Creates an unlinked directory entry. */
 int
@@ -820,24 +913,24 @@ new_dentry(const tchar *name, struct wim_dentry **dentry_ret)
        struct wim_dentry *dentry;
        int ret;
 
-       dentry = MALLOC(sizeof(struct wim_dentry));
+       dentry = CALLOC(1, sizeof(struct wim_dentry));
        if (!dentry)
                return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
 
-       dentry_common_init(dentry);
-       ret = set_dentry_name(dentry, name);
-       if (ret == 0) {
-               dentry->parent = dentry;
-               *dentry_ret = dentry;
-       } else {
-               FREE(dentry);
-               ERROR("Failed to set name on new dentry with name \"%"TS"\"",
-                     name);
-       }
-       return ret;
+       if (*name) {
+               ret = dentry_set_name(dentry, name);
+               if (ret) {
+                       FREE(dentry);
+                       ERROR("Failed to set name on new dentry with name \"%"TS"\"",
+                             name);
+                       return ret;
+               }
+       }
+       dentry->parent = dentry;
+       *dentry_ret = dentry;
+       return 0;
 }
 
-
 static int
 _new_dentry_with_inode(const tchar *name, struct wim_dentry **dentry_ret,
                        bool timeless)
@@ -853,7 +946,7 @@ _new_dentry_with_inode(const tchar *name, struct wim_dentry **dentry_ret,
                dentry->d_inode = new_timeless_inode();
        else
                dentry->d_inode = new_inode();
-       if (!dentry->d_inode) {
+       if (dentry->d_inode == NULL) {
                free_dentry(dentry);
                return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
        }
@@ -876,13 +969,12 @@ new_dentry_with_inode(const tchar *name, struct wim_dentry **dentry_ret)
 }
 
 int
-new_filler_directory(const tchar *name, struct wim_dentry **dentry_ret)
+new_filler_directory(struct wim_dentry **dentry_ret)
 {
        int ret;
        struct wim_dentry *dentry;
 
-       DEBUG("Creating filler directory \"%"TS"\"", name);
-       ret = new_dentry_with_inode(name, &dentry);
+       ret = new_dentry_with_inode(T(""), &dentry);
        if (ret)
                return ret;
        /* Leave the inode number as 0; this is allowed for non
@@ -894,78 +986,24 @@ new_filler_directory(const tchar *name, struct wim_dentry **dentry_ret)
 }
 
 static int
-init_ads_entry(struct wim_ads_entry *ads_entry, const void *name,
-              size_t name_nbytes, bool is_utf16le)
-{
-       int ret = 0;
-       memset(ads_entry, 0, sizeof(*ads_entry));
-
-       if (is_utf16le) {
-               utf16lechar *p = MALLOC(name_nbytes + sizeof(utf16lechar));
-               if (!p)
-                       return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
-               memcpy(p, name, name_nbytes);
-               p[name_nbytes / 2] = cpu_to_le16(0);
-               ads_entry->stream_name = p;
-               ads_entry->stream_name_nbytes = name_nbytes;
-       } else {
-               if (name && *(const tchar*)name != T('\0')) {
-                       ret = get_utf16le_name(name, &ads_entry->stream_name,
-                                              &ads_entry->stream_name_nbytes);
-               }
-       }
-       return ret;
-}
-
-static void
-destroy_ads_entry(struct wim_ads_entry *ads_entry)
+dentry_clear_inode_visited(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *_ignore)
 {
-       FREE(ads_entry->stream_name);
+       dentry->d_inode->i_visited = 0;
+       return 0;
 }
 
-/* Frees an inode. */
 void
-free_inode(struct wim_inode *inode)
-{
-       if (inode) {
-               if (inode->i_ads_entries) {
-                       for (u16 i = 0; i < inode->i_num_ads; i++)
-                               destroy_ads_entry(&inode->i_ads_entries[i]);
-                       FREE(inode->i_ads_entries);
-               }
-       #ifdef WITH_FUSE
-               wimlib_assert(inode->i_num_opened_fds == 0);
-               FREE(inode->i_fds);
-               pthread_mutex_destroy(&inode->i_mutex);
-       #endif
-               /* HACK: This may instead delete the inode from i_list, but the
-                * hlist_del() behaves the same as list_del(). */
-               hlist_del(&inode->i_hlist);
-               FREE(inode->i_extracted_file);
-               FREE(inode);
-       }
-}
-
-/* Decrements link count on an inode and frees it if the link count reaches 0.
- * */
-static void
-put_inode(struct wim_inode *inode)
+dentry_tree_clear_inode_visited(struct wim_dentry *root)
 {
-       wimlib_assert(inode->i_nlink != 0);
-       if (--inode->i_nlink == 0) {
-       #ifdef WITH_FUSE
-               if (inode->i_num_opened_fds == 0)
-       #endif
-               {
-                       free_inode(inode);
-               }
-       }
+       for_dentry_in_tree(root, dentry_clear_inode_visited, NULL);
 }
 
-/* Frees a WIM dentry.
+/*
+ * Free a WIM dentry.
  *
- * The corresponding inode (if any) is freed only if its link count is
- * decremented to 0.
+ * In addition to freeing the dentry itself, this decrements the link count of
+ * the corresponding inode (if any).  If the inode's link count reaches 0, the
+ * inode is freed as well.
  */
 void
 free_dentry(struct wim_dentry *dentry)
@@ -980,624 +1018,247 @@ free_dentry(struct wim_dentry *dentry)
        }
 }
 
-/* This function is passed as an argument to for_dentry_in_tree_depth() in order
- * to free a directory tree. */
 static int
-do_free_dentry(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *_lookup_table)
+do_free_dentry(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *_ignore)
 {
-       struct wim_lookup_table *lookup_table = _lookup_table;
-
-       if (lookup_table) {
-               struct wim_inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
-               for (unsigned i = 0; i <= inode->i_num_ads; i++) {
-                       struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte;
-
-                       lte = inode_stream_lte(inode, i, lookup_table);
-                       if (lte)
-                               lte_decrement_refcnt(lte, lookup_table);
-               }
-       }
        free_dentry(dentry);
        return 0;
 }
 
-/*
- * Unlinks and frees a dentry tree.
- *
- * @root:              The root of the tree.
- * @lookup_table:      The lookup table for dentries.  If non-NULL, the
- *                     reference counts in the lookup table for the lookup
- *                     table entries corresponding to the dentries will be
- *                     decremented.
- */
-void
-free_dentry_tree(struct wim_dentry *root, struct wim_lookup_table *lookup_table)
+static int
+do_free_dentry_and_unref_streams(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *lookup_table)
 {
-       for_dentry_in_tree_depth(root, do_free_dentry, lookup_table);
+       inode_unref_streams(dentry->d_inode, lookup_table);
+       free_dentry(dentry);
+       return 0;
 }
 
 /*
- * Links a dentry into the directory tree.
+ * Recursively frees all directory entries in the specified tree.
  *
- * @parent: The dentry that will be the parent of @child.
- * @child: The dentry to link.
+ * @root:
+ *     The root of the tree.
+ *
+ * @lookup_table:
+ *     The lookup table for dentries.  If non-NULL, the reference counts in the
+ *     lookup table for the lookup table entries corresponding to the dentries
+ *     will be decremented.
+ *
+ * This also puts references to the corresponding inodes.
  *
- * Returns non-NULL if a duplicate dentry was detected.
+ * This does *not* unlink @root from its parent directory (if it has one).
  */
-struct wim_dentry *
-dentry_add_child(struct wim_dentry * restrict parent,
-                struct wim_dentry * restrict child)
-{
-       wimlib_assert(dentry_is_directory(parent));
-       wimlib_assert(parent != child);
-
-       struct rb_root *root = &parent->d_inode->i_children;
-       struct rb_node **new = &(root->rb_node);
-       struct rb_node *rb_parent = NULL;
-
-       while (*new) {
-               struct wim_dentry *this = rbnode_dentry(*new);
-               int result = dentry_compare_names(child, this);
-
-               rb_parent = *new;
-
-               if (result < 0)
-                       new = &((*new)->rb_left);
-               else if (result > 0)
-                       new = &((*new)->rb_right);
-               else
-                       return this;
-       }
-       child->parent = parent;
-       rb_link_node(&child->rb_node, rb_parent, new);
-       rb_insert_color(&child->rb_node, root);
-       return NULL;
-}
-
-/* Unlink a WIM dentry from the directory entry tree. */
 void
-unlink_dentry(struct wim_dentry *dentry)
-{
-       if (!dentry_is_root(dentry))
-               rb_erase(&dentry->rb_node, &dentry->parent->d_inode->i_children);
-}
-
-/*
- * Returns the alternate data stream entry belonging to @inode that has the
- * stream name @stream_name.
- */
-struct wim_ads_entry *
-inode_get_ads_entry(struct wim_inode *inode, const tchar *stream_name,
-                   u16 *idx_ret)
+free_dentry_tree(struct wim_dentry *root, struct wim_lookup_table *lookup_table)
 {
-       if (inode->i_num_ads == 0) {
-               return NULL;
-       } else {
-               size_t stream_name_utf16le_nbytes;
-               u16 i;
-               struct wim_ads_entry *result;
-
-       #if TCHAR_IS_UTF16LE
-               const utf16lechar *stream_name_utf16le;
+       int (*f)(struct wim_dentry *, void *);
 
-               stream_name_utf16le = stream_name;
-               stream_name_utf16le_nbytes = tstrlen(stream_name) * sizeof(tchar);
-       #else
-               utf16lechar *stream_name_utf16le;
+       if (lookup_table)
+               f = do_free_dentry_and_unref_streams;
+       else
+               f = do_free_dentry;
 
-               {
-                       int ret = tstr_to_utf16le(stream_name,
-                                                 tstrlen(stream_name) *
-                                                     sizeof(tchar),
-                                                 &stream_name_utf16le,
-                                                 &stream_name_utf16le_nbytes);
-                       if (ret)
-                               return NULL;
-               }
-       #endif
-               i = 0;
-               result = NULL;
-               do {
-                       if (ads_entry_has_name(&inode->i_ads_entries[i],
-                                              stream_name_utf16le,
-                                              stream_name_utf16le_nbytes))
-                       {
-                               if (idx_ret)
-                                       *idx_ret = i;
-                               result = &inode->i_ads_entries[i];
-                               break;
-                       }
-               } while (++i != inode->i_num_ads);
-       #if !TCHAR_IS_UTF16LE
-               FREE(stream_name_utf16le);
-       #endif
-               return result;
-       }
+       for_dentry_in_tree_depth(root, f, lookup_table);
 }
 
-static struct wim_ads_entry *
-do_inode_add_ads(struct wim_inode *inode, const void *stream_name,
-                size_t stream_name_nbytes, bool is_utf16le)
+/* Insert the @child dentry into the case sensitive index of the @dir directory.
+ * Return NULL if successfully inserted, otherwise a pointer to the
+ * already-inserted duplicate.  */
+static struct wim_dentry *
+dir_index_child(struct wim_inode *dir, struct wim_dentry *child)
 {
-       u16 num_ads;
-       struct wim_ads_entry *ads_entries;
-       struct wim_ads_entry *new_entry;
-
-       if (inode->i_num_ads >= 0xfffe) {
-               ERROR("Too many alternate data streams in one inode!");
-               return NULL;
-       }
-       num_ads = inode->i_num_ads + 1;
-       ads_entries = REALLOC(inode->i_ads_entries,
-                             num_ads * sizeof(inode->i_ads_entries[0]));
-       if (!ads_entries) {
-               ERROR("Failed to allocate memory for new alternate data stream");
-               return NULL;
-       }
-       inode->i_ads_entries = ads_entries;
+       struct avl_tree_node *duplicate;
 
-       new_entry = &inode->i_ads_entries[num_ads - 1];
-       if (init_ads_entry(new_entry, stream_name, stream_name_nbytes, is_utf16le))
+       duplicate = avl_tree_insert(&dir->i_children,
+                                   &child->d_index_node,
+                                   _avl_dentry_compare_names);
+       if (!duplicate)
                return NULL;
-       new_entry->stream_id = inode->i_next_stream_id++;
-       inode->i_num_ads = num_ads;
-       return new_entry;
+       return avl_tree_entry(duplicate, struct wim_dentry, d_index_node);
 }
 
-struct wim_ads_entry *
-inode_add_ads_utf16le(struct wim_inode *inode,
-                     const utf16lechar *stream_name,
-                     size_t stream_name_nbytes)
+/* Insert the @child dentry into the case insensitive index of the @dir
+ * directory.  Return NULL if successfully inserted, otherwise a pointer to the
+ * already-inserted duplicate.  */
+static struct wim_dentry *
+dir_index_child_ci(struct wim_inode *dir, struct wim_dentry *child)
 {
-       DEBUG("Add alternate data stream \"%"WS"\"", stream_name);
-       return do_inode_add_ads(inode, stream_name, stream_name_nbytes, true);
-}
+       struct avl_tree_node *duplicate;
 
-/*
- * Add an alternate stream entry to a WIM inode and return a pointer to it, or
- * NULL if memory could not be allocated.
- */
-struct wim_ads_entry *
-inode_add_ads(struct wim_inode *inode, const tchar *stream_name)
-{
-       DEBUG("Add alternate data stream \"%"TS"\"", stream_name);
-       return do_inode_add_ads(inode, stream_name,
-                               tstrlen(stream_name) * sizeof(tchar),
-                               TCHAR_IS_UTF16LE);
+       duplicate = avl_tree_insert(&dir->i_children_ci,
+                                   &child->d_index_node_ci,
+                                   _avl_dentry_compare_names_ci);
+       if (!duplicate)
+               return NULL;
+       return avl_tree_entry(duplicate, struct wim_dentry, d_index_node_ci);
 }
 
-static struct wim_lookup_table_entry *
-add_stream_from_data_buffer(const void *buffer, size_t size,
-                           struct wim_lookup_table *lookup_table)
+/* Removes the specified dentry from its directory's case-sensitive index.  */
+static void
+dir_unindex_child(struct wim_inode *dir, struct wim_dentry *child)
 {
-       u8 hash[SHA1_HASH_SIZE];
-       struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte, *existing_lte;
-
-       sha1_buffer(buffer, size, hash);
-       existing_lte = __lookup_resource(lookup_table, hash);
-       if (existing_lte) {
-               wimlib_assert(wim_resource_size(existing_lte) == size);
-               lte = existing_lte;
-               lte->refcnt++;
-       } else {
-               void *buffer_copy;
-               lte = new_lookup_table_entry();
-               if (!lte)
-                       return NULL;
-               buffer_copy = memdup(buffer, size);
-               if (!buffer_copy) {
-                       free_lookup_table_entry(lte);
-                       return NULL;
-               }
-               lte->resource_location            = RESOURCE_IN_ATTACHED_BUFFER;
-               lte->attached_buffer              = buffer_copy;
-               lte->resource_entry.original_size = size;
-               copy_hash(lte->hash, hash);
-               lookup_table_insert(lookup_table, lte);
-       }
-       return lte;
+       avl_tree_remove(&dir->i_children, &child->d_index_node);
 }
 
-int
-inode_add_ads_with_data(struct wim_inode *inode, const tchar *name,
-                       const void *value, size_t size,
-                       struct wim_lookup_table *lookup_table)
+/* Removes the specified dentry from its directory's case-insensitive index.  */
+static void
+dir_unindex_child_ci(struct wim_inode *dir, struct wim_dentry *child)
 {
-       struct wim_ads_entry *new_ads_entry;
-
-       wimlib_assert(inode->i_resolved);
-
-       new_ads_entry = inode_add_ads(inode, name);
-       if (!new_ads_entry)
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
-
-       new_ads_entry->lte = add_stream_from_data_buffer(value, size,
-                                                        lookup_table);
-       if (!new_ads_entry->lte) {
-               inode_remove_ads(inode, new_ads_entry - inode->i_ads_entries,
-                                lookup_table);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
-       }
-       return 0;
+       avl_tree_remove(&dir->i_children_ci, &child->d_index_node_ci);
 }
 
-/* Set the unnamed stream of a WIM inode, given a data buffer containing the
- * stream contents. */
-int
-inode_set_unnamed_stream(struct wim_inode *inode, const void *data, size_t len,
-                        struct wim_lookup_table *lookup_table)
+/* Returns true iff the specified dentry is in its parent directory's
+ * case-insensitive index.  */
+static bool
+dentry_in_ci_index(const struct wim_dentry *dentry)
 {
-       inode->i_lte = add_stream_from_data_buffer(data, len, lookup_table);
-       if (!inode->i_lte)
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
-       inode->i_resolved = 1;
-       return 0;
+       return !avl_tree_node_is_unlinked(&dentry->d_index_node_ci);
 }
 
-/* Remove an alternate data stream from a WIM inode  */
-void
-inode_remove_ads(struct wim_inode *inode, u16 idx,
-                struct wim_lookup_table *lookup_table)
+/*
+ * Links a dentry into the directory tree.
+ *
+ * @parent: The dentry that will be the parent of @child.
+ * @child: The dentry to link.
+ *
+ * Returns NULL if successful.  If @parent already contains a dentry with the
+ * same case-sensitive name as @child, returns a pointer to this duplicate
+ * dentry.
+ */
+struct wim_dentry *
+dentry_add_child(struct wim_dentry *parent, struct wim_dentry *child)
 {
-       struct wim_ads_entry *ads_entry;
-       struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte;
-
-       wimlib_assert(idx < inode->i_num_ads);
-       wimlib_assert(inode->i_resolved);
+       struct wim_dentry *duplicate;
+       struct wim_inode *dir;
 
-       ads_entry = &inode->i_ads_entries[idx];
+       wimlib_assert(parent != child);
 
-       DEBUG("Remove alternate data stream \"%"WS"\"", ads_entry->stream_name);
+       dir = parent->d_inode;
 
-       lte = ads_entry->lte;
-       if (lte)
-               lte_decrement_refcnt(lte, lookup_table);
+       wimlib_assert(inode_is_directory(dir));
 
-       destroy_ads_entry(ads_entry);
+       duplicate = dir_index_child(dir, child);
+       if (duplicate)
+               return duplicate;
 
-       memmove(&inode->i_ads_entries[idx],
-               &inode->i_ads_entries[idx + 1],
-               (inode->i_num_ads - idx - 1) * sizeof(inode->i_ads_entries[0]));
-       inode->i_num_ads--;
+       duplicate = dir_index_child_ci(dir, child);
+       if (duplicate) {
+               list_add(&child->d_ci_conflict_list, &duplicate->d_ci_conflict_list);
+               avl_tree_node_set_unlinked(&child->d_index_node_ci);
+       } else {
+               INIT_LIST_HEAD(&child->d_ci_conflict_list);
+       }
+       child->parent = parent;
+       return NULL;
 }
 
-#ifndef __WIN32__
-int
-inode_get_unix_data(const struct wim_inode *inode,
-                   struct wimlib_unix_data *unix_data,
-                   u16 *stream_idx_ret)
+/* Unlink a WIM dentry from the directory entry tree.  */
+void
+unlink_dentry(struct wim_dentry *dentry)
 {
-       const struct wim_ads_entry *ads_entry;
-       const struct wim_lookup_table_entry *lte;
-       size_t size;
-       int ret;
-
-       wimlib_assert(inode->i_resolved);
-
-       ads_entry = inode_get_ads_entry((struct wim_inode*)inode,
-                                       WIMLIB_UNIX_DATA_TAG, NULL);
-       if (!ads_entry)
-               return NO_UNIX_DATA;
-
-       if (stream_idx_ret)
-               *stream_idx_ret = ads_entry - inode->i_ads_entries;
+       struct wim_inode *dir;
 
-       lte = ads_entry->lte;
-       if (!lte)
-               return NO_UNIX_DATA;
+       if (dentry_is_root(dentry))
+               return;
 
-       size = wim_resource_size(lte);
-       if (size != sizeof(struct wimlib_unix_data))
-               return BAD_UNIX_DATA;
+       dir = dentry->parent->d_inode;
 
-       ret = read_full_resource_into_buf(lte, unix_data);
-       if (ret)
-               return ret;
-
-       if (unix_data->version != 0)
-               return BAD_UNIX_DATA;
-       return 0;
-}
+       dir_unindex_child(dir, dentry);
 
-int
-inode_set_unix_data(struct wim_inode *inode, uid_t uid, gid_t gid, mode_t mode,
-                   struct wim_lookup_table *lookup_table, int which)
-{
-       struct wimlib_unix_data unix_data;
-       int ret;
-       bool have_good_unix_data = false;
-       bool have_unix_data = false;
-       u16 stream_idx;
+       if (dentry_in_ci_index(dentry)) {
 
-       if (!(which & UNIX_DATA_CREATE)) {
-               ret = inode_get_unix_data(inode, &unix_data, &stream_idx);
-               if (ret == 0 || ret == BAD_UNIX_DATA || ret > 0)
-                       have_unix_data = true;
-               if (ret == 0)
-                       have_good_unix_data = true;
-       }
-       unix_data.version = 0;
-       if (which & UNIX_DATA_UID || !have_good_unix_data)
-               unix_data.uid = uid;
-       if (which & UNIX_DATA_GID || !have_good_unix_data)
-               unix_data.gid = gid;
-       if (which & UNIX_DATA_MODE || !have_good_unix_data)
-               unix_data.mode = mode;
-       ret = inode_add_ads_with_data(inode, WIMLIB_UNIX_DATA_TAG,
-                                     &unix_data,
-                                     sizeof(struct wimlib_unix_data),
-                                     lookup_table);
-       if (ret == 0 && have_unix_data)
-               inode_remove_ads(inode, stream_idx, lookup_table);
-       return ret;
-}
-#endif /* !__WIN32__ */
+               dir_unindex_child_ci(dir, dentry);
 
-/* Replace weird characters in filenames and alternate data stream names.
- *
- * In particular we do not want the path separator to appear in any names, as
- * that would make it possible for a "malicious" WIM to extract itself to any
- * location it wanted to. */
-static void
-replace_forbidden_characters(utf16lechar *name)
-{
-       utf16lechar *p;
+               if (!list_empty(&dentry->d_ci_conflict_list)) {
+                       /* Make a different case-insensitively-the-same dentry
+                        * be the "representative" in the search index. */
+                       struct list_head *next;
+                       struct wim_dentry *other;
+                       struct wim_dentry *existing;
 
-       for (p = name; *p; p++) {
-       #ifdef __WIN32__
-               if (wcschr(L"<>:\"/\\|?*", (wchar_t)*p))
-       #else
-               if (*p == cpu_to_le16('/'))
-       #endif
-               {
-                       if (name) {
-                               WARNING("File, directory, or stream name \"%"WS"\"\n"
-                                       "          contains forbidden characters; "
-                                       "substituting replacement characters.",
-                                       name);
-                               name = NULL;
-                       }
-               #ifdef __WIN32__
-                       *p = cpu_to_le16(0xfffd);
-               #else
-                       *p = cpu_to_le16('?');
-               #endif
+                       next = dentry->d_ci_conflict_list.next;
+                       other = list_entry(next, struct wim_dentry, d_ci_conflict_list);
+                       existing = dir_index_child_ci(dir, other);
+                       wimlib_assert(existing == NULL);
                }
        }
+       list_del(&dentry->d_ci_conflict_list);
 }
 
-/*
- * Reads the alternate data stream entries of a WIM dentry.
- *
- * @p: Pointer to buffer that starts with the first alternate stream entry.
- *
- * @inode:     Inode to load the alternate data streams into.
- *             @inode->i_num_ads must have been set to the number of
- *             alternate data streams that are expected.
- *
- * @remaining_size:    Number of bytes of data remaining in the buffer pointed
- *                     to by @p.
- *
- *
- * Return 0 on success or nonzero on failure.  On success, inode->i_ads_entries
- * is set to an array of `struct wim_ads_entry's of length inode->i_num_ads.  On
- * failure, @inode is not modified.
- */
+/* Reads a WIM directory entry, including all alternate data stream entries that
+ * follow it, from the WIM image's metadata resource.  */
 static int
-read_ads_entries(const u8 * restrict p, struct wim_inode * restrict inode,
-                size_t nbytes_remaining)
-{
-       u16 num_ads;
-       struct wim_ads_entry *ads_entries;
-       int ret;
-
-       BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(struct wim_ads_entry_on_disk) != WIM_ADS_ENTRY_DISK_SIZE);
-
-       /* Allocate an array for our in-memory representation of the alternate
-        * data stream entries. */
-       num_ads = inode->i_num_ads;
-       ads_entries = CALLOC(num_ads, sizeof(inode->i_ads_entries[0]));
-       if (!ads_entries)
-               goto out_of_memory;
-
-       /* Read the entries into our newly allocated buffer. */
-       for (u16 i = 0; i < num_ads; i++) {
-               u64 length;
-               struct wim_ads_entry *cur_entry;
-               const struct wim_ads_entry_on_disk *disk_entry =
-                       (const struct wim_ads_entry_on_disk*)p;
-
-               cur_entry = &ads_entries[i];
-               ads_entries[i].stream_id = i + 1;
-
-               /* Do we have at least the size of the fixed-length data we know
-                * need? */
-               if (nbytes_remaining < sizeof(struct wim_ads_entry_on_disk))
-                       goto out_invalid;
-
-               /* Read the length field */
-               length = le64_to_cpu(disk_entry->length);
-
-               /* Make sure the length field is neither so small it doesn't
-                * include all the fixed-length data nor so large it overflows
-                * the metadata resource buffer. */
-               if (length < sizeof(struct wim_ads_entry_on_disk) ||
-                   length > nbytes_remaining)
-                       goto out_invalid;
-
-               /* Read the rest of the fixed-length data. */
-
-               cur_entry->reserved = le64_to_cpu(disk_entry->reserved);
-               copy_hash(cur_entry->hash, disk_entry->hash);
-               cur_entry->stream_name_nbytes = le16_to_cpu(disk_entry->stream_name_nbytes);
-
-               /* If stream_name_nbytes != 0, this is a named stream.
-                * Otherwise this is an unnamed stream, or in some cases (bugs
-                * in Microsoft's software I guess) a meaningless entry
-                * distinguished from the real unnamed stream entry, if any, by
-                * the fact that the real unnamed stream entry has a nonzero
-                * hash field. */
-               if (cur_entry->stream_name_nbytes) {
-                       /* The name is encoded in UTF16-LE, which uses 2-byte
-                        * coding units, so the length of the name had better be
-                        * an even number of bytes... */
-                       if (cur_entry->stream_name_nbytes & 1)
-                               goto out_invalid;
-
-                       /* Add the length of the stream name to get the length
-                        * we actually need to read.  Make sure this isn't more
-                        * than the specified length of the entry. */
-                       if (sizeof(struct wim_ads_entry_on_disk) +
-                           cur_entry->stream_name_nbytes > length)
-                               goto out_invalid;
-
-                       cur_entry->stream_name = MALLOC(cur_entry->stream_name_nbytes + 2);
-                       if (!cur_entry->stream_name)
-                               goto out_of_memory;
-
-                       memcpy(cur_entry->stream_name,
-                              disk_entry->stream_name,
-                              cur_entry->stream_name_nbytes);
-                       cur_entry->stream_name[cur_entry->stream_name_nbytes / 2] = cpu_to_le16(0);
-                       replace_forbidden_characters(cur_entry->stream_name);
-               }
-
-               /* It's expected that the size of every ADS entry is a multiple
-                * of 8.  However, to be safe, I'm allowing the possibility of
-                * an ADS entry at the very end of the metadata resource ending
-                * un-aligned.  So although we still need to increment the input
-                * pointer by @length to reach the next ADS entry, it's possible
-                * that less than @length is actually remaining in the metadata
-                * resource. We should set the remaining bytes to 0 if this
-                * happens. */
-               length = (length + 7) & ~(u64)7;
-               p += length;
-               if (nbytes_remaining < length)
-                       nbytes_remaining = 0;
-               else
-                       nbytes_remaining -= length;
-       }
-       inode->i_ads_entries = ads_entries;
-       inode->i_next_stream_id = inode->i_num_ads + 1;
-       ret = 0;
-       goto out;
-out_of_memory:
-       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
-       goto out_free_ads_entries;
-out_invalid:
-       ERROR("An alternate data stream entry is invalid");
-       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_DENTRY;
-out_free_ads_entries:
-       if (ads_entries) {
-               for (u16 i = 0; i < num_ads; i++)
-                       destroy_ads_entry(&ads_entries[i]);
-               FREE(ads_entries);
-       }
-out:
-       return ret;
-}
-
-/*
- * Reads a WIM directory entry, including all alternate data stream entries that
- * follow it, from the WIM image's metadata resource.
- *
- * @metadata_resource:
- *             Pointer to the metadata resource buffer.
- *
- * @metadata_resource_len:
- *             Length of the metadata resource buffer, in bytes.
- *
- * @offset:    Offset of the dentry within the metadata resource.
- *
- * @dentry:    A `struct wim_dentry' that will be filled in by this function.
- *
- * Return 0 on success or nonzero on failure.  On failure, @dentry will have
- * been modified, but it will not be left with pointers to any allocated
- * buffers.  On success, the dentry->length field must be examined.  If zero,
- * this was a special "end of directory" dentry and not a real dentry.  If
- * nonzero, this was a real dentry.
- *
- * Possible errors include:
- *     WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM
- *     WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_DENTRY
- */
-int
-read_dentry(const u8 * restrict metadata_resource, u64 metadata_resource_len,
-           u64 offset, struct wim_dentry * restrict dentry)
+read_dentry(const u8 * restrict buf, size_t buf_len,
+           u64 offset, struct wim_dentry **dentry_ret)
 {
-
-       u64 calculated_size;
-       utf16lechar *file_name;
-       utf16lechar *short_name;
+       u64 length;
+       const u8 *p;
+       const struct wim_dentry_on_disk *disk_dentry;
+       struct wim_dentry *dentry;
+       struct wim_inode *inode;
        u16 short_name_nbytes;
        u16 file_name_nbytes;
+       u64 calculated_size;
        int ret;
-       struct wim_inode *inode;
-       const u8 *p = &metadata_resource[offset];
-       const struct wim_dentry_on_disk *disk_dentry =
-                       (const struct wim_dentry_on_disk*)p;
 
        BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(struct wim_dentry_on_disk) != WIM_DENTRY_DISK_SIZE);
 
-       if ((uintptr_t)p & 7)
-               WARNING("WIM dentry is not 8-byte aligned");
-
-       dentry_common_init(dentry);
-
        /* Before reading the whole dentry, we need to read just the length.
         * This is because a dentry of length 8 (that is, just the length field)
         * terminates the list of sibling directory entries. */
-       if (offset + sizeof(u64) > metadata_resource_len ||
-           offset + sizeof(u64) < offset)
+
+       /* Check for buffer overrun.  */
+       if (unlikely(offset + sizeof(u64) > buf_len ||
+                    offset + sizeof(u64) < offset))
        {
                ERROR("Directory entry starting at %"PRIu64" ends past the "
-                     "end of the metadata resource (size %"PRIu64")",
-                     offset, metadata_resource_len);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_DENTRY;
+                     "end of the metadata resource (size %zu)",
+                     offset, buf_len);
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_METADATA_RESOURCE;
        }
-       dentry->length = le64_to_cpu(disk_dentry->length);
-
-       /* A zero length field (really a length of 8, since that's how big the
-        * directory entry is...) indicates that this is the end of directory
-        * dentry.  We do not read it into memory as an actual dentry, so just
-        * return successfully in this case. */
-       if (dentry->length == 8)
-               dentry->length = 0;
-       if (dentry->length == 0)
+
+       /* Get pointer to the dentry data.  */
+       p = &buf[offset];
+       disk_dentry = (const struct wim_dentry_on_disk*)p;
+
+       /* Get dentry length.  */
+       length = le64_to_cpu(disk_dentry->length);
+
+       /* Check for end-of-directory.  */
+       if (length <= 8) {
+               *dentry_ret = NULL;
                return 0;
+       }
+
+       /* Validate dentry length.  */
+       if (unlikely(length < sizeof(struct wim_dentry_on_disk))) {
+               ERROR("Directory entry has invalid length of %"PRIu64" bytes",
+                     length);
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_METADATA_RESOURCE;
+       }
 
-       /* Now that we have the actual length provided in the on-disk structure,
-        * again make sure it doesn't overflow the metadata resource buffer. */
-       if (offset + dentry->length > metadata_resource_len ||
-           offset + dentry->length < offset)
+       /* Check for buffer overrun.  */
+       if (unlikely(offset + length > buf_len ||
+                    offset + length < offset))
        {
                ERROR("Directory entry at offset %"PRIu64" and with size "
                      "%"PRIu64" ends past the end of the metadata resource "
-                     "(size %"PRIu64")",
-                     offset, dentry->length, metadata_resource_len);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_DENTRY;
+                     "(size %zu)", offset, length, buf_len);
+               return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_METADATA_RESOURCE;
        }
 
-       /* Make sure the dentry length is at least as large as the number of
-        * fixed-length fields */
-       if (dentry->length < sizeof(struct wim_dentry_on_disk)) {
-               ERROR("Directory entry has invalid length of %"PRIu64" bytes",
-                     dentry->length);
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_DENTRY;
-       }
-
-       /* Allocate a `struct wim_inode' for this `struct wim_dentry'. */
-       inode = new_timeless_inode();
-       if (!inode)
-               return WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
+       /* Allocate new dentry structure, along with a preliminary inode.  */
+       ret = new_dentry_with_timeless_inode(T(""), &dentry);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
 
-       /* Read more fields; some into the dentry, and some into the inode. */
+       dentry->length = length;
+       inode = dentry->d_inode;
 
+       /* Read more fields: some into the dentry, and some into the inode.  */
        inode->i_attributes = le32_to_cpu(disk_dentry->attributes);
        inode->i_security_id = le32_to_cpu(disk_dentry->security_id);
        dentry->subdir_offset = le64_to_cpu(disk_dentry->subdir_offset);
-       dentry->d_unused_1 = le64_to_cpu(disk_dentry->unused_1);
-       dentry->d_unused_2 = le64_to_cpu(disk_dentry->unused_2);
        inode->i_creation_time = le64_to_cpu(disk_dentry->creation_time);
        inode->i_last_access_time = le64_to_cpu(disk_dentry->last_access_time);
        inode->i_last_write_time = le64_to_cpu(disk_dentry->last_write_time);
@@ -1606,7 +1267,7 @@ read_dentry(const u8 * restrict metadata_resource, u64 metadata_resource_len,
        /* I don't know what's going on here.  It seems like M$ screwed up the
         * reparse points, then put the fields in the same place and didn't
         * document it.  So we have some fields we read for reparse points, and
-        * some fields in the same place for non-reparse-point.s */
+        * some fields in the same place for non-reparse-points.  */
        if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT) {
                inode->i_rp_unknown_1 = le32_to_cpu(disk_dentry->reparse.rp_unknown_1);
                inode->i_reparse_tag = le32_to_cpu(disk_dentry->reparse.reparse_tag);
@@ -1615,22 +1276,23 @@ read_dentry(const u8 * restrict metadata_resource, u64 metadata_resource_len,
                /* Leave inode->i_ino at 0.  Note that this means the WIM file
                 * cannot archive hard-linked reparse points.  Such a thing
                 * doesn't really make sense anyway, although I believe it's
-                * theoretically possible to have them on NTFS. */
+                * theoretically possible to have them on NTFS.  */
        } else {
                inode->i_rp_unknown_1 = le32_to_cpu(disk_dentry->nonreparse.rp_unknown_1);
                inode->i_ino = le64_to_cpu(disk_dentry->nonreparse.hard_link_group_id);
        }
-
        inode->i_num_ads = le16_to_cpu(disk_dentry->num_alternate_data_streams);
 
+       /* Now onto reading the names.  There are two of them: the (long) file
+        * name, and the short name.  */
+
        short_name_nbytes = le16_to_cpu(disk_dentry->short_name_nbytes);
        file_name_nbytes = le16_to_cpu(disk_dentry->file_name_nbytes);
 
-       if ((short_name_nbytes & 1) | (file_name_nbytes & 1))
-       {
-               ERROR("Dentry name is not valid UTF-16LE (odd number of bytes)!");
-               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_DENTRY;
-               goto out_free_inode;
+       if (unlikely((short_name_nbytes & 1) | (file_name_nbytes & 1))) {
+               ERROR("Dentry name is not valid UTF-16 (odd number of bytes)!");
+               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_METADATA_RESOURCE;
+               goto err_free_dentry;
        }
 
        /* We now know the length of the file name and short name.  Make sure
@@ -1638,191 +1300,290 @@ read_dentry(const u8 * restrict metadata_resource, u64 metadata_resource_len,
         *
         * The calculated length here is unaligned to allow for the possibility
         * that the dentry->length names an unaligned length, although this
-        * would be unexpected. */
-       calculated_size = _dentry_correct_length_unaligned(file_name_nbytes,
-                                                          short_name_nbytes);
+        * would be unexpected.  */
+       calculated_size = dentry_correct_length_unaligned(file_name_nbytes,
+                                                         short_name_nbytes);
 
-       if (dentry->length < calculated_size) {
+       if (unlikely(dentry->length < calculated_size)) {
                ERROR("Unexpected end of directory entry! (Expected "
                      "at least %"PRIu64" bytes, got %"PRIu64" bytes.)",
                      calculated_size, dentry->length);
-               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_DENTRY;
-               goto out_free_inode;
+               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_METADATA_RESOURCE;
+               goto err_free_dentry;
        }
 
+       /* Advance p to point past the base dentry, to the first name.  */
        p += sizeof(struct wim_dentry_on_disk);
 
        /* Read the filename if present.  Note: if the filename is empty, there
-        * is no null terminator following it. */
+        * is no null terminator following it.  */
        if (file_name_nbytes) {
-               file_name = MALLOC(file_name_nbytes + 2);
-               if (!file_name) {
-                       ERROR("Failed to allocate %d bytes for dentry file name",
-                             file_name_nbytes + 2);
+               dentry->file_name = MALLOC(file_name_nbytes + 2);
+               if (dentry->file_name == NULL) {
                        ret = WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
-                       goto out_free_inode;
+                       goto err_free_dentry;
                }
-               memcpy(file_name, p, file_name_nbytes);
+               dentry->file_name_nbytes = file_name_nbytes;
+               memcpy(dentry->file_name, p, file_name_nbytes);
                p += file_name_nbytes + 2;
-               file_name[file_name_nbytes / 2] = cpu_to_le16(0);
-               replace_forbidden_characters(file_name);
-       } else {
-               file_name = NULL;
+               dentry->file_name[file_name_nbytes / 2] = cpu_to_le16(0);
        }
 
-
        /* Read the short filename if present.  Note: if there is no short
         * filename, there is no null terminator following it. */
        if (short_name_nbytes) {
-               short_name = MALLOC(short_name_nbytes + 2);
-               if (!short_name) {
-                       ERROR("Failed to allocate %d bytes for dentry short name",
-                             short_name_nbytes + 2);
+               dentry->short_name = MALLOC(short_name_nbytes + 2);
+               if (dentry->short_name == NULL) {
                        ret = WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
-                       goto out_free_file_name;
+                       goto err_free_dentry;
                }
-               memcpy(short_name, p, short_name_nbytes);
+               dentry->short_name_nbytes = short_name_nbytes;
+               memcpy(dentry->short_name, p, short_name_nbytes);
                p += short_name_nbytes + 2;
-               short_name[short_name_nbytes / 2] = cpu_to_le16(0);
-               replace_forbidden_characters(short_name);
-       } else {
-               short_name = NULL;
+               dentry->short_name[short_name_nbytes / 2] = cpu_to_le16(0);
        }
 
-       /* Align the dentry length */
+       /* Align the dentry length */
        dentry->length = (dentry->length + 7) & ~7;
 
-       /*
-        * Read the alternate data streams, if present.  dentry->num_ads tells
-        * us how many they are, and they will directly follow the dentry
-        * on-disk.
+       /* Read the alternate data streams, if present.  inode->i_num_ads tells
+        * us how many they are, and they will directly follow the dentry in the
+        * metadata resource buffer.
         *
         * Note that each alternate data stream entry begins on an 8-byte
         * aligned boundary, and the alternate data stream entries seem to NOT
-        * be included in the dentry->length field for some reason.
-        */
-       if (inode->i_num_ads != 0) {
-               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_DENTRY;
-               if (offset + dentry->length > metadata_resource_len ||
-                   (ret = read_ads_entries(&metadata_resource[offset + dentry->length],
+        * be included in the dentry->length field for some reason.  */
+       if (unlikely(inode->i_num_ads != 0)) {
+               ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_METADATA_RESOURCE;
+               if (offset + dentry->length > buf_len ||
+                   (ret = read_ads_entries(&buf[offset + dentry->length],
                                            inode,
-                                           metadata_resource_len - offset - dentry->length)))
+                                           buf_len - offset - dentry->length)))
                {
                        ERROR("Failed to read alternate data stream "
-                             "entries of WIM dentry \"%"WS"\"", file_name);
-                       goto out_free_short_name;
+                             "entries of WIM dentry \"%"WS"\"",
+                             dentry->file_name);
+                       goto err_free_dentry;
                }
        }
-       /* We've read all the data for this dentry.  Set the names and their
-        * lengths, and we've done. */
-       dentry->d_inode           = inode;
-       dentry->file_name         = file_name;
-       dentry->short_name        = short_name;
-       dentry->file_name_nbytes  = file_name_nbytes;
-       dentry->short_name_nbytes = short_name_nbytes;
-       ret = 0;
-       goto out;
-out_free_short_name:
-       FREE(short_name);
-out_free_file_name:
-       FREE(file_name);
-out_free_inode:
-       free_inode(inode);
-out:
+
+       *dentry_ret = dentry;
+       return 0;
+
+err_free_dentry:
+       free_dentry(dentry);
        return ret;
 }
 
-/* Reads the children of a dentry, and all their children, ..., etc. from the
- * metadata resource and into the dentry tree.
+static bool
+dentry_is_dot_or_dotdot(const struct wim_dentry *dentry)
+{
+       if (dentry->file_name_nbytes <= 4) {
+               if (dentry->file_name_nbytes == 4) {
+                       if (dentry->file_name[0] == cpu_to_le16('.') &&
+                           dentry->file_name[1] == cpu_to_le16('.'))
+                               return true;
+               } else if (dentry->file_name_nbytes == 2) {
+                       if (dentry->file_name[0] == cpu_to_le16('.'))
+                               return true;
+               }
+       }
+       return false;
+}
+
+static int
+read_dentry_tree_recursive(const u8 * restrict buf, size_t buf_len,
+                          struct wim_dentry * restrict dir)
+{
+       u64 cur_offset = dir->subdir_offset;
+
+       /* Check for cyclic directory structure, which would cause infinite
+        * recursion if not handled.  */
+       for (struct wim_dentry *d = dir->parent;
+            !dentry_is_root(d); d = d->parent)
+       {
+               if (unlikely(d->subdir_offset == cur_offset)) {
+                       ERROR("Cyclic directory structure detected: children "
+                             "of \"%"TS"\" coincide with children of \"%"TS"\"",
+                             dentry_full_path(dir), dentry_full_path(d));
+                       return WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_METADATA_RESOURCE;
+               }
+       }
+
+       for (;;) {
+               struct wim_dentry *child;
+               struct wim_dentry *duplicate;
+               int ret;
+
+               /* Read next child of @dir.  */
+               ret = read_dentry(buf, buf_len, cur_offset, &child);
+               if (ret)
+                       return ret;
+
+               /* Check for end of directory.  */
+               if (child == NULL)
+                       return 0;
+
+               /* Advance to the offset of the next child.  Note: We need to
+                * advance by the TOTAL length of the dentry, not by the length
+                * child->length, which although it does take into account the
+                * padding, it DOES NOT take into account alternate stream
+                * entries.  */
+               cur_offset += dentry_in_total_length(child);
+
+               /* All dentries except the root should be named.  */
+               if (unlikely(!dentry_has_long_name(child))) {
+                       WARNING("Ignoring unnamed dentry in "
+                               "directory \"%"TS"\"", dentry_full_path(dir));
+                       free_dentry(child);
+                       continue;
+               }
+
+               /* Don't allow files named "." or "..".  */
+               if (unlikely(dentry_is_dot_or_dotdot(child))) {
+                       WARNING("Ignoring file named \".\" or \"..\"; "
+                               "potentially malicious archive!!!");
+                       free_dentry(child);
+                       continue;
+               }
+
+               /* Link the child into the directory.  */
+               duplicate = dentry_add_child(dir, child);
+               if (unlikely(duplicate)) {
+                       /* We already found a dentry with this same
+                        * case-sensitive long name.  Only keep the first one.
+                        */
+                       WARNING("Ignoring duplicate file \"%"TS"\" "
+                               "(the WIM image already contains a file "
+                               "at that path with the exact same name)",
+                               dentry_full_path(duplicate));
+                       free_dentry(child);
+                       continue;
+               }
+
+               /* If this child is a directory that itself has children, call
+                * this procedure recursively.  */
+               if (child->subdir_offset != 0) {
+                       if (likely(dentry_is_directory(child))) {
+                               ret = read_dentry_tree_recursive(buf,
+                                                                buf_len,
+                                                                child);
+                               if (ret)
+                                       return ret;
+                       } else {
+                               WARNING("Ignoring children of "
+                                       "non-directory file \"%"TS"\"",
+                                       dentry_full_path(child));
+                       }
+               }
+       }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Read a tree of dentries (directory entries) from a WIM metadata resource.
+ *
+ * @buf:
+ *     Buffer containing an uncompressed WIM metadata resource.
  *
- * @metadata_resource: An array that contains the uncompressed metadata
- *                     resource for the WIM file.
+ * @buf_len:
+ *     Length of the uncompressed metadata resource, in bytes.
  *
- * @metadata_resource_len:  The length of the uncompressed metadata resource, in
- *                         bytes.
+ * @root_offset
+ *     Offset in the metadata resource of the root of the dentry tree.
  *
- * @dentry:    A pointer to a `struct wim_dentry' that is the root of the directory
- *             tree and has already been read from the metadata resource.  It
- *             does not need to be the real root because this procedure is
- *             called recursively.
+ * @root_ret:
+ *     On success, either NULL or a pointer to the root dentry is written to
+ *     this location.  The former case only occurs in the unexpected case that
+ *     the tree began with an end-of-directory entry.
  *
- * Returns zero on success; nonzero on failure.
+ * Return values:
+ *     WIMLIB_ERR_SUCCESS (0)
+ *     WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_METADATA_RESOURCE
+ *     WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM
  */
 int
-read_dentry_tree(const u8 metadata_resource[], u64 metadata_resource_len,
-                struct wim_dentry *dentry)
+read_dentry_tree(const u8 *buf, size_t buf_len,
+                u64 root_offset, struct wim_dentry **root_ret)
 {
-       u64 cur_offset = dentry->subdir_offset;
-       struct wim_dentry *child;
-       struct wim_dentry cur_child;
        int ret;
+       struct wim_dentry *root;
 
-       /*
-        * If @dentry has no child dentries, nothing more needs to be done for
-        * this branch.  This is the case for regular files, symbolic links, and
-        * *possibly* empty directories (although an empty directory may also
-        * have one child dentry that is the special end-of-directory dentry)
-        */
-       if (cur_offset == 0)
-               return 0;
-
-       /* Find and read all the children of @dentry. */
-       for (;;) {
+       DEBUG("Reading dentry tree (root_offset=%"PRIu64")", root_offset);
 
-               /* Read next child of @dentry into @cur_child. */
-               ret = read_dentry(metadata_resource, metadata_resource_len,
-                                 cur_offset, &cur_child);
-               if (ret)
-                       break;
-
-               /* Check for end of directory. */
-               if (cur_child.length == 0)
-                       break;
+       ret = read_dentry(buf, buf_len, root_offset, &root);
+       if (ret)
+               return ret;
 
-               /* Not end of directory.  Allocate this child permanently and
-                * link it to the parent and previous child. */
-               child = memdup(&cur_child, sizeof(struct wim_dentry));
-               if (!child) {
-                       ERROR("Failed to allocate new dentry!");
-                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_NOMEM;
-                       break;
+       if (likely(root != NULL)) {
+               if (unlikely(dentry_has_long_name(root) ||
+                            dentry_has_short_name(root)))
+               {
+                       WARNING("The root directory has a nonempty name; "
+                               "removing it.");
+                       FREE(root->file_name);
+                       FREE(root->short_name);
+                       root->file_name = NULL;
+                       root->short_name = NULL;
+                       root->file_name_nbytes = 0;
+                       root->short_name_nbytes = 0;
                }
 
-               /* Advance to the offset of the next child.  Note: We need to
-                * advance by the TOTAL length of the dentry, not by the length
-                * cur_child.length, which although it does take into account
-                * the padding, it DOES NOT take into account alternate stream
-                * entries. */
-               cur_offset += dentry_total_length(child);
-
-               if (dentry_add_child(dentry, child)) {
-                       WARNING("Ignoring duplicate dentry \"%"WS"\"",
-                               child->file_name);
-                       WARNING("(In directory \"%"TS"\")", dentry_full_path(dentry));
-                       free_dentry(child);
-               } else {
-                       inode_add_dentry(child, child->d_inode);
-                       /* If there are children of this child, call this
-                        * procedure recursively. */
-                       if (child->subdir_offset != 0) {
-                               if (dentry_is_directory(child)) {
-                                       ret = read_dentry_tree(metadata_resource,
-                                                              metadata_resource_len,
-                                                              child);
-                                       if (ret)
-                                               break;
-                               } else {
-                                       WARNING("Ignoring children of non-directory \"%"TS"\"",
-                                               dentry_full_path(child));
-                               }
-                       }
+               if (unlikely(!dentry_is_directory(root))) {
+                       ERROR("The root of the WIM image is not a directory!");
+                       ret = WIMLIB_ERR_INVALID_METADATA_RESOURCE;
+                       goto err_free_dentry_tree;
+               }
 
+               if (likely(root->subdir_offset != 0)) {
+                       ret = read_dentry_tree_recursive(buf, buf_len, root);
+                       if (ret)
+                               goto err_free_dentry_tree;
                }
+       } else {
+               WARNING("The metadata resource has no directory entries; "
+                       "treating as an empty image.");
        }
+       *root_ret = root;
+       return 0;
+
+err_free_dentry_tree:
+       free_dentry_tree(root, NULL);
        return ret;
 }
 
 /*
+ * Writes a WIM alternate data stream (ADS) entry to an output buffer.
+ *
+ * @ads_entry:  The ADS entry structure.
+ * @hash:       The hash field to use (instead of the one in the ADS entry).
+ * @p:          The memory location to write the data to.
+ *
+ * Returns a pointer to the byte after the last byte written.
+ */
+static u8 *
+write_ads_entry(const struct wim_ads_entry *ads_entry,
+               const u8 *hash, u8 * restrict p)
+{
+       struct wim_ads_entry_on_disk *disk_ads_entry =
+                       (struct wim_ads_entry_on_disk*)p;
+       u8 *orig_p = p;
+
+       disk_ads_entry->reserved = cpu_to_le64(ads_entry->reserved);
+       copy_hash(disk_ads_entry->hash, hash);
+       disk_ads_entry->stream_name_nbytes = cpu_to_le16(ads_entry->stream_name_nbytes);
+       p += sizeof(struct wim_ads_entry_on_disk);
+       if (ads_entry->stream_name_nbytes) {
+               p = mempcpy(p, ads_entry->stream_name,
+                           ads_entry->stream_name_nbytes + 2);
+       }
+       /* Align to 8-byte boundary */
+       while ((uintptr_t)p & 7)
+               *p++ = 0;
+       disk_ads_entry->length = cpu_to_le64(p - orig_p);
+       return p;
+}
+
+/*
  * Writes a WIM dentry to an output buffer.
  *
  * @dentry:  The dentry structure.
@@ -1838,22 +1599,28 @@ write_dentry(const struct wim_dentry * restrict dentry, u8 * restrict p)
        struct wim_dentry_on_disk *disk_dentry;
        const u8 *orig_p;
        const u8 *hash;
+       bool use_dummy_stream;
+       u16 num_ads;
 
        wimlib_assert(((uintptr_t)p & 7) == 0); /* 8 byte aligned */
        orig_p = p;
 
-       inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       inode = dentry->d_inode;
+       use_dummy_stream = inode_needs_dummy_stream(inode);
        disk_dentry = (struct wim_dentry_on_disk*)p;
 
        disk_dentry->attributes = cpu_to_le32(inode->i_attributes);
        disk_dentry->security_id = cpu_to_le32(inode->i_security_id);
        disk_dentry->subdir_offset = cpu_to_le64(dentry->subdir_offset);
-       disk_dentry->unused_1 = cpu_to_le64(dentry->d_unused_1);
-       disk_dentry->unused_2 = cpu_to_le64(dentry->d_unused_2);
+       disk_dentry->unused_1 = cpu_to_le64(0);
+       disk_dentry->unused_2 = cpu_to_le64(0);
        disk_dentry->creation_time = cpu_to_le64(inode->i_creation_time);
        disk_dentry->last_access_time = cpu_to_le64(inode->i_last_access_time);
        disk_dentry->last_write_time = cpu_to_le64(inode->i_last_write_time);
-       hash = inode_stream_hash(inode, 0);
+       if (use_dummy_stream)
+               hash = zero_hash;
+       else
+               hash = inode_stream_hash(inode, 0);
        copy_hash(disk_dentry->unnamed_stream_hash, hash);
        if (inode->i_attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT) {
                disk_dentry->reparse.rp_unknown_1 = cpu_to_le32(inode->i_rp_unknown_1);
@@ -1865,11 +1632,16 @@ write_dentry(const struct wim_dentry * restrict dentry, u8 * restrict p)
                disk_dentry->nonreparse.hard_link_group_id =
                        cpu_to_le64((inode->i_nlink == 1) ? 0 : inode->i_ino);
        }
-       disk_dentry->num_alternate_data_streams = cpu_to_le16(inode->i_num_ads);
+       num_ads = inode->i_num_ads;
+       if (use_dummy_stream)
+               num_ads++;
+       disk_dentry->num_alternate_data_streams = cpu_to_le16(num_ads);
        disk_dentry->short_name_nbytes = cpu_to_le16(dentry->short_name_nbytes);
        disk_dentry->file_name_nbytes = cpu_to_le16(dentry->file_name_nbytes);
        p += sizeof(struct wim_dentry_on_disk);
 
+       wimlib_assert(dentry_is_root(dentry) != dentry_has_long_name(dentry));
+
        if (dentry_has_long_name(dentry))
                p = mempcpy(p, dentry->file_name, dentry->file_name_nbytes + 2);
 
@@ -1887,77 +1659,40 @@ write_dentry(const struct wim_dentry * restrict dentry, u8 * restrict p)
         * have been renamed, thus changing its needed length. */
        disk_dentry->length = cpu_to_le64(p - orig_p);
 
+       if (use_dummy_stream) {
+               hash = inode_unnamed_stream_hash(inode);
+               p = write_ads_entry(&(struct wim_ads_entry){}, hash, p);
+       }
+
        /* Write the alternate data streams entries, if any. */
        for (u16 i = 0; i < inode->i_num_ads; i++) {
-               const struct wim_ads_entry *ads_entry =
-                               &inode->i_ads_entries[i];
-               struct wim_ads_entry_on_disk *disk_ads_entry =
-                               (struct wim_ads_entry_on_disk*)p;
-               orig_p = p;
-
-               disk_ads_entry->reserved = cpu_to_le64(ads_entry->reserved);
-
                hash = inode_stream_hash(inode, i + 1);
-               copy_hash(disk_ads_entry->hash, hash);
-               disk_ads_entry->stream_name_nbytes = cpu_to_le16(ads_entry->stream_name_nbytes);
-               p += sizeof(struct wim_ads_entry_on_disk);
-               if (ads_entry->stream_name_nbytes) {
-                       p = mempcpy(p, ads_entry->stream_name,
-                                   ads_entry->stream_name_nbytes + 2);
-               }
-               /* Align to 8-byte boundary */
-               while ((uintptr_t)p & 7)
-                       *p++ = 0;
-               disk_ads_entry->length = cpu_to_le64(p - orig_p);
+               p = write_ads_entry(&inode->i_ads_entries[i], hash, p);
        }
+
        return p;
 }
 
 static int
-write_dentry_cb(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *_p)
+write_dir_dentries(struct wim_dentry *dir, void *_pp)
 {
-       u8 **p = _p;
-       *p = write_dentry(dentry, *p);
-       return 0;
-}
+       if (dir->subdir_offset != 0) {
+               u8 **pp = _pp;
+               u8 *p = *pp;
+               struct wim_dentry *child;
 
-static u8 *
-write_dentry_tree_recursive(const struct wim_dentry *parent, u8 *p);
+               /* write child dentries */
+               for_dentry_child(child, dir)
+                       p = write_dentry(child, p);
 
-static int
-write_dentry_tree_recursive_cb(struct wim_dentry *dentry, void *_p)
-{
-       u8 **p = _p;
-       *p = write_dentry_tree_recursive(dentry, *p);
+               /* write end of directory entry */
+               *(u64*)p = 0;
+               p += 8;
+               *pp = p;
+       }
        return 0;
 }
 
-/* Recursive function that writes a dentry tree rooted at @parent, not including
- * @parent itself, which has already been written. */
-static u8 *
-write_dentry_tree_recursive(const struct wim_dentry *parent, u8 *p)
-{
-       /* Nothing to do if this dentry has no children. */
-       if (parent->subdir_offset == 0)
-               return p;
-
-       /* Write child dentries and end-of-directory entry.
-        *
-        * Note: we need to write all of this dentry's children before
-        * recursively writing the directory trees rooted at each of the child
-        * dentries, since the on-disk dentries for a dentry's children are
-        * always located at consecutive positions in the metadata resource! */
-       for_dentry_child(parent, write_dentry_cb, &p);
-
-       /* write end of directory entry */
-       *(le64*)p = cpu_to_le64(0);
-       p += 8;
-
-       /* Recurse on children. */
-       for_dentry_child(parent, write_dentry_tree_recursive_cb, &p);
-       return p;
-}
-
 /* Writes a directory tree to the metadata resource.
  *
  * @root:      Root of the dentry tree.
@@ -1966,20 +1701,18 @@ write_dentry_tree_recursive(const struct wim_dentry *parent, u8 *p)
  * Returns pointer to the byte after the last byte we wrote.
  */
 u8 *
-write_dentry_tree(const struct wim_dentry *root, u8 *p)
+write_dentry_tree(struct wim_dentry *root, u8 *p)
 {
        DEBUG("Writing dentry tree.");
        wimlib_assert(dentry_is_root(root));
 
-       /* If we're the root dentry, we have no parent that already
-        * wrote us, so we need to write ourselves. */
+       /* write root dentry and end-of-directory entry following it */
        p = write_dentry(root, p);
-
-       /* Write end of directory entry after the root dentry just to be safe;
-        * however the root dentry obviously cannot have any siblings. */
-       *(le64*)p = cpu_to_le64(0);
+       *(u64*)p = 0;
        p += 8;
 
-       /* Recursively write the rest of the dentry tree. */
-       return write_dentry_tree_recursive(root, p);
+       /* write the rest of the dentry tree */
+       for_dentry_in_tree(root, write_dir_dentries, &p);
+
+       return p;
 }